Search results for 'Social epistemology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Spyrion Orestis Palermos & Duncan Pritchard (2013). Extended Knowledge and Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective (8):105-120.
    The place of social epistemology within contemporary philosophy, as well as its relation to other academic disciplines, is the topic of an ongoing debate. One camp within that debate holds that social epistemology should be pursued strictly from within the perspective of individualistic analytic epistemology. In contrast, a second camp holds that social epistemology is an interdisciplinary field that should be given priority over traditional analytic epistemology, with the specific aim of radically (...)
     
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  2.  54
    Susan Dieleman, María G. Navarro & Elisabeth Simbürger (2016). Social Epistemology as Public Philosophy. In James H. Collier (ed.), The Future of Social Epistemology. A Collective Vision. Rowman & Littlefield International 55-64.
    The Future of Social Epistemology: A Collective Vision sets an agenda for exploring the future of what we – human beings reimagining our selves and our society – want, need and ought to know. The book examines, concretely, practically and speculatively, key ideas such as the public conduct of philosophy, models for extending and distributing knowledge, the interplay among individuals and groups, risk taking and the welfare state, and envisioning people and societies remade through the breakneck pace of (...)
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  3. Francis Remedios (2013). Orienting Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective.
    Comparison of Steve Fuller's and Alvin Goldman's social epistemologies.
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  4. Duncan Pritchard, Alan Millar & Adrian Haddock (eds.) (2010). Social Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    Recent epistemology has reflected a growing interest in the social dimension of the subject. This volume presents new work by leading philosophers on a wide range of topics in social epistemology, such as the nature of testimony, the epistemology of disagreement, and the social genealogy of the concept of knowledge.
     
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  5. K. Brad Wray (1999). A Defense of Longino's Social Epistemology. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):552.
    Though many agree that we need to account for the role that social factors play in inquiry, developing a viable social epistemology has proved to be difficult. According to Longino, it is the processes that make inquiry possible that are aptly described as "social," for they require a number of people to sustain them. These processes, she claims, not only facilitate inquiry, but also ensure that the results of inquiry are more than mere subjective opinions, and (...)
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  6.  29
    Tim Kenyon (2014). False Polarization: Debiasing as Applied Social Epistemology. Synthese 191 (11):2529-2547.
    False polarization (FP) is an interpersonal bias on judgement, the effect of which is to lead people in contexts of disagreement to overestimate the differences between their respective views. I propose to treat FP as a problem of applied social epistemology—a barrier to reliable belief-formation in certain social domains—and to ask how best one may debias for FP. This inquiry leads more generally into questions about effective debiasing strategies; on this front, considerable empirical evidence suggests that intuitively (...)
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  7.  27
    George Masterton (2014). Topological Variability of Collectives and its Import for Social Epistemology. Synthese 191 (11):2433-2443.
    Social epistemology studies knowledge and justified belief acquisition through organized group cooperation. To do this, the way such group cooperation is structured has to be modeled. The obvious way of modeling a group structure is with a directed graph; unfortunately, most types of social cooperation directed at epistemological aims are variably implementable, including in their structural expression. Furthermore, the frequency with which a practice is implemented in a certain way can vary with topology. This entails that the (...)
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  8.  26
    Francis Remedios (2003). Legitimizing Scientific Knowledge: An Introduction to Steve Fuller's Social Epistemology. Lexington Books.
    The first book to provide an in-depth examination of Steve Fuller's politically oriented social epistemology, Legitimizing Scientific Knowledge compares Fuller ...
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  9.  13
    Malcolm Ashmore (1994). Social Epistemology and Reflexivity: Two Versions of How to Be Really Useful. [REVIEW] Argumentation 8 (2):157-161.
    This essay argues that the really useful character of reflexivity is that it enables a radical critique of representation and its conventional material and rhetorical practices. It is uniquely able to produce paradox and thus disrupt discourses by undermining authorial privilege. Because Fuller's social epistemology is insensitive to its own reflexive implications, and limits itself to normative questions about knowledge policy, it is too limited — and limiting — to provide a context that can nurture reflexivity.
