Search results for 'Social evolution' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Leonid Grinin, Alexander Markov, Markov & Andrey Korotayev (2009). Aromorphoses in Biological and Social Evolution: Some General Rules for Biological and Social Forms of Macroevolution. Social Evolution and History 8 (2).score: 78.0
    The comparison between biological and social macroevolution is a very important (though insufficiently studied) subject whose analysis renders new significant possibilities to comprehend the processes, trends, mechanisms, and peculiarities of each of the two types of macroevolution. Of course, there are a few rather important (and very understandable) differences between them; however, it appears possible to identify a number of fundamental similarities. One may single out at least three fundamental sets of factors determining those similarities. First of all, those (...)
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  2. Mahdi Muhammad Moosa & S. M. Minhaz Ud-Dean (2011). The Role of Dominance Hierarchy in the Evolution of Social Species. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (2):203-208.score: 75.0
    A number of animal species from different lineages live socially. One of the features of social living is the formation of dominance hierarchy. Despite its obvious benefit in the survival probability of the species, the hierarchical structureitself poses psychological and physiological burden leading to the chronic activation of stress related pathways. Considering these apparently conflicting observations, here we propose that social hierarchy can act as a selective force in the evolution of social species. We also discuss (...)
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  3. Hendrik Wortmann (2013). Re-Reading Robert E. Park on Social Evolution: An Early Darwinian Conception of Society. Biological Theory 7 (1):69-79.score: 66.0
    Although Darwinian concepts have largely been banned from the social sciences of the last century, they have recently seen a revival in several disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, or economics. Most of the current proponents of evolutionary theorizing in the social sciences avoid references to the older literature on social evolution. On that background, this article presents a contribution to Darwinist thinking in early American sociology that has mainly been overlooked in the literature. As the leading (...)
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  4. Matt J. Rossano (2011). Cognitive Control: Social Evolution and Emotional Regulation. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):238-241.score: 63.0
    This commentary argues that theories of cognitive control risk being incomplete unless they incorporate social/emotional factors. Social factors very likely played a critical role in the evolution of human cognitive control abilities, and emotional states are the primary regulatory mechanisms of cognitive control.
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  5. Elliot C. Brown & Martin Brüne (2012). Evolution of Social Predictive Brains? Frontiers in Psychology 3 (414).score: 60.0
    A commentary on: -/- Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science, by Clark, A. (in press). Behav. Brain Sci.
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  6. Johannes Martens (2011). Social Evolution and Strategic Thinking. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):697-715.score: 60.0
    Thinking about organisms as if they were rational agents which could choose their own phenotypic traits according to their fitness values is a common heuristic in the field of evolutionary theory. In a 1998 paper, however, Elliott Sober has emphasized several alleged shortcomings of this kind of analogical reasoning when applied to the analysis of social behaviors. According to him, the main flaw of this heuristic is that it proves to be a misleading tool when it is used for (...)
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  7. Robert Artigiani (1992). Chaos and Constitutionalism: Toward a Post-Modern Theory of Social Evolution. World Futures 34 (1):131-156.score: 60.0
    (1992). Chaos and constitutionalism: Toward a post‐modern theory of social evolution. World Futures: Vol. 34, Evolutionary Models in the Social Sciences, pp. 131-156.
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  8. Robert Artigiani (1993). Social Evolution: Paradigms and Problems. World Futures 38 (1):1-16.score: 60.0
    (1993). Social Evolution: Paradigms and problems. World Futures: Vol. 38, Theoretical Achievements and Practical Applications of General Evolutionary Theory, pp. 1-16.
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  9. Nancy Glock-Grueneich (2008). Leveraging Higher Education's Role in Social Evolution: A Paradigmatic Strategy. World Futures 64 (5):536-553.score: 60.0
    (2008). Leveraging Higher Education's Role in Social Evolution: A Paradigmatic Strategy. World Futures: Vol. 64, Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity, pp. 536-553.
