Search results for 'Social Conformity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  28
    Kevin James Spears Zollman (2010). Social Structure and the Effects of Conformity. Synthese 172 (3):317 - 340.
    Conformity is an often criticized feature of human belief formation. Although generally regarded as a negative influence on reliability, it has not been widely studied. This paper attempts to determine the epistemic effects of conformity by analyzing a mathematical model of this behavior. In addition to investigating the effect of conformity on the reliability of individuals and groups, this paper attempts to determine the optimal structure for conformity. That is, supposing that conformity is inevitable, what (...)
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  2.  7
    Chisuzu Kondo, Chiaki Saito, Ayaka Deguchi, Miki Hirayama & Adam Acar (2010). Social Conformity and Response Bias Revisited: The Influence of "Others" on Japanese Respondents. Human Affairs 20 (4):356-363.
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  3. Robert Schnuerch, Martin Schnuerch & Henning Gibbons (2015). Assessing and Correcting for Regression Toward the Mean in Deviance-Induced Social Conformity. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  4. Rebecca Kukla (1995). Conformity, Creativity and the Social Constitution of the Subject. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    This work seeks to take seriously the common philosophical claim that individual subjects are constituted by their social world. A detailed understanding this claim requires an analysis of what is involved in being a subject, of the nature of 'the social', and of the possible constitutive relationships between these. I begin with a critical history of the idea that subjects are norm-followers, and that social groups constitute individuals by demanding their conformity to norms. I trace this (...)
     
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  5. Bert H. Hodges (2014). Rethinking Conformity and Imitation: Divergence, Convergence, and Social Understanding. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  6. Roger Nett (1953). Conformity-Deviation and the Social Control Concept. Ethics 64 (1):38-45.
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  7.  1
    Ying Xie, Mingliang Chen, Hongxia Lai, Wuke Zhang, Zhen Zhao & Ch Mahmood Anwar (2016). Neural Basis of Two Kinds of Social Influence: Obedience and Conformity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
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  8.  9
    Neil M. Lorber (1974). Conformity Versus Nonconformity to Social Ethics. The Monist 58 (4):674-682.
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  9. S. N. Balhakof (1897). The Conformity to Natural Law of Social Phenomena. Philosophical Review 6:428.
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  10. N. J. Karejef (1897). Economic Materialism and the Conformity to Natural Law of Social Phenomena. Philosophical Review 6:428.
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  11. Katarzyna Zawadzka, Aleksandra Krogulska, Roberta Button, Philip A. Higham & Maciej Hanczakowski (2016). Memory, Metamemory, and Social Cues: Between Conformity and Resistance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (2):181-199.
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  12. Peng Zhang, Yanhe Deng, Xue Yu, Xin Zhao & Xiangping Liu (2016). Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity Among Adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  13. Kevin Zollman (2010). Social Structure and the Effects of Conformity. Synthese 172 (3):317-340.
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  14.  5
    E. R. Hilgard, E. M. Sait & G. A. Margaret (1940). Level of Aspiration as Affected by Relative Standing in an Experimental Social Group. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (4):411.
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  15.  28
    Thomas N. Wisdom, Xianfeng Song & Robert L. Goldstone (2013). Social Learning Strategies in Networked Groups. Cognitive Science 37 (8):1383-1425.
    When making decisions, humans can observe many kinds of information about others' activities, but their effects on performance are not well understood. We investigated social learning strategies using a simple problem-solving task in which participants search a complex space, and each can view and imitate others' solutions. Results showed that participants combined multiple sources of information to guide learning, including payoffs of peers' solutions, popularity of solution elements among peers, similarity of peers' solutions to their own, and relative payoffs (...)
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  16.  19
    Erte Xiao & Cristina Bicchieri (2012). Words or Deeds? Choosing What to Know About Others. Synthese 187 (1):49-63.
    Social cooperation often relies on individuals’ spontaneous norm obedience when there is no punishment for violation or reward for compliance. However, people do not consistently follow pro-social norms. Previous studies have suggested that an individual’s tendency toward norm conformity is affected by empirical information (i.e., what others did or would do in a similar situation) as well as by normative information (i.e., what others think one ought to do). Yet little is known about whether people have an (...)
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  17.  36
    William E. Shafer, Kyoko Fukukawa & Grace Meina Lee (2007). Values and the Perceived Importance of Ethics and Social Responsibility: The U.S. Versus China. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):265 - 284.