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  10.  7
    John Lyne (1994). Social Epistemology as a Rhetoric of Inquiry. Argumentation 8 (2):111-124.
    Fuller's program of social epistemology engages a rhetoric of inquiry that can be usefully compared and contrasted with other discursive theories of knowledge, such as that of Richard Rorty. Resisting the model of “conversation,” Fuller strikes an activist posture and lays the groundwork for normative “knowledge policy,” in which persuasion and credibility play key roles. The image of investigation is one that overtly rejects the “storehouse” conception of knowledge and invokes the metaphors of distributive economics. Productive questions arise (...)
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  11.  69
    Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & Duncan Pritchard (eds.) (2010). Social Epistemology. Oxford University Press, USA.
    The fifteen new essays presented in this volume aim to show the fertility and variety of social epistemology and to set the agenda for future research.
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  12.  95
    Alvin I. Goldman & Dennis Whitcomb (eds.) (2010). Social Epistemology: Essential Readings. Oxford University Press.
    This volume will be of great interest to scholars and students in epistemology.
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  13.  46
    Steve Fuller (2012). Social Epistemology: A Quarter-Century Itinerary. Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):267-283.
    Examining the origin and development of my views of social epistemology, I contrast my position with the position held by analytic social epistemologists. Analytic social epistemology (ASE) has failed to make significant progress owing, in part, to a minimal understanding of actual knowledge practices, a minimised role for philosophers in ongoing inquiry, and a focus on maintaining the status quo of epistemology as a field. As a way forward, I propose questions and future areas (...)
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  14. Conor Mayo-Wilson, Kevin J. S. Zollman & David Danks (2011). The Independence Thesis: When Individual and Social Epistemology Diverge. Philosophy of Science 78 (4):653-677.
    In the latter half of the twentieth century, philosophers of science have argued (implicitly and explicitly) that epistemically rational individuals might compose epistemically irrational groups and that, conversely, epistemically rational groups might be composed of epistemically irrational individuals. We call the conjunction of these two claims the Independence Thesis, as they together imply that methodological prescriptions for scientific communities and those for individual scientists might be logically independent of one another. We develop a formal model of scientific inquiry, define four (...)
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  15.  46
    David Kirk (2001). Schooling Bodies Through Physical Education: Insights From Social Epistemology and Curriculum History. Studies in Philosophy and Education 20 (6):475-487.
    Using mainly historical material fromAustralia, the paper seeks to understand earlyforms of school physical training, sport andmedical inspection as specialised means ofschooling bodies. The study adopts a socialepistemological perspective in seeking tounderstand the meaning-in-use of notions suchas physical training. It explores the socialconsequences of the practices carried out inthe name of physical training, particularly inrelation to shifts in the social regulation ofbodies over time from a mass, externalised, andcentralised form to a relatively moreindividualised, internalised and diffuse form.This focus on (...)
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  16.  53
    Alvin Goldman (2008). Social Epistemology. Critica.
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  17. Francis Remedios (2012). Review of Kuhn’s Evolutionary Social Epistemology. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 32 (6):533-535.
  18. Raphael Sassower (1994). The Politics of Situating Knowledge: An Exercise in Social Epistemology. [REVIEW] Argumentation 8 (2):185-198.
    This essay forges links between Popperians and feminists by considering the connections between Donna Haraway's “situated knowledge” and Karl R. Popper's “situational logic.” It is concerned with the political commitments behind methodological issues, with the degree to which there can be a Popperian contribution to the feminist vision of a successor science, and with ways of dealing with, while not resolving, the political differences between socialist feminists and libertarian Popperians.
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  19. Heidi E. Grasswick & Mark Owen Webb (2002). Feminist Epistemology as Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology 16 (3):185 – 196.
    More than one philosopher has expressed puzzlement at the very idea of feminist epistemology. Metaphysics and epistemology, sometimes called the 'core' areas of philosophy, are supposed to be immune to questions of value and justice. Nevertheless, many philosophers have raised epistemological questions starting from feminist-motivated moral and political concerns. The field is burgeoning; a search of the Philosopher's Index reveals that although nothing was published before 1981 that was categorized as both feminist and epistemology, soon after, the (...)