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  10. Brian McLoone (2012). Collaboration and Human Social Evolution: Review of Michael Tomasello's Why We Cooperate (MIT Press, 2009). [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 27 (1):137-147.score: 57.0
    Michael Tomasello’s new book Why We Cooperate explores the ontogeny and evolution of human altruism and human cooperation, paying particular attention to how such behaviors allow humans to create social institutions.
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  11. Bradley Franks (2013). The Roles of Evolution in the Social Sciences: Is Biology Ballistic? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (4).score: 57.0
    This paper discusses some widespread but often not fully articulated views concerning the possible roles of biology and evolution in the social sciences. Such views cluster around a set of intuitions that suggest that evolution's role is “ballistic”: it constitutes a starting point for mind that has been, and is, superseded by the role of culture and social construction. An implication is that evolved and the socially constructed aspects of mind are separable and independent, with the (...)
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  12. Marion Blute (2013). The Evolution of Anisogamy: More Questions Than Answers. Biological Theory 7 (1):3-9.score: 54.0
    Despite a revived interest in explaining the evolution of anisogamy in recent years (i.e. different—micro and macrogametes), there remain more questions than answers. The topic is important because it is thought to be the foundation of the theory of gender differences and relations. Twelve of these questions are briefly reviewed here—(1) the distinction between sex and sexual types; (2) the distinction between mating types and anisogamy; (3) the possible role of ecological as well as social evolution in (...)
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  13. Kim Shaw-Williams (2013). The Social Trackways Theory of the Evolution of Human Cognition. Biological Theory 9 (1):1-11.score: 54.0
    Only our lineage has ever used trackways reading to find unseen and unheard targets. All other terrestrial animals, including our great ape cousins, use scent trails and airborne odors. Because trackways as natural signs have very different properties, they possess an information-rich narrative structure. There is good evidence we began to exploit conspecific trackways in our deep past, at first purely associatively, for safety and orienteering when foraging in vast featureless wetlands. Since our own old trackways were recognizable they were (...)
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  14. Jean Lachapelle (2000). Cultural Evolution, Reductionism in the Social Sciences, and Explanatory Pluralism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (3):331-361.score: 51.0
    This article argues that it is possible to bring the social sciences into evolutionary focus without being committed to a thesis the author calls ontological reductionism, which is a widespread predilection for lower-level explanations. After showing why we should reject ontological reductionism, the author argues that there is a way to construe cultural evolution that does justice to the autonomy of social science explanations. This paves the way for a liberal approach to explanation the author calls explanatory (...)
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  15. Timothy A. Linksvayer, Jeremiah W. Busch & Chris R. Smith (2013). Social Supergenes of Superorganisms: Do Supergenes Play Important Roles in Social Evolution? Bioessays 35 (8):683-689.score: 51.0
  16. Graeme Kirkpatrick (2003). Evolution or Progress? A (Critical) Defence of Habermas's Theory of Social Development. Thesis Eleven 72 (1):91-112.score: 51.0
    Habermas's theory of social evolution has been subjected to critique by environmentally motivated sociologists. They argue that his decision to recast social theory in terms of an extended, if selective analogy with biology leads him into a set of practical positions that are irreconcilable with Green politics and inconsistent with the goals of traditional critical theory. This article argues that these criticisms are based on an inaccurate assessment of the role of evolutionary concepts in Habermas's thought. By (...)
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  17. R. Smead (forthcoming). The Role of Social Interaction in the Evolution of Learning. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt047.score: 51.0
    It is generally thought that cognition evolved to help us navigate complex environments. Social interactions make up one part of a complex environment, and some have argued that social settings are crucial to the evolution of cognition. This article uses the methods of evolutionary game theory to investigate the effect of social interaction on the evolution of cognition broadly construed as strategic learning or plasticity. I delineate the conditions under which social interaction alone, apart (...)
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  18. Brenda E. Joyner & Dinah Payne (2002). Evolution and Implementation: A Study of Values, Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 41 (4):297 - 311.score: 48.0
    There is growing recognition that good ethics can have a positive economic impact on the performance of firms. Many statistics support the premise that ethics, values, integrity and responsibility are required in the modern workplace. For consumer groups and society at large, research has shown that good ethics is good business. This study defines and traces the emergence and evolution within the business literature of the concepts of values, business ethics and corporate social responsibility to illustrate the increased (...)
