Search results for 'Similarity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Mauricio Suarez (2003). Scientific Representation: Against Similarity and Isomorphism. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 17 (3):225-244.
    I argue against theories that attempt to reduce scientific representation to similarity or isomorphism. These reductive theories aim to radically naturalize the notion of representation, since they treat scientist's purposes and intentions as non-essential to representation. I distinguish between the means and the constituents of representation, and I argue that similarity and isomorphism are common but not universal means of representation. I then present four other arguments to show that similarity and isomorphism are not the constituents of (...)
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  2. Ben Blumson, Two Conceptions of Similarity.
    There are at least two traditional conceptions of numerical degree of similarity. According to the first, the degree of dissimilarity between two particulars is their distance apart in a metric space. According to the second, the degree of similarity between two particulars is a function of the number of (sparse) properties they have in common and not in common. This paper argues that these two conceptions are logically independent, but philosophically inconsonant.
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  3.  23
    Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths (2001). Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a single encountered stimulus to a (...)
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  4.  55
    Michael Weisberg (2013). Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World. Oxford University Press.
    one takes to be the most salient, any pair could be judged more similar to each other than to the third. Goodman uses this second problem to showthat there can be no context-free similarity metric, either in the trivial case or in a scientifically ...
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  5.  68
    Thomas Mormann, Squares of Oppositions, Commutative Diagrams, and Galois Connections for Topological Spaces and Similarity Structures.
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the relationship between Aristotelian conceptual oppositions, commutative diagrams of relational structures, and Galois connections.This is done by investigating in detail some examples of Aristotelian conceptual oppositions arising from topological spaces and similarity structures. The main technical device for this endeavor is the notion of Galois connections of order structures.
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  6. Matteo Morganti (2011). The Partial Identity Account of Partial Similarity Revisited. Philosophia 39 (3):527-546.
    This paper provides a defence of the account of partial resemblances between properties according to which such resemblances are due to partial identities of constituent properties. It is argued, first of all, that the account is not only required by realists about universals à la Armstrong, but also useful (of course, in an appropriately re-formulated form) for those who prefer a nominalistic ontology for material objects. For this reason, the paper only briefly considers the problem of how to conceive of (...)
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  7.  59
    Will Davies (2014). The Inscrutability of Colour Similarity. Philosophical Studies 171 (2):289-311.
    This paper presents a new response to the colour similarity argument, an argument that many people take to pose the greatest threat to colour physicalism. The colour similarity argument assumes that if colour physicalism is true, then colour similarities should be scrutable under standard physical descriptions of surface reflectance properties such as their spectral reflectance curves. Given this assumption, our evident failure to find such similarities at the reducing level seemingly proves fatal to colour physicalism. I argue that (...)
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  8.  16
    Michael Poznic (forthcoming). Representation and Similarity: Suárez on Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Scientific Representation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-17.
    The notion of scientific representation plays a central role in current debates on modeling in the sciences. One or maybe the major epistemic virtue of successful models is their capacity to adequately represent specific phenomena or target systems. According to similarity views of scientific representation, models should be similar to their corresponding targets in order to represent them. In this paper, Suárez’s arguments against similarity views of representation will be scrutinized. The upshot is that the intuition that scientific (...)
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  9. Thomas Mormann, Mathematical Aspects of Similarity and Quasi-Analysis - Order, Topology, and Sheaves.
    The concept of similarity has had a rather mixed reputation in philosophy and the sciences. On the one hand, philosophers such as Goodman and Quine emphasized the „logically repugnant“ and „insidious“ character of the concept of similarity that allegedly renders it inaccessible for a proper logical analysis. On the other hand, a philosopher such as Carnap assigned a central role to similarity in his constitutional theory. Moreover, the importance and perhaps even indispensibility of the concept of (...) for many empirical sciences can hardly be denied. The aim of this paper is to show that Quine’s and Goodman’s harsh verdicts about this notion are mistaken. The concept of similarity is susceptible to a precise logico-mathematical analysis through which its place in the conceptual landscape of modern mathematical theories such as order theory, topology, and graph theory becomes visible. Thereby it can be shown that a quasi-analysis of a similarity structure S can be conceived of as a sheaf (etale space) over S. (shrink)
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  10.  89
    Alex Byrne (2003). Color and Similarity. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (3):641-65.
