Search results for 'Social contract History' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  32
    Matthew K. Wynia (2008). The Short History and Tenuous Future of Medical Professionalism: The Erosion of Medicine's Social Contract. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (4):565-578.
  2.  21
    Peter de Marneffe (2001). The Problem of Evil, the Social Contract, and the History of Ethics. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 82 (1):11–25.
  3. D. G. Ritchie (1892). Contributions to the History of the Social Contract Theory. Philosophical Review 1:353.
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  4. Jean Hampton (1986/1988). Hobbes and the Social Contract Tradition. Cambridge University Press.
    This major study of Hobbes's political philosophy draws on recent developments in game and decision theory to explore whether the thrust of the argument in Leviathan, that it is in the interests of the people to create a ruler with absolute power, can be shown to be cogent. Professor Hampton has written a book of vital importance to political philosophers, political and social scientists, and intellectual historians.
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  5. Ellen Frankel Paul (ed.) (1988). The New Social Contract: Essays on Gauthier. B. Blackwell for the Social Philosophy and Policy Center, Bowling Green State University.
     
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  6.  44
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau (2004/2006). The Social Contract. Penguin Books.
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
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  7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1968/2006). The Social Contract. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
     
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  8. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1950/2006). The Social Contract. New York, Dutton.
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
     
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  9.  11
    Matthew Simpson (2005). Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Rousseau and The Social Contract (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 43 (3):364-364.
    Matthew Simpson - Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Rousseau and The Social Contract - Journal of the History of Philosophy 43:3 Journal of the History of Philosophy 43.3 364 Christopher Bertram. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Rousseau and The Social Contract. London: Routledge, 2004. Pp. ix + 214. Paper, $15.95. The main problem with the interpretation of Rousseau's political thought today is that his theories rarely fit into the categories that define contemporary philosophy. He was neither (...)
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  10.  2
    Charles Devellennes (2013). Fourth Musketeer of Social Contract Theory. History of Political Thought 34 (3):459-478.
    Holbach's famous materialistic and atheistic philosophy is less known for its political dimension. Yet the author proposed an original theory of the social contract in his works of the 1770s. This article details the main features of his political thought and of his social contract, notably his proposal of an 'Ethocracy' grounded in utility and justice. This Ethocracy paves the way for a pluralist republicanism that has original features in the history of ideas. Holbach was (...)
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  11.  13
    Peter Corning (2015). The Science of Human Nature and the Social Contract. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 11 (1):15-40.
    800x600 One of the most important political challenges of our time - indeed of all times - is social justice. It was first addressed as a philosophical issue in Plato's great dialogue, the _Republic_, and it has been a continuing theme in the "tradition of discourse" ever since. As I will argue, Plato's analysis and conclusions represent a sound foundation and a starting point for advancing a new social justice paradigm that is undergirded by the emerging, multi-disciplinary science (...)
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  12.  11
    Michael Keeley (1995). Continuing the Social Contract Tradition. Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2):241-255.
    Social contract theory has a rich history. It originated among the ancients with recognition that social arrangements were not products of nature but convention. It developed through the centuries as theorists sought ethical criteria for distinguishing good conventions from bad. The search for such ethical criteria continues in recent attempts to apply social contract theory to organizations. In this paper, I question the concept ofconsent as a viable ethical criterion, and I argue for an (...)
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  13.  11
    Roy Turner (1985). Speech and the Social Contract. Inquiry 28 (1-4):43 – 53.
    Austin's ?doctrine of the infelicities?, whereby performative utterances are vulnerable to the risk of failure, has been criticized for treating such a possibility as contingent rather than as necessary (and hence revelatory of the essential nature of speech acts). This paper seeks to trace out what is at stake for one who maintains Austin's position. It examines Austin's curious hypothetical history of the development of speech acts, which is found to resemble forms of social?contract theory, and the (...)
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  14. Gary Gerrard (2001). The New Social Contract: Beyond Liberal Democracy. Upa.
    Is liberal democracy the end of history? Is a written constitution the ultimate political authority? Does majority rule equal moral rule? Are all moral values relative? What is the legitimate use of coercive force in society? The New Social Contract—Beyond Liberal Democracy offers an answer to these and other age-old questions.
     
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  15. John T. Scott (ed.) (2014). The Major Political Writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Two "Discourses" and the "Social Contract". University of Chicago Press.