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  19. Gralf-peter Calliess & Moritz Renner (2009). Between Law and Social Norms: The Evolution of Global Governance. Ratio Juris 22 (2):260-280.score: 48.0
    Abstract. It is commonplace that economic globalization poses new challenges to legal theory. But instead of responding to these challenges, legal scholars often get caught up in heated yet purely abstract discussions of positivist and legal pluralist conceptions of the law. Meanwhile, economics-based theories such as "Law and Social Norms" have much less difficulty in analysing the newly arising forms of private and hybrid "governance without government" from a functional perspective. While legal theory has much to learn from these (...)
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  20. Shiela Reaves (2011). Rethinking Visual Ethics: Evolution, Social Comparison and the Media's Mono-Body in the Global Rise of Eating Disorders. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 26 (2):114 - 134.score: 48.0
    This study applies evolution theory to visual ethics and argues that social comparison theory favored by scholars of eating disorders is actually a Darwinian maladaptation to the media's widespread digital manipulation of women's bodies creating the thin ideal. An evolutionary perspective suggests how the media is enmeshed and why social comparison of the mediated ?mono-body? will continue. This study has three sections: 1) evolution theory and morality; 2) social comparison, biology of the social gaze, (...)
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  21. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Gene–Culture Coevolution and the Evolution of Social Institutions.score: 48.0
    Social institutions are the laws, informal rules, and conventions that give durable structure to social interactions within a population. Such institutions are typically not designed consciously, are heritable at the population level, are frequently but not always group benefi cial, and are often symbolically marked. Conceptualizing social institutions as one of multiple possible stable cultural equilibrium allows a straightforward explanation of their properties. The evolution of institutions is partly driven by both the deliberate and intuitive decisions (...)
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  22. Peter Richerson, Evolution: The Darwinian Theory of Social Change, an Homage to Donald T. Campbell.score: 48.0
    One of the earliest and most influential papers applying Darwinian theory to human cultural evolution was Donald T. Campbell’s paper “Variation and Selective Retention in Sociocultural Systems.” Campbell’s programmatic essay appeared as a chapter in a book entitled Social Change in Developing Areas (Barringer et al., 1965). It sketched a very ambitious project to apply Darwinian principles to the study of the evolution of human behavior. His essential theses were four.
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  23. Denise Dellarosa Cummins (2000). How the Social Environment Shaped the Evolution of Mind. Synthese 122 (1-2):3 - 28.score: 48.0
    Dominance hierarchies are ubiquitous in the societies of human and non-human animals. Evidence from comparative, developmental, and cognitive psychological investigations is presented that show how social dominance hierarchies shaped the evolution of the human mind, and hence, human social institutions. It is argued that the pressures that arise from living in hierarchical social groups laid a foundation of fundamental concepts and cognitive strategies that are crucial to surviving in social dominance hierarchies. These include recognizing and (...)
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  24. Eörs Szathmáry (2012). Transitions and Social Evolution. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 4 (20130604).score: 48.0
    This is a lovely and very useful book. It deals with the emergence of higher and higher level units of evolution, especially regarding what Queller (1997) called “fraternal major transitions.” These are evolutionary transitions where the lower-level units that gang up are genetically alike and, therefore, the initial advantage is likely to come from the economy of scale rather than the complementation of function, as in the case of “egalitarian transitions.” Simple division of labor may arise from simple conditions (...)
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  25. Patrick M. Jenlink (2004). Education, Social Creativity, and the Evolution of Society. World Futures 60 (3):225 – 240.score: 48.0
    The evolution of society, the transcendence of existing social structures, and how society creates itself rests in a function of education. In this article the author examines education's work as that of social creativity. The need for pedagogies of "educate hope" and "imaginative possibilities" is explored. Social epistemology and social imaginary are discussed as dimensions of social creativity within the postmodern society. The aesthetic imperative in education is argued as important to developing the capacities (...)
