Search results for 'Social sciences Data processing' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joan E. Sieber (1991). Openness in the Social Sciences: Sharing Data. Ethics and Behavior 1 (2):69 – 86.score: 513.0
    The sharing of research data is now mandated by some funders to encourage openness and integrity in science, to ensure efficient use of research funds, and to provide training resources. Although data sharing has a long history in some parts of science, the full range of possibilities and challenges it offers are only now becoming apparent in the social sciences. This article (a) examines what may be entailed in sharing documented data, (b) provides a historical (...)
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  2. Ferruccio Biolcati Rinaldi (2012). What Data Sources and Bibliometric Indicators for Social Sciences? Some Results From a Case Study. Polis 26 (2):171-202.score: 508.5
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  3. Bernard Reber & Claire Brossaud (eds.) (2009). Digital Cognitive Technologies: Epistemology and Knowledge Society. Iste Ltd.score: 434.0
    Digital Cognitive Technologies is an interdisciplinary book which assesses the socio-technical stakes of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), which are at the core of the Knowledge Society. This book addresses eight major issues, analyzed by authors writing from a Human and Social Science and a Science and Technology perspective. The contributions seek to explore whether and how ICTs are changing our perception of time, space, social structures and networks, document writing and dissemination, sense-making and interpretation, cooperation, politics, and (...)
     
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  4. Bernard Reber & Claire Brossaud (eds.) (2010). Digital Cognitive Technologies: Epistemology and the Knowledge Economy. John Wiley & Sons.score: 434.0
    Digital Cognitive Technologies is an interdisciplinary book which assesses the socio-technical stakes of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), which are at the core of the Knowledge Society. This book addresses eight major issues, analyzed by authors writing from a Human and Social Science and a Science and Technology perspective. The contributions seek to explore whether and how ICTs are changing our perception of time, space, social structures and networks, document writing and dissemination, sense-making and interpretation, cooperation, politics, and (...)
     
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  5. Muriel Bebeau & Verna Monson (2011). Authorship and Publication Practices in the Social Sciences: Historical Reflections on Current Practices. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):365-388.score: 372.0
    An historical review of authorship definitions and publication practices that are embedded in directions to authors and in the codes of ethics in the fields of psychology, sociology, and education illuminates reasonable agreement and consistency across the fields with regard to (a) originality of the work submitted, (b) data sharing, (c) human participants’ protection, and (d) conflict of interest disclosure. However, the role of the professional association in addressing violations of research or publication practices varies among these fields. Psychology (...)
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  6. Sebastián Sayago (2014). Discourse analysis as a qualitative and quantitative technique in the social sciences. Cinta de Moebio 49:1-10.score: 348.0
    This article proposes that Discourse Analysis (DA) be methodologically characterized as an analytical technique for the social sciences. To do this, it must first be situated in relation to two other methodological tools used for the study of discourse: hermeneutics and Content Analysis. Subsequently, the article will define DA, focusing on one aspect in particular: its compatibility with both qualitative and quantitative research strategies. It will then examine the usefulness of this technique in the process of data (...)
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  7. Brendan Van Alsenoy, Joris Ballet, Aleksandra Kuczerawy & Jos Dumortier (2009). Social Networks and Web 2.0: Are Users Also Bound by Data Protection Regulations? [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 2 (1):65-79.score: 337.5
    Directive 95/46/EC and implementing legislation define the respective obligations and liabilities of the different actors that may be involved in a personal data processing operation. There are certain exceptions to the scope of these regulations, among which processing which is carried out by natural persons in the course of activities that may be considered ‘purely personal’. The purpose of this article is to investigate the liability of users of social network sites under data protection and (...)
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  8. Thomas Brante (2010). Review Essay: Perspectival Realism, Representational Models, and the Social Sciences. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 40 (1):107-117.score: 328.5
    In this book, Ronald Giere seeks to resolve the opposition between objectivism and constructivism by suggesting a third way, perspectival realism, according to which both sides are partly right. To prove his case, Giere reconstructs some of the acknowledged puzzle pieces in the philosophy of science (theory, observation, etc.). To my mind, of most interest is the piece Giere calls “representional model.” Constituting the basis of every science, it functions as a template that governs data collection as well as (...)
