Search results for 'Sociobiology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  3
    Robert A. Wilson, Sociobiology. Eugenics Archives.
    Sociobiology developed in the 1960s as a field within evolutionary biology to explain human social traits and behaviours. Although sociobiology has few direct connections to eugenics, it shares eugenics’ optimistic enthusiasm for extending biological science into the human domain, often with reckless sensationalism. Sociobiology's critics have argued that sociobiology also propagates a kind of genetic determinism and represents the zealous misapplication of science beyond its proper reach that characterized the eugenics movement. More recently, evolutionary psychology represents (...)
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  2.  41
    Ullica Segerstrale (1986). Colleagues in Conflict: An 'in Vivo' Analysis of the Sociobiology Controversy. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):53-87.
    Edward O. Wilson's forays into human sociobiology have been the target of persistent, vehement attack by his Harvard colleague in evolutionary biology, Richard C. Lewontin. Through examination of existing documents in the case, together with in-depth personal interviews of Wilson, Lewontin, and other biologists, the reasons for Wilson's stance and Lewontin's criticisms are uncovered. It is argued that the dispute is not primarily personally or politically motivated, but involves a conflict between long-term scientific-cum-moral agendas, with the reductionist program as (...)
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  3.  8
    Kang Shin Ik (2016). Jumping Together: A Way From Sociobiology to Bio‐Socio‐Humanities. Zygon 51 (1):176-190.
    Sociobiology is a grand narrative of evolutionary biology on which to build unified knowledge. Consilience is a metaphorical representation of that narrative. I take up the same metaphor but apply it differently. I evoke the image of jumping together, not on solid ground but on the strong, flexible canvas sheet of a trampoline, on which natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities jump together. This image overlaps with the traditional East Asian way of understanding—that is, the “Heaven-Earth-Person Triad.” Using (...)
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  4.  66
    Neil Jumonville (2002). The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate. Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):569 - 593.
    The sociobiology debate, in the final quarter of the twentieth century, featured many of the same issues disputed in the culture war in the humanities during this same time period. This is evident from a study of the writings of Edward O. Wilson, the best known of the sociobiologists, and from an examination of both the minutes of the meetings of the Sociobiology Study Group (SSG) and the writings of Stephen Jay Gould, the SSG's most prominent member. Many (...)
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  5. Jitse M. van der Meer (2000). The Engagement of Religion and Biology: A Case Study in the Mediating Role of Metaphor in the Sociobiology of Lumsden & Wilson. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (5):669-698.
    I claim that explanations of human behaviour by Edward O. Wilsonand Charles Lumsden are constituted by a religiously functioningmetaphysics: emergent materialism. The constitutive effects areidentified using six criteria, beginning with a metaphorical re-description of dissimilarities between levels of organization interms of the lower level, and consist of conceptual andexplanatory reductions (CER). Wilson and Lumsden practice CER,even though CER is not required by emergent materialism. Theypreconceive this practice by a re-description which conflates thelevels of organization and explain failure of CER in (...)
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  6.  29
    Zhang Boshu (1987). Marxism and Human Sociobiology: A Comparative Study From the Perspective of Modern Socialist Economic Reforms. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):463-474.
    Modern socialist economic reforms which center on the establishment of a commodity based economic system, demand a reconsideration of human nature. Marxism and human sociobiology give different answers to questions about human nature, but neither is complete in itself. It seems timely, therefore, to suggest that a combination of biological understanding with a Marxist-based social understanding would produce a more adequate notion of human nature, thereby helping us to resolve a number of problems posed by reforms currently taking place (...)
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  7.  22
    Osamu Sakura (1998). Similarities and Varieties: A Brief Sketch on the Reception of Darwinism and Sociobiology in Japan. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):341-357.
    This paper discusses the reception of Darwinian evolutionary theory and sociobiology in Japan. Darwinism was introduced into Japan in the late 19th century and Japanese people readily accepted the concept of evolution because, lacking Christianity, there was no religious opposition. However, the theory of evolution was treated as a kind of social scientific tool, i.e., social Spencerism and eugenics. Although evolutionary biology was developed during the late 19th and the early 20th century, orthodox Darwinian theory was neglected for a (...)