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  26. Hal Whitehead, The Evolution of Conformist Social Learning Can Cause Population Collapse in Realistically Variable Environments.score: 48.0
    Why do societies collapse? We use an individual-based evolutionary model to show that, in environmental conditions dominated by low-frequency variation (“red noise”), extirpation may be an outcome of the evolution of cultural capacity. Previous analytical models predicted an equilibrium between individual learners and social learners, or a contingent strategy in which individuals learn socially or individually depending on the circumstances. However, in red noise environments, whose main signature is that variation is concentrated in relatively large, relatively rare excursions, (...)
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  27. Robert Boyd & Joseph Henrich, Division of Labor, Economic Specialization, and the Evolution of Social Stratification.score: 48.0
    This paper presents a simple mathematical model that shows how economic inequality between social groups can arise and be maintained even when the only adaptive learning process driving cultural evolution increases individuals’ economic gains. The key assumptions are that human populations are structured into groups and that cultural learning is more likely to occur within than between groups. Then, if groups are sufficiently isolated and there are potential gains from specialization and exchange, stable stratification can sometimes result. This (...)
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  28. Michael D. Kennedy (2004). Evolution and Event in History and Social Change: Gerhard Lenski's Critical Theory. Sociological Theory 22 (2):315-327.score: 48.0
    Authors have contrasted social change and history many times, especially in terms of the significance of the event in accounting for the broadest contours of human societies' evolution. After recasting Gerhard Lenski's ecological-evolutionary theory in a critical fashion, by emphasizing its engagement with alternativity and by introducing a different approach to structure, I reconsider the salience of the event in the developmentalist project and suggest that ecological-evolutionary theory can be quite helpful in posing new questions about an eventful (...)
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  29. Willem Zuidema (2002). The Importance of Social Learning in the Evolution of Cooperation and Communication. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):283-284.score: 48.0
    The new emphasis that Rachlin gives to social learning is welcome, because its role in the emergence of altruism and communication is often underestimated. However, Rachlin's account is underspecified and therefore not satisfactory. I argue that recent computational models of the evolution of language show an alternative approach and present an appealing perspective on the evolution and acquisition of a complex, altruistic behavior like syntactic language.
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  30. C. N. Slobodchikoff (2000). Feed-Forward and the Evolution of Social Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):265-266.score: 48.0
    Feed-forward Pavlovian conditioning can serve as a proximate mechanism for the evolution of social behavior. Feed-forward can provide the impetus for animals to associate other individuals' presence, and cooperation with them, with the acquisition of resources, whether or not the animals are genetically related. Other social behaviors such as play and grooming may develop as conditioned stimuli in feed-forward social systems.
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  31. David Loye (1995). Prediction in Chaotic Social, Economic, and Political Conditions: The Conflict Between Traditional Chaos Theory and the Psychology of Prediction, and Some Implications for General Evolution Theory. World Futures 44 (1):15-31.score: 48.0
    (1995). Prediction in chaotic social, economic, and political conditions: The conflict between traditional chaos theory and the psychology of prediction, and some implications for general evolution theory. World Futures: Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 15-31.
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  32. Nitamo Federico Montecucco (2000). Towards a New Ecological and Social Sustainability: The Evolution of Planetary Consciousness in the Light of Brain Coherence Research. World Futures 55 (2):129-136.score: 48.0
    (2000). Towards a new Ecological and social sustainability: The evolution of planetary consciousness in the light of brain coherence research. World Futures: Vol. 55, Challenges of Evolution at the Turn of the Millennium: Part III: The Chllenges of Globalization and Sustainability, pp. 129-136.
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  33. Altug Yalcintas (2011). A Review Essay on David Laibman's Deep History: A Study in Social Evolution and Human Potential. Journal of Philosophical Economics 5 (1):168-182.score: 48.0
    The frequency of historical materialist explanations in evolutionary social sciences is very low even though historical materialism and evolutionism have great many shared aims towards explaining the long term social change. David Laibman in his Deep History (2007) picks up some of the standard questions of evolutionary social theory and aims at advancing the conception of historical materialism so as to develop a Marxist theory of history from an evolutionary point of view. The contribution of Laibman’s work (...)