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  9. Stephan Hartmann (1996). The World as a Process: Simulations in the Natural and Social Sciences. In Rainer Hegselmann (ed.), Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View.score: 310.5
    Simulation techniques, especially those implemented on a computer, are frequently employed in natural as well as in social sciences with considerable success. There is mounting evidence that the "model-building era" (J. Niehans) that dominated the theoretical activities of the sciences for a long time is about to be succeeded or at least lastingly supplemented by the "simulation era". But what exactly are models? What is a simulation and what is the difference and the relation between a model (...)
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  10. Bert Molewijk, Anne M. Stiggelbout, Wilma Otten, Heleen M. Dupuis & Job Kievit (2004). Scientific Contribution. Empirical Data and Moral Theory. A Plea for Integrated Empirical Ethics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (1):55-69.score: 297.0
    Ethicists differ considerably in their reasons for using empirical data. This paper presents a brief overview of four traditional approaches to the use of empirical data: “the prescriptive applied ethicists,” “the theorists,” “the critical applied ethicists,” and “the particularists.” The main aim of this paper is to introduce a fifth approach of more recent date (i.e. “integrated empirical ethics”) and to offer some methodological directives for research in integrated empirical ethics. All five approaches are presented in a table (...)
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  11. Zen-U. Lucian Hotta & Takashi Inoguchi (2009). Psychometric Approach to Social Capital: Using AsiaBarometer Survey Data in 29 Asian Societies. Japanese Journal of Political Science 10 (1):125-139.score: 294.0
    This paper is one of the few attempts made by social scientists to measure social capital via psychometric approach, and is the only one of such kind to base its evidence on the AsiaBarometer survey data. After first reviewing the history of social capital, including its conceptual emergence and recent literatures, we expose the issue of difficulty in the measurement of social capital despite its topical popularity. We tackle this measurement issue by applying psychometric procedures (...)
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  12. Harold Kincaid (1996). Philosophical Foundations of the Social Sciences: Analyzing Controversies in Social Research. Cambridge University Press.score: 267.0
    This book defends the prospects for a science of society. It argues that behind the diverse methods of the natural sciences lies a common core of scientific rationality that the social sciences can and sometimes do achieve. It also argues that good social science must be in part about large-scale social structures and processes and thus that methodological individualism is misguided. These theses are supported by a detailed discussion of actual social research, including theories (...)
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  13. Adam M. Hedgecoe (2001). Ethical Boundary Work: Geneticization, Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (3):305-309.score: 267.0
    This paper is a response to Henk ten Have's Genetics and Culture: The Geneticization thesis . In it, I refute Ten Have's suggestion that geneticization is not the sort of process that can be measured and commented on in terms of empirical evidence,even if he is correct in suggesting that it should be seen as part of ‘philosophical discourse’. At the end, I relate this discussion to broader debates within bioethics between the social science and philosophy, and suggest the (...)
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  14. [deleted]Patricia L. Lockwood, Geoffrey Bird, Madeleine Bridge & Essi Viding (2013). Dissecting Empathy: High Levels of Psychopathic and Autistic Traits Are Characterized by Difficulties in Different Social Information Processing Domains. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 261.0
    Individuals with psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can behave in ways that suggest lack of empathy towards others. However, many different cognitive and affective processes may lead to unempathic behavior and the social processing profiles of individuals with high psychopathic vs. ASD traits are likely different. Whilst psychopathy appears characterized by problems with resonating with others’ emotions, ASD appears characterized by problems with cognitive perspective-taking. In addition, alexithymia has previously been associated with both disorders, but the contribution (...)
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  15. Hilde Corneliussen (2011). Gender-Technology Relations: Exploring Stability and Change. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 246.0
    Machine generated contents note: -- Acknowledgements -- Disrupting the Impression of Stability in the Gender-Technology Relation -- Changing Images of Computers and its Users since 1980 -- Discursive Developments Within Computer Education -- Variations in Gender-ICT Relations Among Male and Female Computer Students -- Stories About Individual Change and Transformation -- Layered Meanings and Differences Within -- Is there an Elsewhere? -- References -- Endnotes -- Index.