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  8.  21
    Tamas Bereczkei (1993). An Intellectual Legacy of the Past: The Reception of Sociobiology in the East-European Countries. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):399-407.
    Sociobiology has not been well received in Eastern Europe. Reasons for this are listed and discussed. It is suggested that times are changing and that sociobiology will have more success in the future.
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  9.  2
    Del Thiessen & Yoko Umezawa (1998). The Sociobiology of Everyday Life. Human Nature 9 (3):293-320.
    The 1000-year-old novel The Tale of Genji, written by Murasaki Shikibu around 1002 CE, shows the operation of general principles of sociobiology. Isolated from western influences and cloaked in Japanese traditions, the common traits associated with reproductive processes are clearly evident. The novel depicts the differential investment of males and females in offspring, male competitive behaviors, and concerns for paternity, kin selection, reciprocal social exchange, species-typical emotional expression, female mate choice, positive assortative mating, and acknowledgment of hereditary transmission of (...)
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  10.  22
    Patricia A. Williams (1998). Evolution, Sociobiology, and the Atonement. Zygon 33 (4):557-570.
    This essay views Christian doctrines of the atonement in the light of evolution and sociobiology. It argues that most of the doctrines are false because they use a false premise, the historicity of Adam and the Fall. However, two doctrines are not false on those grounds: Abelard’s idea that Jesus’ life is an example and Athanasius’s concept that the atonement changes human nature. Employing evolution’s and sociobiology’s concepts of the egocentric and ethnocentric nature of humanity and the synergy (...)
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  11.  6
    Herbert Gintis (2014). Inclusive Fitness and the Sociobiology of the Genome. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):477-515.
    Inclusive fitness theory provides conditions for the evolutionary success of a gene. These conditions ensure that the gene is selfish in the sense of Dawkins (The selfish gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1976): genes do not and cannot sacrifice their own fitness on behalf of the reproductive population. Therefore, while natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world (Dawkins in The blind watchmaker: why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design, W. W. Norton, New York, (...)
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  12. Peter Singer (1981/1983). The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  13.  2
    H. C. Plotkin & F. J. Odling-Smee (1981). A Multiple-Level Model of Evolution and its Implications for Sociobiology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):225.
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  14.  1
    Alexander Rosenberg (1980). Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science. Johns Hopkins University Press, C1980.
  15. Michael Ruse (1979). Sociobiology Sense or Nonsense?
     
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  16.  15
    Philip Kitcher (1987). Précis of Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1):61.
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  17.  6
    Daniel R. Vining (1986). Social Versus Reproductive Success: The Central Theoretical Problem of Human Sociobiology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):167.
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  18.  71
    Linda Mealey (1995). The Sociobiology of Sociopathy: An Integrated Evolutionary Model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:523-541.
    Sociopaths are members of society in two senses: politically, they draw our attention because of the inordinate amount of crime they commit, and psychologically, they hold our fascination because most ofus cannot fathom the cold, detached way they repeatedly harm and manipulate others. Proximate explanations from behavior genetics, child development, personality theory, learning theory, and social psychology describe a complex interaction of genetic and physiological risk factors with demographic and micro environmental variables that predispose a portion of the population to (...)
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  19.  13
    Loyal Rue (1998). Sociobiology and Moral Discourse. Zygon 33 (4):525-533.
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  20.  18
    Lansana Keita (1990). Marxism and Human Sociobiology: A Reply to Zhang Boshu. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (1):79-83.
  21.  15
    Patricia A. Williams (2000). Sociobiology and Original Sin. Zygon 35 (4):783-812.
  22. Roger Trigg (1983). The Shaping of Man; Philosophical Aspects of Sociobiology. Religious Studies 19 (4):523-524.
     
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  23.  21
    Edward O. Wilson & Charles J. Lumsden (1991). Holism and Reduction in Sociobiology: Lessons From the Ants and Human Culture. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):401-412.