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  20.  59
    Gerhard Schurz, Markus Werning & Alvin I. Goldman (eds.) (2009). Reliable Knowledge and Social Epistemology: Essays on the Philosophy of Alvin Goldman and Replies by Goldman. Rodopi.
    The volume contains the written versions of all papers given at the workshop, divided into five chapters and followed by Alvin Goldman¿s replies in the sixth ...
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  21.  21
    Heidi E. Grasswick (2001). The Normative Failure of Fuller's Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology 16 (2):133 – 148.
    One of the major themes of Steve Fuller's project of social epistemology is a reconciliation of the normative concerns of epistemologists with the empirical concerns of sociologists of knowledge. Fuller views social epistemologists as knowledge policy makers, who will provide direction for improvements in the cognitive division of labour. However, this paper argues that Fuller's conception of knowledge production and his approval of a panglossian approach to epistemology fail to provide the normative force he claims, and (...)
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  22.  19
    Dimitri Ginev (2015). The Transcendental in Ludwik Fleck’s Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology 29 (4):379-394.
    Much of Ludwik Fleck’s work on the social constitution of knowledge, scientific facts, and objects of inquiry is informed by a specific use of transcendental arguments. This paper analyzes the ways in which Fleck looks for “conditions of possibilities” for the stylization and circulation of cognition. Following a brief discussion of his political agenda regarding science’s “cultural mission,” the paper offers a reconstruction of Fleck’s implicit concept of the transcendental. It is argued that Fleck addresses scientific truth as an (...)
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  23.  1
    William T. Lynch (forthcoming). Cultural Evolution and Social Epistemology: A Darwinian Alternative to Steve Fuller’s Theodicy of Science. Social Epistemology:1-11.
    Key to Steve Fuller’s recent defense of intelligent design is the claim that it alone can explain why science is even possible. By contrast, Fuller argues that Darwinian evolutionary theory posits a purposeless universe leaving humans with no motivation to study science and no basis for modifying an underlying reality. I argue that this view represents a retreat from insights about knowledge within Fuller’s own program of social epistemology. I argue for a Darwinian picture of science as a (...)
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  24.  15
    Jonathan Furner (2002). Shera's Social Epistemology Recast as Psychological Bibliology. Social Epistemology 16 (1):5 – 22.
    Shera, the library scientist, is often credited with introducing the term and concept of social epistemology; but his idea is most profitably viewed not as a contribution to epistemology or even to the sociology of knowledge, but rather as the forerunner of a document-focused strain of socio-cognitive psychology influential in the information sciences from the 1970s onwards. In turn, the work of Shera and his colleague Egan is itself reminiscent of the psychological bibliology defined by the documentalists (...)
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  25.  51
    Archie L. Dick (2002). Social Epistemology, Information Science and Ideology. Social Epistemology 16 (1):23 – 35.
    Margaret Egan and Jesse Hauk Shera's original conception of social epistemology has never been defined unambiguously, or developed significantly beyond its early formulation. An interesting consequence of this lack of conceptual clarity has been the application of several interpretations of social epistemology. This article discusses how social epistemology was linked with the ideology of apartheid, and with racially segregated library and information services in the Republic of South Africa. In a fraudulent scientific vision for (...)
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  26.  33
    Rodney Fopp (2011). “Repressive Tolerance”: Herbert Marcuse's Exercise in Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology 24 (2):105-122.
    When Herbert Marcuse's essay entitled “Repressive tolerance” was published in the mid-1960s it was trenchantly criticised because it was anti-democratic and defied the academic canon of value neutrality. Yet his argument is attracting renewed interest in the 21st century, particularly when, post 9/11, the thresholds or limits of tolerance are being contested. This article argues that Marcuse's original essay was concerned to problematise the dominant social understandings of tolerance at the time, which were more about insisting that individual citizens (...)
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  27.  7
    Ilya Kasavin (2012). To What Extent Could Social Epistemology Accept the Naturalistic Motto? Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):351-364.