    This study examines the effects of nationality (U.S. vs. China) and personal values on managers’ responses to the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility (PRESOR) scale. Evidence that China’s transition to a socialist market economy has led to widespread business corruption, led us to hypothesize that People’s Republic of China (PRC) managers would believe less strongly in the importance of ethical and socially responsible business conduct. We also hypothesized that after controlling for national differences, managers’ personal values (more (...)
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  18.  14
    Joachim I. Krueger & David C. Funder (2004). Towards a Balanced Social Psychology: Causes, Consequences, and Cures for the Problem-Seeking Approach to Social Behavior and Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):313-327.
    Mainstream social psychology focuses on how people characteristically violate norms of action through social misbehaviors such as conformity with false majority judgments, destructive obedience, and failures to help those in need. Likewise, they are seen to violate norms of reasoning through cognitive errors such as misuse of social information, self-enhancement, and an over-readiness to attribute dispositional characteristics. The causes of this negative research emphasis include the apparent informativeness of norm violation, the status of good behavior and (...)
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  19.  3
    Andrea Lavazza (2015). Erasing Traumatic Memories: When Context and Social Interests Can Outweigh Personal Autonomy. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 10 (1):3.
    Neuroscientific research on the removal of unpleasant and traumatic memories is still at a very early stage, but is making rapid progress and has stirred a significant philosophical and neuroethical debate. Even if memory is considered to be a fundamental element of personal identity, in the context of memory-erasing the autonomy of decision-making seems prevailing. However, there seem to be situations where the overall context in which people might choose to intervene on their memories would lead to view those actions (...)
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  20.  52
    Silvia A. Bunge & Jonathan D. Wallis (eds.) (2008). Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior. Oxford University Press.
    euroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior brings together, for the first time, the experiments and theories that have created the new science of rules. Rules are central to human behavior, but until now the field of neuroscience lacked a synthetic approach to understanding them. How are rules learned, retrieved from memory, maintained in consciousness and implemented? How are they used to solve problems and select among actions and activities? How are the various levels of rules represented in the brain, ranging from simple (...)
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  21.  14
    William S. Laufer & Diana C. Robertson (1997). Corporate Ethics Initiatives as Social Control. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (10):1029-1047.
    Efforts to institutionalize ethics in corporations have been discussed without first addressing the desirability of norm conformity or the possibility that the means used to elicit conformity will be coercive. This article presents a theoretical context, grounded in models of social control, within which ethics initiatives may be evaluated. Ethics initiatives are discussed in relation to variables that already exert control in the workplace, such as environmental controls, organizational controls, and personal controls.
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  22.  36
    Taylor Carman (1994). On Being Social: A Reply to Olafson. Inquiry 37 (2):203 – 223.
    Frederick Olafson criticizes Hubert Dreyfus’s interpretation of BEING AND TIME on a number of points, including the meaning of being, the nature of intentionality, and especially the role of das Man in Heidegger’s account of social existence. But on the whole Olafson’s critique is unconvincing because it rests on an implausible account of presence and perceptual intuition in Heidegger’s early philosophy, and because Olafson maintains an overly individuated notion of Dasein and consequently a one-sided conception of the role of (...)
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  23.  37
    Hal Whitehead, The Evolution of Conformist Social Learning Can Cause Population Collapse in Realistically Variable Environments.
    Why do societies collapse? We use an individual-based evolutionary model to show that, in environmental conditions dominated by low-frequency variation (“red noise”), extirpation may be an outcome of the evolution of cultural capacity. Previous analytical models predicted an equilibrium between individual learners and social learners, or a contingent strategy in which individuals learn socially or individually depending on the circumstances. However, in red noise environments, whose main signature is that variation is concentrated in relatively large, relatively rare excursions, individual (...)
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  24.  17
    Matthew Gildersleeve (2013). Trading Accuracy or Affiliation for Bad Faith in Social Influence Experimental Psychology. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):113-130.
    Currently there is an unattached link between the study of social influence in experimental psychology and bad faith in the existential philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. The methods of psychology and philosophy differ significantly and can be integrated into a unified whole to provide enhanced insight into a topic of investigation compared to what can be achieved separately in each of these disciplines. The goal of this paper is to review the social influence literature with the aim of expositing, (...)
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  25.  8
    Ken Jacobsen (2008). 'The Law of a Commonweal': The Social Vision of Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity and Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Animus 12:15-28.