    Most research in the natural sciences passes through repeated cycles of a analytic reduction to the next lower level of organization, then resynthesis to the original level, then new analyticareduction, and so on. A residue of unexplained phenomena at the original level appears at first to require a holistic description independent of the lower level, but the residue shrinks as knowledge increases.This principle is well illustrated by recent studies from the social organization of insects, several examples of which are cited (...)
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  24. James H. Fetzer (1985). Sociobiology and Epistemology. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  25. Arthur L. Caplan (1978). The Sociobiology Debate Readings on Ethical and Scientific Issues.
     
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  26.  14
    Michael Cavanaugh (2000). A Retrospective on Sociobiology. Zygon 35 (4):813-826.
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  27.  18
    Paul Crook (1998). Human Pugnacity and War: Some Anticipations of Sociobiology, 1880–1919. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):263-288.
    Almost all of the themes contained in E.O.Wilson's sociobiological writing on war and human aggression were prefigured in Anglo-American bio-social discourse, c. 1880–1919. Instinct theory – stemming from animal psychology and the genetics revolution – encouraged the belief that pugnacity had been programmed into the ancient part of the human brain as a result of evolutionary pressures dating from prehistory. War was seen to be instinct-driven, and genocidal fighting postulated as a eugenic force in early human evolution. War was explained (...)
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  28.  32
    Philip Kitcher (1989). Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature. Journal of Philosophy 86 (7):385-391.
  29.  4
    Edward O. Wilson (2000). Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):577-584.
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  30.  36
    J. Baird Callicott (1996). Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic? Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology (doubts about the existence of unified communities and ecosystems, the diversity-stability hypothesis, and a natural homeostasis or “balance of nature”; and an emphasis on “chaos,” “perturbation,” and directionless change in living nature) and the advent of sociobiology (selfish genes) may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments (and vice versa) indicates that the land ethic is (...)
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  31. Paul Edmund Griffiths, Ethology, Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology.
    In the years leading up to the Second World War the ethologists Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, created the tradition of rigorous, Darwinian research on animal behavior that developed into modern behavioral ecology. At first glance, research on specifically human behavior seems to exhibit greater discontinuity that research on animal behavior in general. The 'human ethology' of the 1960s appears to have been replaced in the early 1970s by a new approach called ‘sociobiology’. Sociobiology in its turn appears (...)
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  32.  21
    Petteri Pietikäinen (2004). Truth Hurts: The Sociobiology Debate, Moral Reading and the Idea of 'Dangerous Knowledge'. Social Epistemology 18 (2 & 3):165 – 179.
    This article examines the belief among the cultural elites that 'people' should be protected from dangerous knowledge, 'dangerous' in the sense that there are factual statements which may have negative moral and political consequences to society. Such a belief in the negative consequences of dangerous - that is, politically suspicious - knowledge represents an intellectual tradition that goes back to Plato and his famous state-utopian work Republic. This article analyses moral interpretations of statements regarding matters of fact (so-called moral reading), (...)
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  33.  4
    J. Baird Callicott (1996). Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic? Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology (doubts about the existence of unified communities and ecosystems, the diversity-stability hypothesis, and a natural homeostasis or “balance of nature”; and an emphasis on “chaos,” “perturbation,” and directionless change in living nature) and the advent of sociobiology (selfish genes) may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments (and vice versa) indicates that the land ethic is (...)
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  34.  34
    Antony Flew (1994). E. O. Wilson After Twenty Years: Is Human Sociobiology Possible? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 24 (3):320-335.
    The second word in the subtitle of this article is crucial. For there can be no doubt but that the possibility of sociobiology below the human level has already been abundantly realized in, for instance, the main body of E. O. Wilson's enormous and encyclopedic treatise Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. What may more reasonably be doubted, and what is in fact questioned here, is whether, as Wilson and others hope and believe, there is much room, or indeed any, (...)
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  35.  23
    Harmon R. Holcomb (1987). Criticism, Commitment, and the Growth of Human Sociobiology. Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):43-63.