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  34. Brian Skyrms (1999). Précis of Evolution of the Social Contract. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):217-220.score: 48.0
    Evolution of the social contract uses evolutionary game theory and evolutionary dynamics to analyze the sorts of interactions that are important to the social contract. The discussion is at a level that accommodates cultural as well as biological evolution. Various chapters deal with central issues in bargaining, commitment, mutual aid, property, and communication by means of simple game-theoretic models. These include Nash Bargaining, Ultimatum Bargaining, Prisoner's Dilemma, Chicken (or Hawk-Dove), and Sender-Receiver Signaling Games. Evolutionary models provide (...)
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  35. Charles Whitehead (2008). The Neural Correlates of Work and Play: What Brain Imaging Research and Animal Cartoons Can Tell Us About Social Displays, Self-Consciousness, and the Evolution of the Human Brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (s 10-11):93-121.score: 48.0
    Children seem to have a profound implicit knowledge of human behaviour, because they laugh at Bugs Bunny cartoons where much of the humour depends on animals behaving like humans and our intuitive recognition that this is absurd. Scientists, on the other hand, have problems defining what this 'human difference' is. I suggest these problems are of cultural origin. For example, the industrial revolution and the protestant work ethic have created a world in which work is valued over play, object intelligence (...)
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  36. Michael Domjan, Brian Cusato & Ronald Villarreal (2000). Extensions, Elaborations, and Explanations of the Role of Evolution and Learning in the Control of Social Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):269-276.score: 48.0
    Reactions to the target article included requests for extensions and elaborations of the schema we proposed and discussions of apparent shortcomings of our approach. In general, we welcome suggestions for extension of the schema to additional kinds of social behavior and to forms of learning other than Pavlovian conditioning. Many of the requested elaborations of the schema are consistent with our approach, but some may limit its generality. Many of the apparent shortcomings that commentators discussed do not seem problematic. (...)
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  37. Robin I. M. Dunbar (2007). Evolution and the Social Sciences. History of the Human Sciences 20 (2):29-50.score: 48.0
    When the social sciences parted company from evolutionary biology almost exactly a century ago, they did so at a time when evolutionary biology was still very much in its infancy and many key issues were unresolved. As a result, the social sciences took away with them an understanding of evolution that was in fact based on 18th- rather than 19th-century biology. I argue that contemporary evolutionary thinking has much more to offer the social sciences than most (...)
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  38. Riane Eisler (1987). Woman, Man, and the Evolution of Social Structure. World Futures 23 (1):79-92.score: 48.0
    This paper (presented during the Physis: Inhabiting the Earth conference, Florence, Italy, October 28?31, 1986) examines the evolution of social structure from the new perspective of findings indicating that how the relations between the female and male halves of humanity are structured has profoundly affected human social organization as well as the direction of cultural evolution. Drawing from archeological data and the study of ancient myths, it briefly traces the development of western culture through Paleolithic, Neolithic, (...)
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  39. Brian Skyrms (1999). Review: Précis of Evolution of the Social Contract. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):217 - 220.score: 48.0
    Evolution of the social contract uses evolutionary game theory and evolutionary dynamics to analyze the sorts of interactions that are important to the social contract. The discussion is at a level that accommodates cultural as well as biological evolution. Various chapters deal with central issues in bargaining, commitment, mutual aid, property, and communication by means of simple game-theoretic models. These include Nash Bargaining, Ultimatum Bargaining, Prisoner's Dilemma, Chicken (or Hawk-Dove), and Sender-Receiver Signaling Games. Evolutionary models provide (...)