    Hooker’s Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity and Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew represent the issues of sociality and dissent in strikingly similar terms and articulate a common social vision. Both writers strive to harmonize social unity with inward liberty. Hooker seeks not only to refute the non-conformity of his Puritan opponents, but to reconcile them, in both heart and mind, to the social order to which they belong. Similarly, Petruchio convincingly demonstrates to Katherine that (...)
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  26.  19
    James J. Brummer (1983). In Defense of Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):111 - 122.
    The purpose of the present article is to argue against the minimalist theory of social responsibility (i.e., that the sole responsibility of business is to maximize profit in conformity with law), particularly as it is advanced by Butler D. Shaffer. Against this view, I argue that such a theory does not necessarily support or achieve greater levels of corporate efficiency than does a more demanding theory of social responsibility, and that the argument for the former view is (...)
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  27.  3
    D. Reed (1998). Corporate Social Responsibility and Development in India1. Journal of Human Values 4 (2):201-217.
    This paper is a normative analysis of corporate governance in India. The aim is to investigate the extent to which corporations in India, in their various dealings, have conformed to defensible normative standards and to identify the factors which have influenced their rate of -conformity. The paper makes an attempt to understand how conformity to defensible standards can be better promoted. The normative standards to which corporations are subject can be categorized into three broad areas, namely, political, (...) and economic responsibilities. The focus here is on the least controversial area, that is, the economic responsi bilities of corporations. The author concludes with some reflections on the task of promoting more respon sible corporate governance. (shrink)
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  28.  9
    Dennis T. Regan & Thomas Gilovich (2004). Social Psychological Research Isn't Negative, and its Message Fosters Compassion, Not Cynicism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):354-355.
    Krueger & Funder (K&F) correctly identify work on conformity, obedience, bystander (non)intervention, and social cognition as among social psychology's most memorable contributions, but they incorrectly portray that work as stemming from a “negative research orientation.” Instead, the work they cite stimulates compassion for the human actor by revealing the enormous complexity involved in deciding what to think and do in difficult, uncertain situations.
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  29.  5
    P. Christesen (2012). Athletics and Social Order in Sparta in the Classical Period. Classical Antiquity 31 (2):193 - +.
    This article seeks to situate the athletic activities of Spartiates and their unmarried daughters during the Classical period in their broader societal context by using theoretical perspectives taken from sociology in general and the sociology of sport in particular to explore how those activities contributed to the maintenance of social order in Sparta. Social order is here taken to denote a system of interlocking societal institutions, practices, and norms that is relatively stable over time. Athletics was a powerful (...)
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  30.  9
    Linda Thorne, Dawn W. Massey & Joanne Jones (2004). An Investigation of Social Influence. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (3):525-551.
    This study introduces Moscovici’s (1976, 1985) model of social influence to the accounting research domain, and uses an experimentto assess whether his theory explains how different types of discussion affects consensus in auditors’ ethical reasoning. Moscovici’s theory proposes three modalities of influence to describe how consensus is achieved following discussion: conformity, innovation, and normalization. Conformity describes the situation where individuals in the minority (e.g., auditors that do not accept the dominant view) accede to the majority (e.g., auditors (...)
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  31.  7
    M. W. Bauer (2008). Social Influence by Artefacts. Diogenes 55 (1):68-83.
    A review of the paradigms of social influence – suggestion, imitation, normalization, conformity, compliance, conversion – leads me to diagnose a triple malaise: the shrinkage of paradigms to cognitive dual-processing theories of information; the dominant methodology of laboratory experiments falls short of the reality of (mass) communication; and the focus of social influence on inter-subjectivity is only half of the story. I will suggest two extensions of social influence theory to include mass media communication and the (...)
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  32.  1
    Linda Thorne, Dawn W. Massey & Joanne Jones (2004). An Investigation of Social Influence: Explaining the Effect of Group Discussion on Consensus in Auditors’ Ethical Reasoning. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (3):525-551.
    This study introduces Moscovici’s model of social influence to the accounting research domain, and uses an experimentto assess whether his theory explains how different types of discussion affects consensus in auditors’ ethical reasoning. Moscovici’s theory proposes three modalities of influence to describe how consensus is achieved following discussion: conformity, innovation, and normalization. Conformity describes the situation where individuals in the minority accede to the majority as a result of group discussion. Innovation describes the situation where individuals in (...)
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  33.  25
    Dima Jamali (2010). MNCs and International Accountability Standards Through an Institutional Lens: Evidence of Symbolic Conformity or Decoupling. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4):617 - 640.