    Social epistemology balances neoclassic and nonclassic, normative and descriptive, and veritistic and constructionist approaches. Among these approaches exist two terminologically different though (in fact) similar proposals: naturalization and socialization. Both proposals lead to a kind of interdisciplinary imperialism reducing epistemology to a ?positive science? like sociology of knowledge, social history of science, and science and technology studies. I call this attitude the ?strong version? of naturalism. How, then, can we save epistemology without indulging in purely (...)
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  28. Stephan Hartmann, Carlo Martini & Jan Sprenger (eds.) (2010). Formal Modeling in Social Epistemology. [REVIEW] Logic Journal of the IGPL (Special Issue).
    Special issue. With contributions by Rogier De Langhe and Matthias Greiff, Igor Douven and Alexander Riegler, Stephan Hartmann and Jan Sprenger, Carl Wagner, Paul Weirich, and Jesús Zamora Bonilla.
     
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  29.  19
    Alisa Bokulich & William J. Devlin (2015). Kuhn’s Social Epistemology and the Sociology of Science. In William J. Devlin & Alisa Bokulich (eds.), Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer 167-183.
    This chapter discusses Kuhn’s conception of the history of science by focussing on two respects in which Kuhn is an historicist historian and philosopher of science. I identify two distinct, but related, aspects of historicism in the work of Hegel and show how these are also found in Kuhn’s work. First, Kuhn held tradition to be important for understanding scientific change and that the tradition from which a scientific idea originates must be understood in evaluating that idea. This makes Kuhn (...)
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  30. Raymond G. McInnis (ed.) (2001). Discourse Synthesis: Studies in Historical and Contemporary Social Epistemology. Praeger.
  31.  17
    Gloria Origgi (2012). A Social Epistemology of Reputation. Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):399-418.
    We monitor the informational environment and catch reputational cues, gather signals from our informants and develop our trustful attitudes in context. I present an epistemology of reputation as a way of using social configurations to acquire information. I review the definitions of reputation that exist in the social sciences, stress the importance of the relational/social dimension of reputation as a property of entities, and put forward a definition of reputation suitable for epistemology. I then sketch (...)
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  32.  8
    J. Angelo Corlett (1994). Goldman and the Foundations of Social Epistemology. Argumentation 8 (2):145-156.
    This essay argues that Alvin I. Goldman's truth-linked theory of group knowledge (veritism) omits individual components of social cognition, that all group based theories of knowledge lead to scepticism, and that if any sense is to be made of social knowledge, it must be done on individualist lines. I argue that Goldman's veritism can be reconstructed by adopting a reliabilist theory,social reliabilism. And I argue that Goldman's objections to a particular sort of consensualism are not telling. So (...)
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  33.  57
    K. Brad Wray (2011). Kuhn's Evolutionary Social Epistemology. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction; Part I. Revolutions, Paradigms, and Incommensurability: 2. Scientific revolutions as lexical changes; 3. The Copernican revolution revisited; 4. Kuhn and the discovery of paradigms; 5. The epistemic significance of incommensurability; Part II. The Evolutionary Perspective: 6. Kuhn's historical perspective; 7. Truth and the end of scientific inquiry; 8. Scientific specialization: taking stock of the evolutionary dimensions of Kuhn's epistemology; Part III. Kuhn's Social Epistemology: 9. Kuhn's constructionism; 10. What makes Kuhn's (...) a social epistemology?; 11. How does a new theory come to be accepted?; 12. Where the road has taken us - a synthesis. (shrink)
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  34.  61
    Fabrice Clément (2010). To Trust or Not to Trust? Children's Social Epistemology. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (4):531-549.
    Philosophers agree that an important part of our knowledge is acquired via testimony. One of the main objectives of social epistemology is therefore to specify the conditions under which a hearer is justified in accepting a proposition stated by a source. Non-reductionists, who think that testimony could be considered as an a priori source of knowledge, as well as reductionists, who think that another type of justification has to be added to testimony, share a common conception about children (...)
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  35.  58
    Justin Biddle (2007). Lessons From the Vioxx Debacle: What the Privatization of Science Can Teach Us About Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology 21 (1):21 – 39.