    Individualist and communitarian. Anarchist and totalitarian. Classicist and romanticist. Progressive and reactionary. Since the eighteenth century, Jean-Jacques Rousseau has been said to be all of these things. Few philosophers have been the subject of as much or as intense debate, yet almost everyone agrees that Rousseau is among the most important and influential thinkers in the history of political philosophy. This new edition of his major political writings, published in the year of the three-hundredth anniversary of his birth, renews (...)
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  16. John T. Scott (ed.) (2012). The Major Political Writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Two "Discourses" and the "Social Contract". University of Chicago Press.
    Individualist and communitarian. Anarchist and totalitarian. Classicist and romanticist. Progressive and reactionary. Since the eighteenth century, Jean-Jacques Rousseau has been said to be all of these things. Few philosophers have been the subject of as much or as intense debate, yet almost everyone agrees that Rousseau is among the most important and influential thinkers in the history of political philosophy. This new edition of his major political writings, published in the year of the three-hundredth anniversary of his birth, renews (...)
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  17.  28
    Helena Rosenblatt (1997). Rousseau and Geneva: From the First Discourse to the Social Contract, 1749-1762. Cambridge University Press.
    Rousseau and Geneva reconstructs the main aspects of Genevan socio-economic, political and religious thought in the first half of the eighteenth century. In this way Dr Rosenblatt effectively contextualizes the development of Rousseau's thought from the First Discourse through to the Social Contract. Over time Rousseau has been adopted as a French thinker, but this adoption obscures his Genevan origin. Dr Rosenblatt points out that he is, in fact, a Genevan thinker and illustrates for the first time that (...)
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  18.  19
    David Williams (2007). Ideas and Actuality in the Social Contract: Kant and Rousseau. History of Political Thought 28 (3):469-495.
    Patrick Riley has argued that Immanuel Kant was the 'most adequate' of the social contractarians. This reputation was built on Kant's reliance on ideas rather than actual consent to give the contract its legitimacy. The greatest advantage in his so doing was to limit the potential of tyrannical or despotic regimes. A danger resides in this approach, however: by ignoring actual consent, one may not get the compliance required to achieve these standards. In this respect, by interpreting Rousseau (...)
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  19.  31
    Warren Schmaus (2011). Science and the Social Contract in Renouvier. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 1 (1):73-100.
    Renouvier criticized Comte’s positivist philosophy of science and proposed a social contract approach for dealing with normative questions in philosophy of science as well as moral philosophy. Renouvier then questioned Kant’s distinction between practical and theoretical reason and argued that judgments concerning epistemic warrant must be freely made in the same way that moral judgments are made. What counts as scientific knowledge depends on a consensus within the scientific community that develops over time through critical inquiry in much (...)
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  20.  2
    Grace Roosevelt (2009). Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the Count d'Antraigues and the International Social Contract Tradition. History of Political Thought 30 (1):97-110.
    In 1790 the Count d'Antraigues, an eccentric eighteenth-century anti- revolutionary spy, claimed that he had been given a sequel to Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract explaining how states could prevent wars by forming international associations but that he had destroyed the manuscript because it might pose a threat to the French monarchy. Recent Rousseau scholars have generally assumed that d'Antraigues was lying. I suggest that the manuscript in question was a copy of the summary that Rousseau wrote in 1760 (...)
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  21.  13
    Christian Byk (1992). The Human Genome Project and the Social Contract: A Law Policy Approach. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (4):371-380.
    For the first time in history, genetics will enable science to completely identify each human as genetically unique. Will this knowledge reinforce the trend for more individual liberties or will it create a ‘brave new world’? A law policy approach to the problems raised by the human genome project shows how far our democratic institutions are from being the proper forum to discuss such issues. Because of the fears and anxiety raised in the population, and also because of its (...)
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  22.  21
    Arun A. Iyer (2006). The Missing Dynamic: Corporations, Individuals and Contracts. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 67 (4):393 - 406.
    There are two opposing views on the nature of corporations in contemporary debates on corporate social responsibility. Opponents of corporate personhood hold that a corporation is nothing but a group of individuals coming together to achieve certain goals. On the other hand, the advocates of corporate personhood believe that corporations are persons in their own right existing over and above the individuals who comprise them. They talk of corporate decision-making structures that help translate individual decisions and actions into corporate (...)
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  23. Samuel Richard Freeman (2007). Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawlsian Political Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    John Rawls (1921-2002) was one of the 20th century's most important philosophers and continues to be among the most widely discussed of contemporary thinkers. His work, particularly A Theory of Justice, is integral to discussions of social and international justice, democracy, liberalism, welfare economics, and constitutional law, in departments of philosophy, politics, economics, law, public policy, and others. Samuel Freeman is one of Rawls's foremost interpreters. This volume contains nine of his essays on Rawls and Rawlsian justice, two of (...)