    The fundamental unit of assessment in the sociobiology debate is neither a field nor a theory, but a framework of group commitments. Recourse to the framework concept is motivated, in general, by post-Kuhnian philosophy of scientific change and, in particular, by the dispute between E. O. Wilson and R. C. Lewontin. The framework concept is explicated in terms of commitments about problems, domain, disciplinary relations, exemplars, and performance evaluations. One upshot is that debate over such charges as genetic determinism, (...)
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  36. Jason M. Byron (2005). Sociobiology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term 'sociobiology' was introduced in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies. This survey attempts to clarify and evaluate the aim of sociobiology. Given that a neutral account is impossible, this entry does the next best thing. It (...)
     
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  37.  11
    Philip Kitcher (1986). The Transformation of Human Sociobiology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:63-74.
    I offer some proposals for how human sociobiology might be transformed from a collection of unsupported claims into a rigorous successor discipline. The achievement of behavioral ecology in providing functional descriptions of animal behavior suggest that the goal of human sociobiology ought to be to give functional characterizations of human behavior. Much traditional human sociobiology tries to be more ambitious, attempting to build grand theories of human nature. I argue that these ventures fail, and that pursuit of (...)
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  38.  6
    Henry Howe & John Lyne (1992). Gene Talk in Sociobiology. Social Epistemology 6 (2):109 – 163.
    Abstract Terminology within the biological sciences gets its import not just from semantic meaning, but also from the way it functions within the rhetorics of the various disciplinary practices. The ?sociobiology? of human behavior inherits three distinct rhetorics from the genetic disciplines. Sociobiologists use population genetic, biometrical genetic, and molecular genetic rhetorics, without acknowledging the conceptual and experimental constraints that are assumed by geneticists. The eclectic blending of these three rhetorics obscures important differences of context and meaning. Sociobiologists use (...)
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  39.  25
    Michael Ruse (1987). Is Sociobiology a New Paradigm? Philosophy of Science 54 (1):98-104.
    Is sociobiology a new paradigm? A number of people have claimed that it is. I argue that, sociologically speaking, it may well be. But epistemologically, it is not. The case rests on one's interpretation of the major Darwinian evolutionary mechanism, natural selection. In this note, it is shown that sociobiology relies on an orthodox understanding of selection. Thus, in crucial epistemological respects, sociobiology is continuous with the rest of Darwinian evolutionary theory.
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  40.  14
    Ronald de Sousa (1990). The Sociology of Sociobiology. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (3):271 – 283.
    Abstract This paper turns the tables on the criticisms of sociobiology that stem from a sociological perspective; many of those criticisms lack cogency and coherence in such measure as to demand, in their turn, a psycho?sociological explanation rather than a rational justification. This thesis, after a brief exposition of the main ideas of sociobiology, is argued in terms of four of the most prominent complaints made against it. Far from embodying tired prejudices about the psychological and sociological implications (...)
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  41.  12
    Paul Gross & Harmon Holcomb, Sociobiology.
    The term ‘sociobiology’ was introduced in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies.
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  42.  6
    Vittorio Hösle (2012). Sociobiology. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 16 (1):112-128.
    An essay is presented on the development of sociobiology and its contributions to the study of ethics and human nature. It asserts that Darwinism provides the possible interpretation of sociobiology as manifested in the expansion of altruism. Moreover, it connects the difference between the reproductive systems of animals and the ecological conditions.
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  43.  1
    Antti Lepistö (2015). Revisiting the Left-Wing Response to Sociobiology: The Case of Finland in a European Context. Journal of the History of Biology 48 (1):99-136.
    This article revisits the left-wing response to sociobiology in the 1970s and 1980s by examining the sociobiology debate in Finland in a larger European context. It argues that the Finnish academic left’s response to sociobiology represents a “third way” alongside the purely negative, often Marxist denial of biology’s relevance, which characterized the left’s response to sociobiology in many European countries such as Hungary and Sweden, and alongside the disregard that sociobiology confronted in most parts of (...)