    Anything is similar to anything, provided the respects of similarity are allowed to be gerrymandered or gruesome, as Goodman observed.2 But similarity in non-gruesome or—as I shall say—genuine respects is much less ecumenical. Colors, it seems, provide a compelling illustration of the distinction as applied to similarities among properties.3 For instance, in innumerable gruesome respects, blue is more similar to yellow than to purple. But in a genuine respect, blue is more similar to purple than to yellow (genuinely (...)
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  11.  42
    Emmanuel M. Pothos (2005). The Rules Versus Similarity Distinction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):1-14.
    The distinction between rules and similarity is central to our understanding of much of cognitive psychology. Two aspects of existing research have motivated the present work. First, in different cognitive psychology areas we typically see different conceptions of rules and similarity; for example, rules in language appear to be of a different kind compared to rules in categorization. Second, rules processes are typically modeled as separate from similarity ones; for example, in a learning experiment, rules and (...) influences would be described on the basis of separate models. In the present article, I assume that the rules versus similarity distinction can be understood in the same way in learning, reasoning, categorization, and language, and that a unified model for rules and similarity is appropriate. A rules process is considered to be a similarity one where only a single or a small subset of an object's properties are involved. Hence, rules and overall similarity operations are extremes in a single continuum of similarity operations. It is argued that this viewpoint allows adequate coverage of theory and empirical findings in learning, reasoning, categorization, and language, and also a reassessment of the objectives in research on rules versus similarity. Key Words: categorization; cognitive explanation; language; learning; reasoning; rules; similarity. (shrink)
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  12. Igor Douven & Lieven Decock (2010). Identity and Similarity. Philosophical Studies 151 (1):59-78.
    The standard approach to the so-called paradoxes of identity has been to argue that these paradoxes do not essentially concern the notion of identity but rather betray misconceptions on our part regarding other metaphysical notions, like that of an object or a property. This paper proposes a different approach by pointing to an ambiguity in the identity predicate and arguing that the concept of identity that figures in many ordinary identity claims, including those that appear in the paradoxes, is not (...)
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  13. Ana Arregui (2009). On Similarity in Counterfactuals. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (3):245-278.
    This paper investigates the interpretation of counterfactual conditionals. The main goal of the paper is to provide an account of the semantic role of similarity in the evaluation of counterfactuals. The paper proposes an analysis according to which counterfactuals are treated as predications “ de re ” over past situations in the actual world. The relevant situations enter semantic composition via the interpretation of tense. Counterfactuals are treated as law-like conditionals with de re predication over particular facts. Similarity (...)
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  14. Michael Gibbert, James A. Hampton, Zachary Estes & David Mazursky (2012). The Curious Case of the Refrigerator–TV: Similarity and Hybridization. Cognitive Science 36 (6):992-1018.
    This article examines the role of similarity in the hybridization of concepts, focusing on hybrid products as an applied test case. Hybrid concepts found in natural language, such as singer songwriter, typically combine similar concepts, whereas dissimilar concepts rarely form hybrids. The hybridization of dissimilar concepts in products such as jogging shoe mp3 player and refrigerator TV thus poses a challenge for understanding the process of conceptual combination. It is proposed that models of conceptual combination can throw light on (...)
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  15.  60
    Kathrin Koslicki (2004). Constitution and Similarity. Philosophical Studies 117 (3):327-363.
    Whenever an object constitutes, makes up or composes another object, the objects in question share a striking number of properties. This paper is addressed to the question of what might account for the intimate relation and striking similarity between constitutionally related objects. According to my account, the similarities between constitutionally related objects are captured at least in part by means of a principle akin to that of strong supervenience. My paper addresses two main issues. First, I propose independently plausible (...)
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  16.  26
    Wendy S. Parker (2015). Getting Serious About Similarity. Biology and Philosophy 30 (2):267-276.
    This paper critically examines Weisberg’s weighted feature matching account of model-world similarity. A number of concerns are raised, including that Weisberg provides an account of what underlies scientific judgments of relative similarity, when what is desired is an account of the sorts of model-target similarities that are necessary or sufficient for achieving particular types of modeling goal. Other concerns relate to the details of the account, in particular to the content of feature sets, the nature of shared features (...)
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  17.  52
    A. P. Hazen & Lloyd Humberstone (2004). Similarity Relations and the Preservation of Solidity. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (1):25-46.