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  24.  29
    Simon Evnine (1993). Hume, Conjectural History, and the Uniformity of Human Nature. Journal of the History of Philosophy 31 (4):589-606.
    In this paper I argue that, in at least two cases - his discussions of the temporal precedence o f polytheism over monotheism and of the origins of civil society - we see Hume consigning to historical development certain aspects of reason which, as a comparison with Locke will show, have sometimes been held to be uniform. In the first of these cases Hume has recourse to claims about the general historical development of human thought. In the second case, the (...)
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  25. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1997). The Social Contract and Other Later Political Writings. Cambridge University Press.
    The work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau is presented in two volumes, together forming the most comprehensive anthology of Rousseau's political writings in English. Volume II contains the later writings such as The Social Contract and a selection of Rousseau's letters on important aspects of his thought. The Social Contract has become Rousseau's most famous single work, but on publication was condemned by both the civil and the ecclesiastical authorities in France and Geneva. Rousseau fled and it is (...)
     
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  26.  96
    Wesley Cragg (2000). Human Rights and Business Ethics: Fashioning a New Social Contract. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):205 - 214.
    This paper argues that widely accepted understanding of the respective responsibilities of business and government in the post war industrialized world can be traced back to a tacit social contract that emerged following the second world war. The effect of this contract was to assign responsibility for generating wealth to business and responsibility for ensuring the equitable sharing of wealth to governments. Without question, this arrangement has resulted in substantial improvements in the quality of life in the (...)
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  27.  6
    Paul Neiman (2013). A Social Contract for International Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):75-90.
    This article begins with a detailed analysis of how the choice situation of a social contract for international business ethics can be constructed and justified. A choice situation is developed by analyzing conceptions of the multinational firm and the domain of international business. The result is a hypothetical negotiation between two fictional characters, J. Duncan Grey and Elizabeth Redd, who respectively represent the interests of businesses and communities seeking to engage in international trade. The negotiators agree on ethical (...)
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  28. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1973/1986). The Social Contract ; and, Discourses. C.E. Tuttle Co..
    A discourse on the arts and sciences -- A discourse on the origin of inequality -- A discourse on political economy -- The general society of the human race -- The social contract.
     
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  29.  12
    Nancy Grudens-Schuck & Brett A. Kramer (2003). Land-Grant Universities and Extension Into the 21st Century: Renegotiating or Abandoning a Social Contract. By George R. McDowell. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 20 (2):205-209.
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  30. Henry S. Richardson (2006). Rawlsian Social-Contract Theory and the Severely Disabled. Journal of Ethics 10 (4):419 - 462.
    Martha Nussbaum has powerfully argued in Frontiers ofJustice and elsewhere that John Rawls’s sort of social-contract theory cannot usefully be deployed to deal with issues pertaining to justice for the disabled. To counter this claim, this article deploys Rawls’s sort of social-contract theory in order to deal with issues pertaining to justice for the disabled—or, since, as Nussbaum stresses, we all have some degree of disability—for the severely disabled. In this way, rather than questioning one by (...)
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  31.  7
    C. J. Berry (1978). From Hume to Hegel: The Care of the Social Contract. Journal for the History of Ideas 38 (4):691-703.
    The respective rejections of contractarian explanations and justifications of political allegiance by hume and hegel are outlined. The difference between these rejections is located in a change in conceptualizations of the relationship between human nature and history and this is illustrated by a discussion of herder. In consequence, Hegel does not reproduce hume's arguments because hume's own rejection, Both historical and philosophical, Of contractarianism was premised on the very principles that hegel rejects in his theoretical rejection of rousseau's theoretical (...)
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  32.  32
    Lorenzo Sacconi (2006). A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (I): Rational Bargaining and Justification. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):259 - 281.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. It focuses on justification according to the contractarian point of view (leaving compliance and implementation problems to a related article, [Sacconi 2004b, forthcoming in the Journal of Business Ethics]). It begins by providing a definition of CSR as an extended model of corporate governance, based on the fiduciary duties owed to all the (...)
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  33. Elisabeth Ellis (2006). Citizenship and Property Rights: A New Look at Social Contract Theory. Journal of Politics 68 (3):544-555.