    The recent proliferation of International Accountability Standards (IAS) has attracted significant academic interest, but the extent of their adoption and integration by global firms remains underinvestigated.Capitalizing on institutional theory and the typology of strategic responses to institutional pressures proposed by Oliver (Acad Manage Rev 16(1): 145-179, 1991), this article uses an interpretive research methodology to analyze a sample of MNC practitioners' views regarding IAS, and derive some insights in relation to expected patterns of strategic responses to these new institutional pressures. (...)
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  34.  5
    Nick Bostrom, Thomas Douglas & Anders Sandberg (2016). The Unilateralist’s Curse and the Case for a Principle of Conformity. Social Epistemology 30 (4):350-371.
    In some situations a number of agents each have the ability to undertake an initiative that would have significant effects on the others. Suppose that each of these agents is purely motivated by an altruistic concern for the common good. We show that if each agent acts on her own personal judgment as to whether the initiative should be undertaken, then the initiative will be undertaken more often than is optimal. We suggest that this phenomenon, which we call the unilateralist’s (...)
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  35. Jamake Highwater (1997). The Mythology of Transgression: Homosexuality as Metaphor. Oxford University Press.
    Jamake Highwater is a master storyteller and one of our most visionary writers, hailed as "an eloquent bard, whose words are fire and glory" (Studs Terkel) and "a writer of exceptional vision and power" (Ana"is Nin). Author of more than thirty volumes of nonfiction, fiction, and poetry, Highwater--considered by many to be the intellectual heir of Joseph Campbell--has long been intrigued by how our mythological legacies have served as a foundation of modern civilization. Now, in The Mythology of Transgression, he (...)
     
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  36.  6
    Patrick Giddy (2015). Porportionalist Reasoning in Business Ethics. African Journal of Business Ethics 8 (2).
    Proportionalist reasoning, found in the Aristo­ telian Just War theory, moderates the means taken by reference to the intended end. However, judging acts by their conformity or otherwise to one normative moral end might, in a liberal society, seem an imposition. Against this objection, I argue, with Spaemann, that values associated with the culture of commerce and its ethical theories are a breakaway from the culture of commitment and virtue that is the only possible framework for ethical reasoning. This (...)
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  37.  18
    Richard W. Paul (1989). Critical Thinking in North America: A New Theory of Knowledge, Learning, and Literacy. [REVIEW] Argumentation 3 (2):197-235.
    The pace of change in the world is accelerating, yet educational institutions have not kept pace. Indeed, schools have historically been the most static of social institutions, uncritically passing down from generation to generation outmoded didactic, lecture-and-drill-based, models of instruction. Predictable results follow. Students, on the whole, do not learn how to work by, or think for, themselves. They do not learn how to gather, analyze, synthesize and assess information. They do not learn how to analyze the diverse logic (...)
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  38.  6
    Vоlodymyr Romantsov (2015). Суспільні процеси в маріупольському повіті на початку революції. Схід 3.
    The research of the social development issues of Mariupol and the Azov Area at the time of the democratic revolution of 1917 presents undoubted scientific vitality and interest for Mariupol community which is interested in the study of the homeland's history. Until nowadays the aforementioned scientific problem remains insufficiently investigated. In the Soviet times, the historians either did not consider the problems of social democratic reformations in the country in general and those of the Azov Area in particular (...)
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  39.  8
    Marion Blute (2013). The Evolution of Anisogamy: More Questions Than Answers. Biological Theory 7 (1):3-9.
    Despite a revived interest in explaining the evolution of anisogamy in recent years (i.e. different—micro and macrogametes), there remain more questions than answers. The topic is important because it is thought to be the foundation of the theory of gender differences and relations. Twelve of these questions are briefly reviewed here—(1) the distinction between sex and sexual types; (2) the distinction between mating types and anisogamy; (3) the possible role of ecological as well as social evolution in proto-gender differences (...)
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  40.  5
    Tanya R. Glaser (2000). Community, Conformity, and Justice. Social Philosophy Today 15:211-227.
  41. Steven A. Hetcher (2004). Norms in a Wired World. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Social order is regulated from above by the law but its foundation is built on norms and customs, informal social practices that enable people to make meaningful and productive uses of their time and resources. Despite the importance of these practices in keeping the social fabric together, very little of the jurisprudential literature has focused on a discussion of these norms and customs. In Social Norms in a Wired World Steven Hetcher argues that the traditional conception (...)