     
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  16. Anderson Araújo-Oliveira (2012). Finalités éducatives sous-jacentes aux pratiques des futurs enseignants du primaire : le cas de l'enseignement des sciences humaines et sociales au Québec. Phronesis 1 (4):84-97.score: 243.0
    This article examines the data collected from the semi-structured interviews of nine Quebec elementary pre-service teachers in a practice teaching context. The paper exposes the educational goals inherent in the teaching of Social Studies, the place that this school subject occupies in the pre-service teacher’s practices, and its contribution to the development of the three-part mission of the Quebec school system (to instruct, socialize, and qualify). Even though Social Studies are considered by the participants of this study (...)
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  17. Kareem Khalifa (2004). Erotetic Contextualism, Data-Generating Procedures, and Sociological Explanations of Social Mobility. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (1):38-54.score: 240.0
    Critics of the erotetic model of explanation question its ability to discriminate significant from spurious explanations. One response to these criticisms has been to impose contextual restrictions on a case-by-case basis. In this article, the author argues that these approaches have overestimated the role of interests at the expense of other contextual aspects characteristic of social-scientific explanation. For this reason, he shows how procedures of measuring occupational status and social mobility affected different aspects of one explanation that Peter (...)
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  18. Jean Lachapelle (2000). Cultural Evolution, Reductionism in the Social Sciences, and Explanatory Pluralism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (3):331-361.score: 235.5
    This article argues that it is possible to bring the social sciences into evolutionary focus without being committed to a thesis the author calls ontological reductionism, which is a widespread predilection for lower-level explanations. After showing why we should reject ontological reductionism, the author argues that there is a way to construe cultural evolution that does justice to the autonomy of social science explanations. This paves the way for a liberal approach to explanation the author calls explanatory (...)
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  19. Grigori Mints (1994). Logic and Computer Science, Edited by Odifreddi Piergiorgio, APIC Studies in Data Processing, Vol. 31, Academic Press, London, San Diego, Etc., 1990, Xii+ 430 Pp. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (3):1111-1114.score: 232.5
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  20. Kai Nielsen (1973). Social Science and Hard Data. Philosophy and Social Criticism 1 (1):115-143.score: 229.5
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  21. Yeslam Al-Saggaf & Md Zahidul Islam (forthcoming). Data Mining and Privacy of Social Network Sites' Users: Implications of the Data Mining Problem. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-26.score: 227.0
    This paper explores the potential of data mining as a technique that could be used by malicious data miners to threaten the privacy of social network sites (SNS) users. It applies a data mining algorithm to a real dataset to provide empirically-based evidence of the ease with which characteristics about the SNS users can be discovered and used in a way that could invade their privacy. One major contribution of this article is the use of the (...)
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  22. Denis Phan & Franck Varenne (2010). Agent-Based Models and Simulations in Economics and Social Sciences: From Conceptual Exploration to Distinct Ways of Experimenting. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13 (1).score: 222.0
    Now that complex Agent-Based Models and computer simulations spread over economics and social sciences - as in most sciences of complex systems -, epistemological puzzles (re)emerge. We introduce new epistemological concepts so as to show to what extent authors are right when they focus on some empirical, instrumental or conceptual significance of their model or simulation. By distinguishing between models and simulations, between types of models, between types of computer simulations and between types of empiricity obtained through (...)
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  23. Francisco de Aquino Júnior (2012). Teologia e ciências sociais (Theology and Social Sciences) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n28p1337. Horizonte 10 (28):1337-1362.score: 218.0
    O artigo se confronta com a problemática da relação entre teologia e ciências sociais. Sua pretensão é formular adequadamente os termos dessa relação, explicitando a importância, a função e o lugar das ciências sociais na elaboração do discurso teológico e no produto teológico. Começa apresentando o debate sobre a relação entre teologia e ciências sociais na América Latina nas últimas décadas através de seus principais interlocutores: Gustavo Gutiérrez e Clodovis Boff; Juan Luis Segundo e Ignácio Ellacuría. E conclui, esboçando, de (...)