    The partitions of a given set stand in a well known one-to-onecorrespondence with the equivalence relations on that set. We askwhether anything analogous to partitions can be found which correspondin a like manner to the similarity relations (reflexive, symmetricrelations) on a set, and show that (what we call) decompositions – of acertain kind – play this role. A key ingredient in the discussion is akind of closure relation (analogous to the consequence relationsconsidered in formal logic) having nothing especially to (...)
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  18.  54
    Julia Tanner (2006). Marginal Humans, The Argument From Kinds, And The Similarity Argument. Facta Universitatis 5 (1):47-63.
    In this paper I will examine two responses to the argument from marginal cases; the argument from kinds and the similarity argument. I will argue that these arguments are insufficient to show that all humans have moral status but no animals do. This does not prove that animals have moral status but it does shift the burden of proof onto those who want to maintain that all humans are morally considerable, but no animals are.
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  19.  53
    Charles B. Cross (2008). Antecedent-Relative Comparative World Similarity. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (2):101-120.
    In “Backward Causation and the Stalnaker–Lewis Approach to Counterfactuals,” Analysis 62:191–7, (2002), Michael Tooley argues that if a certain kind of backward causation is possible, then a Stalnaker–Lewis comparative world similarity account of the truth conditions of counterfactuals cannot be sound. In “Tooley on Backward Causation,” Analysis 63:157–62, (2003), Paul Noordhof argues that Tooley’s example can be reconciled with a Stalnaker–Lewis account of counterfactuals if the comparative world similarity relation on which the Stalnaker–Lewis account relies is allowed to (...)
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  20.  85
    Alex Voorhoeve & Ken Binmore (2006). Transitivity, the Sorites Paradox, and Similarity-Based Decision-Making. Erkenntnis 64 (1):101-114.
    A persistent argument against the transitivity assumption of rational choice theory postulates a repeatable action that generates a significant benefit at the expense of a negligible cost. No matter how many times the action has been taken, it therefore seems reasonable for a decision-maker to take the action one more time. However, matters are so fixed that the costs of taking the action some large number of times outweigh the benefits. In taking the action some large number of times on (...)
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  21.  28
    Benjamin Stone, Simon Dennis & Peter J. Kwantes (2011). Comparing Methods for Single Paragraph Similarity Analysis. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (1):92-122.
    The focus of this paper is two-fold. First, similarities generated from six semantic models were compared to human ratings of paragraph similarity on two datasets—23 World Entertainment News Network paragraphs and 50 ABC newswire paragraphs. Contrary to findings on smaller textual units such as word associations (Griffiths, Tenenbaum, & Steyvers, 2007), our results suggest that when single paragraphs are compared, simple nonreductive models (word overlap and vector space) can provide better similarity estimates than more complex models (LSA, Topic (...)
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  22.  47
    S. G. Sterrett (2009). Similarity and Dimensional Analysis (Preprint - Entry in Handbook of Philosophy of Science, Elsevier). In Anthonie W. M. Meijers (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Science.
    The topic of this Handbook entry is the relationship between similarity and dimensional analysis, and some of the philosophical issues involved in understanding and making use of that relationship. Discusses basics of the relationship between units, dimensions, and quantities. It explains the significance of dimensionless parameters, and explains that similarity of a physical systems is established by showing equality of a certain set of dimensionless parameters that characterizes the system behavior. Similarity is always relative -- to some (...)
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  23.  90
    Ghislain Guigon (2014). Overall Similarity, Natural Properties, and Paraphrases. Philosophical Studies 167 (2):387-399.
    I call anti-resemblism the thesis that independently of any contextual specification there is no determinate fact of the matter about the comparative overall similarity of things. Anti-resemblism plays crucial roles in the philosophy of David Lewis. For instance, Lewis has argued that his counterpart theory is anti-essentialist on the grounds that counterpart relations are relations of comparative overall similarity and that anti-resemblism is true. After Lewis committed himself to a form of realism about natural properties he maintained that (...)
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  24. Dieter Gernert (2011). Distance and Similarity Measures in Generalised Quantum Theory. Axiomathes 21 (2):303-313.