     
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  42. Randy Stein (2013). The Pull of the Group: Conscious Conflict and the Involuntary Tendency Towards Conformity. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):788-794.
    Is the reason that majorities exert an undue influence on the actions of individuals revealed through changes in subjective experience? Using an adaptation of the response interference paradigm in which participants are trained to introspect on their own experience of conscious conflict, two studies reported here show that the mere act of recalling counter-majority stances or opinions is associated with stronger subjective effects than recalling stances or opinions that coincide with majorities. Thus, an intention to conform to a majority seems (...)
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  43.  78
    John Searle (1995). The Construction of Social Reality. Free Press.
    In The Construction of Social Reality, John Searle argues that there are two kinds of facts--some that are independent of human observers, and some that require..
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  44.  39
    Peter Winch (2008). The Idea of a Social Science and its Relation to Philosophy. Routledge.
    The problems dealt with in The Idea of a Social Science are philosophical. It is an attempt to place the social science, considered as a single group, on the intellectual map, with special attention to the relations of the discipline to philosophy on the one hand and the natural sciences on the other. The author holds that the relation between the social sciences and philosophy is commonly misunderstood because of certain fashionable misconceptions about the nature of philosophy, (...)
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  45. Alvin I. Goldman (1999). Knowledge in a Social World. Oxford University Press.
    Knowledge in a Social World offers a philosophy for the information age. Alvin Goldman explores new frontiers by creating a thoroughgoing social epistemology, moving beyond the traditional focus on solitary knowers. Against the tides of postmodernism and social constructionism Goldman defends the integrity of truth and shows how to promote it by well-designed forms of social interaction. From science to education, from law to democracy, he shows why and how public institutions should seek knowledge-enhancing practices. The (...)
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  46. Sigal R. Ben-Porath (2009). Citizenship Under Fire: Democratic Education in Times of Conflict. Princeton University Press.
    Citizenship under Fire examines the relationship among civic education, the culture of war, and the quest for peace. Drawing on examples from Israel and the United States, Sigal Ben-Porath seeks to understand how ideas about citizenship change when a country is at war, and what educators can do to prevent some of the most harmful of these changes.Perhaps the most worrisome one, Ben-Porath contends, is a growing emphasis in schools and elsewhere on social conformity, on tendentious teaching of (...)
     
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  47. Elisabet Garriga & Domènec Melé (2004). Corporate Social Responsibility Theories: Mapping the Territory. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):51-71.
    The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) field presents not only a landscape of theories but also a proliferation of approaches, which are controversial, complex and unclear. This article tries to clarify the situation, mapping the territory by classifying the main CSR theories and related approaches in four groups: (1) instrumental theories, in which the corporation is seen as only an instrument for wealth creation, and its social activities are only a means to achieve economic results; (2) political theories, which (...)
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  48.  94
    John R. Searle (2009). Making the Social World: The Structure of Human Civilization. Oxford University Press.
    The purpose of this book -- Intentionality -- Collective intentionality and the assignment of function -- Language as biological and social -- The general theory of institutions and institutional facts: -- Language and social reality -- Free will, rationality, and institutional facts -- Power : deontic, background, political, and other -- Human rights -- Concluding remarks : the ontological foundations of the social sciences.
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  49.  86
    Steven P. Feldman (2004). The Professional Conscience: A Psychoanalytic Study of Moral Character in Tolstoy's the Death of Ivan Ilych. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 49 (4):311-328.
    Modern professional behavior all too often fails to meet high standards of moral conduct. An important reason for this unfortunate state of affairs is the expansive self interest of the individual professional. The individual''s natural desire for his/her own success and pleasure goes unchecked by internal moral constraints. In this essay, I investigate this phenomenon using the psychoanalytic concepts of the ego ideal and superego. These concepts are used to explore the internal psychological dynamics that contribute to moral decision-making. The (...)
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  50.  9
    Martti Kuokkanen (1986). On Conceptual Correlation. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 25 (3):371 - 401.
    In the present paper Cohen's and Lee's theory of social conformity and Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance are first reconstructed according to a revised form of the so-called “structuralist theory-conception” developed by Sneed and Stegmüller with their collaborators. Then the two theories are conceptually correlated in the sense of a technical notion of conceptual correlation which can be shown to be an essential generalization of the theory-relations handled by the structuralists.It will turn out that there is no unique (...)
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