    Since the early 1980s, private, for-profit corporations have become increasingly involved in all aspects of scientific research, especially of biomedical research. In this essay, I argue that there are dangerous epistemic consequences of this trend, which should be more thoroughly examined by social epistemologists. In support of this claim, I discuss a recent episode of pharmaceutical research involving the painkiller Vioxx. I argue that the research on Vioxx was epistemically problematic and that the primary cause of these inadequacies was (...)
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  36.  67
    Eckhart Arnold, Tools or Toys? On Specific Challenges for Modeling and the Epistemology of Models and Computer Simulations in the Social Sciences.
    Mathematical models are a well established tool in most natural sciences. Although models have been neglected by the philosophy of science for a long time, their epistemological status as a link between theory and reality is now fairly well understood. However, regarding the epistemological status of mathematical models in the social sciences, there still exists a considerable unclarity. In my paper I argue that this results from specific challenges that mathematical models and especially computer simulations face in the (...) sciences. The most important difference between the social sciences and the natural sciences with respect to modeling is that in the social sciences powerful and well confirmed background theories (like Newtonian mechanics, quantum mechanics or the theory of relativity in physics) do not exist in the social sciences. Therefore, an epistemology of models that is formed on the role model of physics may not be appropriate for the social sciences. I discuss the challenges that modeling faces in the social sciences and point out their epistemological consequences. The most important consequences are that greater emphasis must be placed on empirical validation than on theoretical validation and that the relevance of purely theoretical simulations is strongly limited. (shrink)
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  37.  15
    Brian S. Baigrie (1994). Social Epistemology, Scientific Practice and the Elusive Social. Argumentation 8 (2):125-144.
    Social Epistemology, as formulated by Steve Fuller, is based on the suggestion that rational knowledge policy must be held accountable to ‘brute facts’ about the nature of our human cognitive pursuits, whatever these may be. One difficulty for Fuller concerns the conception of the social which underwrites social epistemology. I argue that social epistemology conflates the social with human psychological properties that are available for public scrutiny and, accordingly, that social (...) is best viewed as a brand of psychologism. Though Fuller's proposal signifies an important step in the ongoing attempt by scholars to eradicate the last traces of Descartes' epistemological device of a disembodiedres cogitans, I conclude that his conception of the social is too weak to serve as the basis for a socially-embedded discipline in anything but name only. (shrink)
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  38. Fabienne Peter (2007). Democratic Legitimacy and Proceduralist Social Epistemology. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (3):329-353.
    A conception of legitimacy is at the core of normative theories of democracy. Many different conceptions of legitimacy have been put forward, either explicitly or implicitly. In this article, I shall first provide a taxonomy of conceptions of legitimacy that can be identified in contemporary democratic theory. The taxonomy covers both aggregative and deliberative democracy. I then argue for a conception of democratic legitimacy that takes the epistemic dimension of public deliberation seriously. In contrast to standard interpretations of epistemic democracy, (...)
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  39.  5
    Fernández Pinto Manuela (2016). Economics Imperialism in Social Epistemology: A Critical Assessment. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (5):443-472.
    Expanding on recent philosophical contributions to the conceptual and normative framework of scientific imperialism, I examine whether the economics approach to social epistemology can be considered a case of economics imperialism and determine whether economics’ explanatory expansionism appropriately contributes to this philosophical subfield or not. I argue first that the economics approach to social epistemology counts as a case of economics imperialism under a broad conception of the term, and second that we have good reasons to (...)
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  40. Alvin I. Goldman (2004). Group Knowledge Versus Group Rationality: Two Approaches to Social Epistemology. Episteme 1 (1):11-22.
    Social epistemology is a many-splendored subject. Different theorists adopt different approaches and the options are quite diverse, often orthogonal to one another. The approach I favor is to examine social practices in terms of their impact on knowledge acquisition . This has at least two virtues: it displays continuity with traditional epistemology, which historically focuses on knowledge, and it intersects with the concerns of practical life, which are pervasively affected by what people know or don't know. (...)
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  41.  3
    Manuela Fernández Pinto (2016). Economics Imperialism in Social Epistemology A Critical Assessment. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (5):443-472.