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  24. Jeroen Van Bouwel (ed.) (2009). The Social Sciences and Democracy. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 216.0
  25. Franck Varenne (2010). Framework for M&S with Agents in Regard to Agent Simulations in Social Sciences: Emulation and Simulation. In Alexandre Muzy, David R. C. Hill & Bernard P. Zeigler (eds.), Activity-Based Modeling and Simulation. Presses Universitaires Blaise-Pascal.score: 216.0
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the “Framework for M&S with Agents” (FMSA) proposed by Zeigler et al. [2000, 2009] in regard to the diverse epistemological aims of agent simulations in social sciences. We first show that there surely are great similitudes, hence that the aim to emulate a universal “automated modeler agent” opens new ways of interactions between these two domains of M&S with agents. E.g., it can be shown that the multi-level conception at the (...)
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  26. Matti Sintonen, Petri Ylikoski & Kaarlo Miller (eds.) (2003). Realism in Action: Essays in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 216.0
    Realism in Action is a selection of essays written by leading representatives in the fields of action theory and philosophy of mind, philosophy of the social sciences and especially the nature of social action, and of epistemology and philosophy of science. Practical reason, reasons and causes in action theory, intending and trying, and folk-psychological explanation are some of the topics discussed by these leading participants. A particular emphasis is laid on trust, commitments and social institutions, on (...)
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  27. David Goldblatt (ed.) (2000). Knowledge and the Social Sciences: Theory, Method, Practice. Routledge, in Association with Open University.score: 216.0
    This book provides a clear introduction to key philosophical and epistemological issues in the social sciences, to both positivist and interpretative methodologies through comparing contemporary debates surrounding social change.
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  28. J. Coates (1996). The Claims of Common Sense: Moore, Wittgenstein, Keynes and the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press.score: 216.0
    The Claims of Common Sense investigates the importance of ideas developed by Cambridge philosophers between the World Wars for the social sciences concerning common sense, vague concepts, and ordinary language. John Coates examines the thought of Moore, Ramsey, Wittgenstein and Keynes, and traces their common drift away from early beliefs about the need for precise concepts and a canonical notation in analysis. He argues that Keynes borrowed from Wittgenstein and Ramsey their reappraisal of vague concepts, and developed the (...)
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  29. Stephen P. Turner & Paul Andrew Roth (eds.) (2003). The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Blackwell Pub..score: 216.0
    Presents a collection of essays that cover a variety of issues in the social sciences.
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  30. Mette Ebbesen (2008). The Role of the Humanities and Social Sciences in Nanotechnology Research and Development. NanoEthics 2 (3):333-333.score: 216.0
    The experience with genetically modified foods has been prominent in motivating science, industry and regulatory bodies to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. The overall objective is to gain the general public’s acceptance of nanotechnology in order not to provoke a consumer boycott as it happened with genetically modified foods. It is stated implicitly in reports on nanotechnology research and development that this acceptance depends on the public’s confidence in the technology and that the confidence is created (...)
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  31. Zuyi Du (2000). The Scientific Merit of the Social Sciences: Implications for Research and Application. Trentham Books.score: 216.0
    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION To date, the social sciences have had only limited success in the definition and solution of pressing social problems which without ...
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  32. Peter Wagner (2001). A History and Theory of the Social Sciences: Not All That is Solid Melts Into Air. Sage.score: 216.0
    Divided into two parts this book examines the train of social theory from the 19th century, through to the `organization of modernity', in relation to ideas of social planning, and as contributors to the `rationalistic revolution' of the `golden age' of capitalism in the 1950s and 60s. Part two examines key concepts in the social sciences. It begins with some of the broadest concepts used by social scientists: choice, decision, action and institution and moves on (...)