    Social contract thought has always contained multiple and mutually conflicting lines of argument; the minimalist contractarianism so influential today represents the weaker of two main constellations of claims. I make the case for a Kantian contract theory that emphasizes the bedrock principle of consent of the governed instead of the mere heuristic device of the exit from the state of nature. Such a shift in emphasis resolves two classic difficulties: tradi- tional contract theory’s ahistorical presumption of (...)
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  34.  9
    Kirsten E. Martin (2012). Diminished or Just Different? A Factorial Vignette Study of Privacy as a Social Contract. Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):519-539.
    A growing body of theory has focused on privacy as being contextually defined, where individuals have highly particularized judgments about the appropriateness of what, why, how, and to whom information flows within a specific context. Such a social contract understanding of privacy could produce more practical guidance for organizations and managers who have employees, users, and future customers all with possibly different conceptions of privacy across contexts. However, this theoretical suggestion, while intuitively appealing, has not been empirically examined. (...)
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  35.  34
    Jeffery A. Thompson & David W. Hart (2006). Psychological Contracts: A Nano-Level Perspective on Social Contract Theory. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):229 - 241.
    Social contract theory has been criticized as a “theory in search of application.” We argue that incorporating the nano, or individual, level of analysis into social contract inquiry will yield more descriptive theory. We draw upon the psychological contract perspective to address two critiques of social contract theory: its rigid macro-orientation and inattention to the process of contract formation. We demonstrate how a psychological contract (...)
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  36.  6
    Lisa Herzog (2013). The Modern Social Contract Tradition. In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer 631--645.
    This chapter discusses central strands of the modern social contract tradition. Distinguishing between moral and political theories on the one hand and contractualist and contractarian theories on the other, it presents one example of each of the ensuing categories: Gauthier’s moral contractarianism, Buchanan’s political contractarianism, Scanlon’s moral contractualism, and Rawls’ political contractualism. In the conclusion, strengths and weaknesses of social contract theories are discussed.
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  37.  22
    Anita Cava & Don Mayer (2007). Integrative Social Contract Theory and Urban Prosperity Initiatives. Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):263 - 278.
    Urban communities in 21st century America are facing severe economic challenges, ones that suggest a mandate to contemplate serious changes in the way America does business. The middle class is diminishing in many parts of the country, with consequences for the economy as a whole. When faced with the loss of its economic base, any business community must make some difficult decisions about its proper role and responsibilities. Decisions to support the community must be balanced alongside and against responsibilities to (...)
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  38. Matthew Simpson (2006). A Paradox of Sovereignty in Rousseau's Social Contract. Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (1):45-56.
    One unique part of Rousseau's Social Contract is his argument that a just society must have a specific constitutional arrangement of powers centred around what he calls the Sovereign and the Prince. This makes his philosophy different from other contractualists, such as Hobbes and Locke, who think that the principles of good government are compatible with any number of institutional structures. Rousseau's constitutional theory is thus significant in a way that has no parallel in Hobbes or Locke. More (...)
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  39.  52
    Danny Frederick (2013). Social Contract Theory Should Be Abandoned. Rationality, Markets and Morals 4:178-89.
    I argue that social-contract theory cannot succeed because reasonable people may always disagree, and that social-contract theory is irrelevant to the problem of the legitimacy of a form of government or of a system of moral rules. I note the weakness of the appeal to implicit agreement, the conflation of legitimacy with stability, the undesirability of “public justification” and the apparent blindness to the evolutionary critical-rationalist approach of Hayek and Popper. I employ that approach to sketch (...)
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  40.  64
    Eric Palmer (2001). Multinational Corporations and the Social Contract. Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):245 - 258.
    The constitutions of many nations have been explicitly or implicitly founded upon principles of the social contract derived from Thomas Hobbes. The Hobbesian egoism at the base of the contract fairly accurately represents the structure of market enterprise. A contractarian analysis may, then, allow for justified or rationally acceptable universal standards to which businesses should conform. This paper proposes general rational restrictions upon multi-national enterprises, and includes a critique of unjustified restrictions recently proposed by the Organization for (...)
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  41.  32
    Simon Cushing (1998). Representation and Obligation in Rawls' Social Contract Theory. Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (1):47-54.
    The two justificatory roles of the social contract are establishing whether or not a state is legitimate simpliciter and establishing whether any particular individual is politically obligated to obey the dictates of its governing institutions. Rawls's theory is obviously designed to address the first role but less obviously the other. Rawls does offer a duty-based theory of political obligation that has been criticized by neo-Lockean A. John Simmons. I assess Simmons's criticisms and the possible responses (...)