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  44.  9
    Barbara L. Horan (1986). Sociobiology and the Semantic View of Theories. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:322 - 330.
    The semantic view of scientific theories has been defended as more adequate than the "received" view, especially with respect to biological theories. However, the semantic view has not been evaluated on its own terms. In this paper it is first shown how the theory of sociobiology propounded by E.O. Wilson can be understood on the semantic approach. The criticism that Wilson's theory is beset by the problem of unreliable generalizations is discussed. It is suggested that this problem results from (...)
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  45.  10
    R. Paul Thompson (1980). Is Sociobiology a Pseudoscience? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:363 - 370.
    Among the numerous criticisms of sociobiology is the criticism that it is not genuine science. This paper defends sociobiology against this criticism. There are three aspects to the defense. First, it is argued that the testability criterion of pseudoscience is generally problematic as a criterion and that even if accepted it fails to mark sociobiology as a pseudoscience. Second, it is argued that Thagard's more comprehensive and sophisticated criterion of pseudoscience fails to mark sociobiology as a (...)
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  46.  8
    Petteri Pietikäinen (2004). Truth Hurts: The Sociobiology Debate, Moral Reading and the Idea of 'Dangerous Knowledge'. Social Epistemology 18 (2-3):165-179.
    This article examines the belief among the cultural elites that ?people? should be protected from dangerous knowledge, ?dangerous? in the sense that there are factual statements which may have negative moral and political consequences to society. Such a belief in the negative consequences of dangerous ? that is, politically suspicious ? knowledge represents an intellectual tradition that goes back to Plato and his famous state?utopian work Republic. This article analyses moral interpretations of statements regarding matters of fact (so?called moral reading), (...)
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  47.  8
    Petteri Pietikäinen (2004). Truth Hurts: The Sociobiology Debate, Moral Reading and the Idea of 'Dangerous Knowledge'. Social Epistemology 18 (2-3):165-179.
    This article examines the belief among the cultural elites that ?people? should be protected from dangerous knowledge, ?dangerous? in the sense that there are factual statements which may have negative moral and political consequences to society. Such a belief in the negative consequences of dangerous ? that is, politically suspicious ? knowledge represents an intellectual tradition that goes back to Plato and his famous state?utopian work Republic. This article analyses moral interpretations of statements regarding matters of fact (so?called moral reading), (...)
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  48.  7
    Stephen C. Maxson (1999). Some Misunderstandings and Misinterpretations About Sociobiology and Behavior Genetics in Lifelines by Steven Rose. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):898-899.
    Lifelines by Steven Rose is supposed to present a new perspective on biology replacing an emphasis on genes with one on organisms. However, much of the book is a highly biased critique of sociobiology and behavior genetics. Some of the flaws in Rose's description and depiction of these fields are presented and refuted. Also, it would appear that these aspects of the book and many others are, in fact, related more to Rose's perennial concern for the ideology, social origins (...)
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  49.  4
    John Rust (1988). Sociobiology and Psychometrics: Do They Really Need Each Other? Philosophical Psychology 1 (1):117 – 129.
    Sociobiology has always had a strong relationship with classical psychometrics, and with intelligence testing in particular. The major ideological impact of Eugenics prior to 1940 led many psychometricians to adopt a sociobiological perspective, but when this turned out, in the 1960's, to be controversial many of the procedures of classical psychometrics were abandoned. Their place was taken by functional psychometrics, based on criterion reference testing, where the content of test items was related directly to very specific skills which may (...)
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  50.  1
    Andrew Johnson (1989). Sociobiology and Concern for the Future. Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (2):141-148.
    ABSTRACT Despite its excesses, sociobiology can make a useful contribution to ethics, if it is recognised that it need not impinge on free‐will, and if the ‘naturalistic fallacy’ can be avoided. This contribution is the central concept of evolutionary stability, and the implication which can be drawn from it, that concern for the future is a basic part of human nature. In stable societies, such concern is manifested as fear of change, or strict adherence to tradition, but modern ideas (...)
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