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  40. Fred R. Dallmayr, Benjamin Nelson & Talcott Parsons (forthcoming). Natural History" and Social Evolution: Reflections on" Vico's Corsi E Ricorsi. Social Research.score: 48.0
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  41. Edward O. Wilson (forthcoming). On the Queerness of Social Evolution. Social Research.score: 48.0
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  42. Christine Clavien (forthcoming). Evolution, Society, and Ethics: Social Darwinism Versus Evolutionary Ethics. In Thomas Heams (ed.), Handbook of Evolutionary Biology (provis. Title). Springer.score: 45.0
    Evolutionary ethics (EE) is a branch of philosophy that arouses both fascination and deep suspicion. It claims that Darwinian mechanisms and evolutionary data on animal sociality are relevant to ethical reflection. This field of study is often misunderstood and rarely fails to conjure up images of Social Darwinism as a vector for nasty ideologies and policies. However, it is worth resisting the temptation to reduce EE to Social Darwinism and developing an objective analysis of whether it is appropriate (...)
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  43. Joseph E. Earley (2002). The Social Evolution of Consciousness. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 42 (1):107-132.score: 45.0
  44. Alex Mesoudi, Andrew Whiten & Kevin N. Laland (2006). Towards a Unified Science of Cultural Evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):329-347.score: 45.0
    We suggest that human culture exhibits key Darwinian evolutionary properties, and argue that the structure of a science of cultural evolution should share fundamental features with the structure of the science of biological evolution. This latter claim is tested by outlining the methods and approaches employed by the principal subdisciplines of evolutionary biology and assessing whether there is an existing or potential corresponding approach to the study of cultural evolution. Existing approaches within anthropology and archaeology demonstrate a (...)
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  45. Donald T. Campbell (1976). On the Conflicts Between Biological and Social Evolution and Between Psychology and Moral Tradition. Zygon 11 (3):167-208.score: 45.0
  46. Jonathan Birch (2014). Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.score: 45.0
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project (...)
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  47. Jonathan Kenneth Burns (2004). An Evolutionary Theory of Schizophrenia: Cortical Connectivity, Metarepresentation, and the Social Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):831-855.score: 45.0
    Schizophrenia is a worldwide, prevalent disorder with a multifactorial but highly genetic aetiology. A constant prevalence rate in the face of reduced fecundity has caused some to argue that an evolutionary advantage exists in unaffected relatives. Here, I critique this adaptationist approach, and review – and find wanting – Crow's “speciation” hypothesis. In keeping with available biological and psychological evidence, I propose an alternative theory of the origins of this disorder. Schizophrenia is a disorder of the social brain, and (...)
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  48. Augusto Montiel-Castro & Jorge Martínez-Contreras (2012). En busca del origen evolutivo de la moralidad: el cerebro social y la empatía. Signos Filosóficos 14 (28):31-56.score: 45.0
    La evidencia comparativa reciente sugiere que algunas especies no humanas sienten empatía hacia otros congéneres, la cual es una capacidad necesaria para la presencia y evolución de la moralidad. Por otro lado, la Hipótesis del Cerebro Social plantea relaciones entre la evolución de la neocorteza cerebral en primates y el tamaño de sus grupos sociales. Este artículo vincula estas ideas al señalar que: (i) la empatía y la moralidad son subproductos de la expansión de la neocorteza cerebral, y (ii) (...)
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  49. Michael L. Spezio (2013). Social Neuroscience and Theistic Evolution: Intersubjectivity, Love, and the Social Sphere. Zygon 48 (2):428-438.score: 45.0
    After providing a brief overview of social neuroscience in the context of strong embodiment and the cognitive sciences, this paper addresses how perspectives from the field may inform how theological anthropology approaches the origins of human persons-in-community. An overview of the Social Brain Hypothesis and of simulation theory reveals a simultaneous potential for receptive/projective processes to facilitate social engagement and the need for intentional spontaneity in the form of a spiritual formation that moves beyond simulation to empathy (...)
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  50. Albino Barrera (1999). The Evolution of Social Ethics: Using Economic History to Understand Economic Ethics. Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (2):285 - 304.score: 45.0
    In the development of Roman Catholic social thought from the teachings of the scholastics to the modern social encyclicals, changes in normative economics reflect the transformation of an economic terrain from its feudal roots to the modern industrial economy. The preeminence accorded by the modern market to the allocative over the distributive function of price broke the convenient convergence of commutative and distributive justice in scholastic just price theory. Furthermore, the loss of custom, law, and usage in defining (...)
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