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  42.  29
    A. P. Martinich (2012). Egoism, Reason, and the Social Contract. Hobbes Studies 25 (2):209-222.
    Bernard Gert’s distinctive interpretation of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes in his recent book may be questioned in at least three areas: (1) Even if Hobbes is not a psychological egoist, he seems to be a desire egoist, which has the consequence, as he understands it, that a person acts at least for his own good in every action. (2) Although there are several senses of reason, it seems that Hobbes uses the idea that reason is calculation of means to (...)
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  43.  5
    Alan Reynolds (2014). Animal Ethics and Politics Beyond the Social Contract. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 9 (3):208-222.
    Alan Reynolds: This paper is divided into three sections. First, I describe the wide plurality of views on issues of animal ethics, showing that our disagreements here are deep and profound. This fact of reasonable pluralism about animal ethics presents a political problem. According to the dominant liberal tradition of political philosophy, it is impermissible for one faction of people to impose its values upon another faction of people who reasonably reject those values. Instead, we are obligated to justify our (...)
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  44.  18
    Nenad Miscevic (2013). In Search of the Reason and the Right—Rousseau's Social Contract as a Thought Experiment. Acta Analytica 28 (4):509-526.
    For Rousseau, social contract is a hypothetical one; the paper claims that it is, in contemporary terms, a political thought-experiment (TE). The abductive way of thinking, looking for the best normative pattern in the data, finds its counterpart in the historical abduction in the Second Discourse; the analogy between the two secures the methodological unity of Rousseau’s political philosophy. The proposed reading of the work as a TE shows that it fulfills the necessary requirements put by (hopefully) intuitively (...)
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  45.  41
    Justin Cruickshank (2000). Ethnocentrism, Social Contract Liberalism and Positivistic-Conservatism: Rorty's Three Theses on Politics. Res Publica 6 (1):1-23.
    In this article I argue that Rorty has three separatearguments for liberalism. The pragmatic-ethnocentric argument for liberalism,as a system which works for `us liberals'', is rejectedfor entailing relativism. The social contract argument results in an extreme formof individualism. This renders politics redundantbecause there is no need for the (liberal) state toprotect poetic individuals, who are capable ofdefending themselves. Even if the less able areharmed, the state could not prevent this, givenRorty''s arguments about discursive enrichment withina language game. Finally, (...)
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  46.  8
    Milorad Stupar (2011). Social Contract Theory and Wider Context: Some Thoughts and Clarifications. Filozofija I Društvo 22 (3):3-9.
    In this paper certain aspects of social contract theory have been reconsidered in the context of contemporary political community. Special focus has been given to the meaning of the concept of coercion.
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  47.  17
    Jos V. M. Welie (2012). Social Contract Theory as a Foundation of the Social Responsibilities of Health Professionals. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):347-355.
    This paper seeks to define and delimit the scope of the social responsibilities of health professionals in reference to the concept of a social contract. While drawing on both historical data and current empirical information, this paper will primarily proceed analytically and examine the theoretical feasibility of deriving social responsibilities from the phenomenon of professionalism via the concept of a social contract.
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  48.  5
    Paresh Kathrani (2010). Social Contract Theory and the International Normative Order: A New Global Ethic? Jurisprudence 119 (1):97-109.
    Although people establish norms that enable them to live together, some of these have to be coupled with a system of enforcement. This conforms to broad social contract theory and can also be applied to the international sphere. The international community is also based on a system of norms. However, unlike the domestic context, there is no overreaching authority to direct states on what they should do. Rather it is left to states themselves to police this (...)
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  49.  21
    Simon Cushing (1998). Citizenship, Political Obligation, and the Right-Based Social Contract. Dissertation, University of Southern California
    The contemporary political philosopher John Rawls considers himself to be part of the social contract tradition of John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant, but not of the tradition of Locke's predecessor, Thomas Hobbes. Call the Hobbesian tradition interest-based, and the Lockean tradition right-based, because it assumes that there are irreducible moral facts which the social contract can assume. The primary purpose of Locke's social contract is to justify the authority of the state over (...)
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  50. Christopher W. Morris (ed.) (1999). The Social Contract Theorists Critical Essays on Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This rich collection will introduce students of philosophy and politics to the contemporary critical literature on the classical social contract political thinkers Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , and Jean-Jacques Rousseau . A dozen essays and book excerpts have been selected to guide students through the texts and to introduce them to current scholarly controversies surrounding the contractarian political theories of these three thinkers.
     
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