    Expanding on recent philosophical contributions to the conceptual and normative framework of scientific imperialism, I examine whether the economics approach to social epistemology can be considered a case of economics imperialism and determine whether economics’ explanatory expansionism appropriately contributes to this philosophical subfield or not. I argue first that the economics approach to social epistemology counts as a case of economics imperialism under a broad conception of the term, and second that we have good reasons to (...)
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  42.  14
    Thomas Basbøll (2012). The Supplementary Clerk: Social Epistemology as a Vocation. Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):435-451.
    The production and circulation of scholarly texts have long been at the center of the theoretical concerns of social epistemologists. In this essay, Foucault?s notion of an ?archive,? a set of practices that operates between the corpus and the language to produce ?statements,? is used to identify a site for a practicing (as distinct from theorizing) social epistemologist. By supporting the efforts of researchers to publish their work, and hence participate in the conversations that define their area of (...)
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  43.  1
    Steve Fuller (forthcoming). Social Epistemology for Theodicy Without Deference: Response to William Lynch. Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences.
    Steve Fuller ABSTRACT: This article is a response to William Lynch’s, ‘Social Epistemology Transformed: Steve Fuller’s Account of Knowledge as a Divine Spark for Human Domination,’ an extended and thoughtful reflection on my Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History. I grant that Lynch has captured well, albeit critically, the spirit and content of the book –...
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  44.  1
    William T. Lynch (forthcoming). Social Epistemology Transformed: Steve Fuller’s Account of Knowledge as a Divine Spark for Human Domination. Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences.
    William T. Lynch ABSTRACT: In his new book, Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History, Steve Fuller returns to core themes of his program of social epistemology that he first outlined in his 1988 book, Social Epistemology. He develops a new, unorthodox theology and philosophy building upon his testimony in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District...
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  45.  11
    Kei Yoshida (2012). Re-Politicising Philosophy of Science: A Continuing Challenge for Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):365-378.
    The aim of this paper is to investigate how we can reunite social philosophy and philosophy of science to address problems in science and technology. First, referring to Don Howard?s, George Reisch?s, and Philip Mirowski?s works, I shall briefly explain how philosophy of science was depoliticised during the cold war. Second, I shall examine Steve Fuller?s criticism of Thomas Kuhn. Third, I shall scrutinise Philip Kitcher?s view of well-ordered science. Fourth, I shall emphasise the importance of autonomy and argue (...)
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  46.  9
    Marianne de Laet (2012). Anthropology as Social Epistemology? Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):419-433.
    Anthropology?its methodology, its paths to knowing; but also its epistemology, its modes of knowing?saturates the practices of Science and Technology Studies (STS). In a nutshell, anthropology has helped STS find ways to break open the discourses of science. If we were to believe our ?natives??scientists?and accept what they say about what they do and know on their own terms, we would not be able to add anything to these stories. And so in STS, we have modified the anthropological propensity (...)
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  47.  12
    Steve Fuller (1995). The Voices of Rhetoric and Politics in Social Epistemology: For a Critical-Rationalist Multiculturalism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (4):512-522.
    Although Wes Shrum advertised my critics as representing quite distinct points of view, they nevertheless managed to converge on a set of concerns that revolve around the meanings of "rhetoric," "politics," and "multiculturalism" in the project of social epistemology. Either the critics were not chosen correctly or the book under discussion is quite obviously flawed! Rather than make that Hobson's choice, I will address my critics' concerns in a way that I hope will prove illuminating to other normatively (...)
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  48.  72
    Kay Mathiesen (2007). Introduction to Special Issue of Social Epistemology on "Collective Knowledge and Collective Knowers". Social Epistemology 21 (3):209 – 216.
  49. Alvin Goldman (2010). Why Social Epistemology is Real Epistemology. In Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Social Epistemology. Oxford University Press, Usa 1--29.
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  50. Don Fallis (2005). Epistemic Value Theory and Social Epistemology. Episteme 2 (3):177-188.
    In order to guide the decisions of real people who want to bring about good epistemic outcomes for themselves and others, we need to understand our epistemic values. In Knowledge in a Social World, Alvin Goldman has proposed an epistemic value theory that allows us to say whether one outcome is epistemically better than another. However, it has been suggested that Goldman's theory is not really an epistemic value theory at all because whether one outcome is epistemically better than (...)
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