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  33. C. Mantzavinos (ed.) (2009). Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice. Cambridge University Press.score: 216.0
    This volume is a unique contribution to the philosophy of the social sciences, presenting the results of cutting-edge philosophers' research alongside critical discussions by practicing social scientists. The book is motivated by the view that the philosophy of the social sciences cannot ignore the specific scientific practices according to which social scientific work is being conducted, and that it will be valuable only if it evolves in constant interaction with theoretical developments in the (...) sciences. With its unique format guaranteeing a genuine discussion between philosophers and social scientists, this thought-provoking volume extends the frontiers of the field. It will appeal to all scholars and students interested in the interplay between philosophy and the social sciences. (shrink)
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  34. Gennady S. Batygin (2004). Social Scientists in Times of Crisis: The Structural Transformations Within the Disciplinary Organization and Thematic Repertoire of the Social Sciences. Studies in East European Thought 56 (1):7-54.score: 216.0
    This is a contribution to thesociology and social epistemology of knowledgeproduction in Russian social sciences today. Inthe initial section, the epistemic status andsocial function of Soviet social scientificdiscourse are characterized in terms of textualforms and their modes of (re-)production. Theremaining sections detail the course of therestructuration of social scientific discoursesince the fall of the Soviet Union and draw onextant empirical sources, in particular studiesof bibliographical rubrics, thematicrepertoires, and current textual formsthroughout the public sphere and the (...)
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  35. Lasse Gerrits & Peter Marks (forthcoming). The Evolution of Wright's (1932) Adaptive Field to Contemporary Interpretations and Uses of Fitness Landscapes in the Social Sciences. Biology and Philosophy:1-21.score: 216.0
    The concepts of adaptation and fitness have such an appeal that they have been used in other scientific domains, including the social sciences. One particular aspect of this theory transfer concerns the so-called fitness landscape models. At first sight, fitness landscapes visualize how an agent, of any kind, relates to its environment, how its position is conditional because of the mutual interaction with other agents, and the potential routes towards improved fitness. The allure of fitness landscapes is first (...)
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  36. Donald Lawson Turcotte, John Rundle & Hans Frauenfelder (eds.) (2002). Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences. National Academy of Sciences.score: 216.0
    Self-organized complexity in the physical, biological, and social sciences Donald L Turcotte*f and John B. Rundle* *Department of Earth and Atmospheric ...
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  37. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (ed.) (2007). Development of Modern Indian Thought and the Social Sciences. Oxford University Press.score: 216.0
    This important volume provides an overview of the history of social, economic, and political thought prior to the development of disciplinary categories in social sciences. It contextualizes the thought movements in the matrix of pre-modern intellectual traditions as well as the long-range history of society, polity, and economy in modern India. Thematically organized into five sections, the first part examines the evolution of economic thinking in modern India. The next section deals with the discourse of social (...)
     
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  38. David Inglis, John Bone & Rhoda Wilkie (eds.) (2005). Nature: Critical Concepts in the Social Sciences. Routledge.score: 216.0
    Many influential stances within the social sciences regard nature in one of two ways: either as none of their concern (which is with the social and cultural aspects of human existence), or as wholly a social and cultural fabrication. But there is also another strand of social scientific thinking that seeks to understand the interplay between social and cultural factors on one side and natural factors on the other. These volumes contain the main contributions (...)
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  39. Mark J. Smith (ed.) (2005). Philosophy & Methodology of the Social Sciences. Sage.score: 216.0
    This is a comprehensive and authoritative reference collection in the philosophy and methodology of the social sciences. The source materials selected are drawn from debates within the natural sciences as well as social scientific practice. This four volume set covers the traditional literature on the philosophy of the social sciences, and the contemporary philosophical and methodological debates developing at the heart of the disciplinary and interdisciplinary groups in the social sciences. It addresses (...)
     
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  40. Caterina Marchionni (2013). Model-Based Explanation in the Social Sciences: Modeling Kinship Terminologies and Romantic Networks. Perspectives on Science 21 (2):175-180.score: 214.5
    Read argues that modeling cultural idea systems serves to make explicit the cultural rules through which "cultural idea systems" frame behaviors that are culturally meaningful. Because cultural rules are typically "invisible" to us, one of the anthropologists' tasks is to elicit these rules, make them explicit and then use them to build explanations for patterns in cultural phenomena. The main example of Read's approach to cultural idea systems is the formal modeling of kinship terminologies. I reconstruct Read's modeling strategy as (...)