    A summary of recent experimental results shows that entanglement can be generated more easily than before, and that there are improved chances for its persistence. An eminent finding of Generalised Quantum Theory is the insight that the notion of entanglement can be extended, such that, e.g., psychological or psychophysical problem areas can be included, too. First, a general condition for entanglement to occur is given by the term ‘common prearranged context’. A formalised treatment requires a quantitative definition of the (...) or dissimilarity between two complex structures which takes their internal structures into account. After some specific remarks on distance, metrics, and semi-metrics in mathematics, a procedure is described for setting up a similarity function with the required properties. This procedure is in analogy with the two-step character of measurement and with the well-known properties of perspective notions. A general methodology can be derived for handling perspective notions. Finally, these concepts supply heuristic clues towards a formalised treatment of the notions of ‘meaning’ and ‘interpretation’. (shrink)
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  25.  39
    Itzhak Gilboa, Offer Lieberman & David Schmeidler (2010). On the Definition of Objective Probabilities by Empirical Similarity. Synthese 172 (1):79 - 95.
    We suggest to define objective probabilities by similarity-weighted empirical frequencies, where more similar cases get a higher weight in the computation of frequencies. This formula is justified intuitively and axiomatically, but raises the question, which similarity function should be used? We propose to estimate the similarity function from the data, and thus obtain objective probabilities. We compare this definition to others, and attempt to delineate the scope of situations in which objective probabilities can be used.
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  26.  39
    Vladan Djordjevic (2013). Similarity and Cotenability. Synthese 190 (4):681-691.
    In this paper I present some difficulties for Lewis’s and similar theories of counterfactuals, and suggest that the problem lies in the notion of absolute similarity. In order to explain the problem, I discuss the relation between Lewis’s and Goodman’s theory, and show that the two theories are not related in the way Lewis thought they were.
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  27.  25
    T. Barakat & H. A. Alhendi (2013). Generalized Dirac Equation with Induced Energy-Dependent Potential Via Simple Similarity Transformation and Asymptotic Iteration Methods. Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1171-1181.
    This study shows how precise simple analytical solutions for the generalized Dirac equation with repulsive vector and attractive energy-dependent Lorentz scalar potentials, position-dependent mass potential, and a tensor interaction term can be obtained within the framework of both similarity transformation and the asymptotic iteration methods. These methods yield a significant improvement over existing approaches and provide more plausible and applicable ways in explaining the pseudospin symmetry’s breaking mechanism in nuclei.
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  28.  9
    Juan Bautista Bengoetxea, Oliver Todt & José Luis Luján (2014). Similarity and Representation in Chemical Knowledge Practices. Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):215-233.
    This paper argues for the theoretical and practical validity of similarity as a useful epistemological tool in scientific knowledge generation, specifically in chemistry. Classical analyses of similarity in philosophy of science do not account for the concept’s practical significance in scientific activities. We recur to examples from chemistry to counter the claim of authors like Quine or Goodman to the effect that similarity must be excluded from scientific practices . In conclusion we argue that more recent conceptualizations (...)
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  29.  7
    Satoshi Tojo & Katsumi Nitta (1997). Similarity of Legal Cases: From Temporal Relations of Affairs. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (1-2):161-176.
    Case-based reasoning has played an important role in legal reasoning systems. As one criteria for similarity of cases, temporal relationsamong affairs in legal cases should be compared. Thus far in many legalreasoning systems, cases have been described as sequences of pointwiseevents, or at best, simple time intervals, and they have been related bypredicates such as before, after, while,and so on. However, such relations may depend on each implementer'spersonal view, and also require much labor to write down by hand. In (...)
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  30.  3
    Gerhard Lischke (2006). Restorations of Punctured Languages and Similarity of Languages. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 52 (1):20-28.
    Punctured languages are languages whose words are partial words in the sense that the letters at some positions are unknown. We investigate to which extent restoration of punctured languages is possible if the number of unknown positions or the proportion of unknown positions per word, respectively, is bounded, and we study their relationships for different boundings. The considered restoration classes coincide with similarity classes according to some kind of similarity for languages. Thus all results we can also formulate (...)
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  31.  1
    Máximo Trench & Ricardo A. Minervino (2015). The Role of Surface Similarity in Analogical Retrieval: Bridging the Gap Between the Naturalistic and the Experimental Traditions. Cognitive Science 39 (6):1292-1319.
    Blanchette and Dunbar have claimed that when participants are allowed to draw on their own source analogs in the service of analogical argumentation, retrieval is less constrained by surface similarity than traditional experiments suggest. In two studies, we adapted this production paradigm to control for the potentially distorting effects of analogy fabrication and uneven availability of close and distant sources in memory. Experiment 1 assessed whether participants were reminded of central episodes from popular movies while generating analogies for superficially (...)
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  32. Jerry A. Fodor & Ernest Lepore (1999). All at Sea in Semantic Space: Churchland on Meaning Similarity. Journal of Philosophy 96 (8):381-403.
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  33. Thomas Mormann (1996). Similarity and Continuous Quality Distributions. The Monist 79 (1):76 - 88.
  34. Daniel Dohrn, Counterfactuals, Accessibility, and Comparative Similarity.
    Berit Brogaard and Joe Salerno (2008) have defended the validity of counterfactual hypothetical syllogism (CHS) within the Stalnaker-Lewis account. Whenever the premisses of an instance of CHS are non-vacuosly true, a shift in context has occurred. Hence the standard counterexamples to CHS suffer from context failure. Charles Cross (2011) rejects this argument as irreconcilable with the Stalnaker-Lewis account. I argue against Cross that the basic Stalnaker-Lewis truth condition may be supplemented in a way that makes (CHS) valid. Yet pace Brogaard (...)
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  35. Eric Jacobson & David Premack (1970). Choice and Habituation as Measures of Response Similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (1):30.
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  36.  9
    Tom Verguts & Wim Fias (2009). Similarity and Rules United: Similarity‐ and Rule‐Based Processing in a Single Neural Network. Cognitive Science 33 (2):243-259.
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  37.  19
    Levi B. Larkey & Arthur B. Markman (2005). Processes of Similarity Judgment. Cognitive Science 29 (6):1061-1076.
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  38.  51
    John Woods (2012). Semantic Penumbra: Concept Similarity in Logic. [REVIEW] Topoi 31 (1):121-134.
    Logic’s historically central mission has been to provide formally precise descriptions of logical consequence. This was done with two broad expectations in mind. One was that a pre-theoretically recognizable concept of consequence would be present in the ensuing formalization. The other was that the formalization would be mathematically mature. The first expectation calls for conceptual adequacy. The other calls for technical virtuosity. The record of the past century and a third discloses a tension between the two. Accordingly, logicians have sought (...)
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  39.  2
    Jean M. Mandler & Nancy L. Stein (1974). Recall and Recognition of Pictures by Children as a Function of Organization and Distractor Similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):657.
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  40.  44
    Sydney Shoemaker (1975). Phenomenal Similarity. Critica 7 (October):3-37.
  41.  19
    Georg Wikman (2013). The Notion of Order in Mathematics and Physics. Similarity, Difference and Indistinguishability. Foundations of Physics 43 (4):568-596.
    The notion of order as a universal and fundamental conceptual category is discussed as being based on sets of similar differences and different similarities. A discussion of relationships between order and disorder is followed by a proposal for a mathematical theory based on non-ordinality which could also have relevance for indistinguishables in physics.
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  42.  1
    Wayne A. Wickelgren (1966). Phonemic Similarity and Interference in Short-Term Memory for Single Letters. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (3):396.
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  43.  10
    Jose Maria Aizpurua, Jorge Nieto & Jose Ramon Uriarte (1990). Choice Procedure Consistent with Similarity Relations. Theory and Decision 29 (3):235-254.
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  44.  4
    Jack A. Adams, Howard I. Thorsheim & John S. McIntyre (1969). Item Length, Acoustic Similarity, and Natural Language Mediation as Variables in Short-Term Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):39.
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  45.  23
    Patricia S. Churchland (1976). How Quine Perceives Perceptual Similarity. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6 (June):251-255.
  46.  7
    Benson Schaeffer & Richard Wallace (1969). Semantic Similarity and the Comparison of Word Meanings. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (2):343.
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  47.  9
    Ernst Z. Rothkopf (1957). A Measure of Stimulus Similarity and Errors in Some Paired-Associate Learning Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (2):94.
  48.  1
    Stanley Coren & Joan S. Girgus (1974). Transfer of Illusion Decrement as a Function of Perceived Similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):881.
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  49.  1
    Alfred Castaneda & Leonard Worell (1961). Differential Relation of Latency and Response Vigor to Stimulus Similarity in Brightness Discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (4):309.
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  50.  7
    Maciej Komosinski & Marek Kubiak (2011). Quantitative Measure of Structural and Geometric Similarity of 3D Morphologies. Complexity 16 (6):40-52.
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