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  41. Murat Ergin (2009). Cultural Encounters in the Social Sciences and Humanities: Western Émigré Scholars in Turkey. History of the Human Sciences 22 (1):105-130.score: 211.0
    Turkish modernization relied on the western social sciences and humanities not only as an abstract and distant model, but also in the form of close encounters and interactions with western refugee scholars. This article examines the activities of western intellectuals and experts who visited Turkey in the early republican era (1923—50), especially focusing on a group of émigré scholars who were employed in Turkey after the university reform of 1933. While European and North American social scientists were (...)
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  42. Daniel Andler (2009). Naturalism and the Scientific Status of the Social Sciences. In M. Suarez, M. Dorato & M. Rédei (eds.), EPSA: Epistemology and Methodology of Science: Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer.score: 207.0
    situation in the sciences of man and show it to be fallacious. On the view to be 6 rejected, the sciences of man are undergoing the first serious attempt in history to 7 thoroughly naturalize their subject matter and thus to put an end to their separate sta- 8 tus. Progress has (on this view) been quite considerable in the disciplines in charge 9 of the individual, while in the social sciences the outcome of the process (...)
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  43. Franklin M. Fisher (1960). On the Analysis of History and the Interdependence of the Social Sciences. Philosophy of Science 27 (2):147-158.score: 207.0
    The views of some historians and philosophers of history as to the possibility of fruitful historical generalization seem at odds with the underlying methodology of the other social sciences. A formal model of the world historical process is here presented within which this apparent contradiction is seen to be resolvable in terms of modern theories of probability and stochastic processes. This is done by giving rigorous form to procedures and statements in the social sciences. A formal (...)
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  44. Don K. Price (1988). The Natural Sciences, the Social Sciences and Politics. Minerva 26 (3):416-428.score: 204.0
    The social sciences stand at a strange crossroads. There is a greater need for disciplined inquiry into the issues of policy facing the United States. Yet the incentives in the political system, and in the professional guilds of those performing social research, discourage a close involvement of many prominent social scientists with policy. The political system, fearing an elite imposing its values on society, welcomes the natural scientist who seems to conform to the model of the (...)
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  45. M. Patharkar (2011). From Data Processing to Mental Organs: An Interdisciplinary Path to Cognitive Neuroscience. Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):218.score: 204.0
    Human brain is a highly evolved coordinating mechanism in the species Homo sapiens. It is only in the last 100 years that extensive knowledge of the intricate structure and complex functioning of the human brain has been acquired, though a lot is yet to be known. However, from the beginning of civilisation, people have been conscious of a 'mind' which has been considered the origin of all scientific and cultural development. Philosophers have discussed at length the various attributes of consciousness. (...)
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  46. Roger Trigg (2001). Understanding Social Science: A Philosophical Introduction to the Social Sciences. Blackwell Publisers.score: 202.0
    In this lucid and engaging introductory volume on the nature of society, Roger Trigg examines the scientific basis of social science and shows that philosophical presuppositions are a necessary starting point for the study of society.
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  47. Peter Baehr (2010). Hannah Arendt, Totalitarianism, and the Social Sciences. Stanford University Press.score: 202.0
    A study of Hannah Arendt's indictment of social science, approaches to totalitarianism (Bolshevism and National Socialism), and of the robust responses of her ...
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  48. Ian C. Jarvie & Jesus Zamoro Bonilla (eds.) (2011). The SAGE Handbook of the Philosophy of Social Sciences. SAGE.score: 202.0
    In this excting Handbook, Jarvie and Bonilla provide a broad and democratic coverage of the many currents in social science.
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  49. Joseph Bien (ed.) (1978). Phenomenology and the Social Sciences: A Dialogue. M. Nijhoff.score: 201.0
    Zaner, R. M. Eidos and science.--Tiryakian, E. A. Durkheim and Husserl.--Ricoeur, P. Can there be a scientific concept of ideology?--Natanson, M. The problem of anonymity in the thought of Alfred Schutz. -- Dallmayr, F. R. Genesis and validation of social knowledge.
     
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