Search results for 'Sociobiology Philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  23
    Patricia A. Williams (1996). Sociobiology and Philosophy of Science. Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):271-281.
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  2. Michael W. Fox (1985). The Bio-Politics of Sociobiology and Philosophy. Between the Species 1 (4):3.
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  3.  80
    Elliott Sober (2000). Philosophy of Biology. Westview Press.
    Perhaps because of it implications for our understanding of human nature, recent philosophy of biology has seen what might be the most dramatic work in the philosophies of the ”special” sciences. This drama has centered on evolutionary theory, and in the second edition of this textbook, Elliott Sober introduces the reader to the most important issues of these developments. With a rare combination of technical sophistication and clarity of expression, Sober engages both the higher level of theory and the (...)
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  4.  19
    Pieter R. Adriaens & Andreas de Block (eds.) (2011). Maladapting Minds: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Evolutionary Theory. Oxford University Press.
    Maladapting Minds discusses a number of reasons why philosophers of psychiatry should take an interest in evolutionary explanations of mental disorders and, more generally, in evolutionary thinking. First of all, there is the nascent field of evolutionary psychiatry. Unlike other psychiatrists, evolutionary psychiatrists engage with ultimate, rather than proximate, questions about mental illnesses. Being a young and youthful new discipline, evolutionary psychiatry allows for a nice case study in the philosophy of science. Secondly, philosophers of psychiatry have engaged with (...)
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  5.  16
    Kwok Tung Cheung (2008). On a Recent Naturalism Debate in Business Ethics – From a Philosophy Point of View. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (4):889 - 898.
    William C. Frederick proposes a naturalistic business ethics. Many commentators focus on the issues of naturalistic fallacy, deprivation of freedom of the will, and possibility of important and universal moral values in business ethics. I argue that an ethics being naturalistic is not a worry. The issue of deprivation of free will is irrelevant. Yet there are urgent questions regarding the possibility of important and universal moral values, which may prevent Frederick’s view from getting off the ground.
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  6.  1
    Jes Harfeld (2011). Philosophical Ethology: On the Extents of What It Is to Be a Pig. Society and Animals 19 (1):83-101.
    Answers to the question, “What is a farm animal?” often revolve around genetics, physical attributes, and the animals’ functions in agricultural production. The essential and defining characteristics of farm animals transcend these limited models, however, and require an answer that avoids reductionism and encompasses a de-atomizing point of view. Such an answer should promote recognition of animals as beings with extensive mental and social capabilities that outline the extent of each individual animal’s existence and—at the same time—define the animals as (...)
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  7. Steven P. R. Rose (1987). Molecules and Minds: Essays on Biology and the Social Order. Open University Press.
  8.  23
    Harmon R. Holcomb (1987). Criticism, Commitment, and the Growth of Human Sociobiology. Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):43-63.
    The fundamental unit of assessment in the sociobiology debate is neither a field nor a theory, but a framework of group commitments. Recourse to the framework concept is motivated, in general, by post-Kuhnian philosophy of scientific change and, in particular, by the dispute between E. O. Wilson and R. C. Lewontin. The framework concept is explicated in terms of commitments about problems, domain, disciplinary relations, exemplars, and performance evaluations. One upshot is that debate over such charges as genetic (...)
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  9. Joseph Wayne Smith (1984). Reductionism and Cultural Being: A Philosophical Critique of Sociobiological Reductionism and Physicalist Scientific Unificationism. Distributors for the U.S. And Canada, Kluwer Boston.
  10.  11
    Steven Schroeder (2003). Notes Toward a Philosophy of Nonviolence. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 10 (2):69-75.
    This paper takes Gandhi's satyagraha, which he defined as "holding on to truth" (associating it simultaneously with knowing and doing) as a basis for a political philosophy of nonviolence that draws on voices familiar from twentieth century nonviolent struggles as well as sociobiology, literary criticism, and feminist approaches to sacrifice.
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  11.  39
    Ullica Segerstrale (1986). Colleagues in Conflict: An 'in Vivo' Analysis of the Sociobiology Controversy. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):53-87.
    Edward O. Wilson's forays into human sociobiology have been the target of persistent, vehement attack by his Harvard colleague in evolutionary biology, Richard C. Lewontin. Through examination of existing documents in the case, together with in-depth personal interviews of Wilson, Lewontin, and other biologists, the reasons for Wilson's stance and Lewontin's criticisms are uncovered. It is argued that the dispute is not primarily personally or politically motivated, but involves a conflict between long-term scientific-cum-moral agendas, with the reductionist program as (...)
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  12. Jitse M. van der Meer (2000). The Engagement of Religion and Biology: A Case Study in the Mediating Role of Metaphor in the Sociobiology of Lumsden & Wilson. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (5):669-698.
    I claim that explanations of human behaviour by Edward O. Wilsonand Charles Lumsden are constituted by a religiously functioningmetaphysics: emergent materialism. The constitutive effects areidentified using six criteria, beginning with a metaphorical re-description of dissimilarities between levels of organization interms of the lower level, and consist of conceptual andexplanatory reductions (CER). Wilson and Lumsden practice CER,even though CER is not required by emergent materialism. Theypreconceive this practice by a re-description which conflates thelevels of organization and explain failure of CER in (...)
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  13.  28
    Zhang Boshu (1987). Marxism and Human Sociobiology: A Comparative Study From the Perspective of Modern Socialist Economic Reforms. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):463-474.
    Modern socialist economic reforms which center on the establishment of a commodity based economic system, demand a reconsideration of human nature. Marxism and human sociobiology give different answers to questions about human nature, but neither is complete in itself. It seems timely, therefore, to suggest that a combination of biological understanding with a Marxist-based social understanding would produce a more adequate notion of human nature, thereby helping us to resolve a number of problems posed by reforms currently taking place (...)
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  14.  21
    Osamu Sakura (1998). Similarities and Varieties: A Brief Sketch on the Reception of Darwinism and Sociobiology in Japan. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):341-357.
    This paper discusses the reception of Darwinian evolutionary theory and sociobiology in Japan. Darwinism was introduced into Japan in the late 19th century and Japanese people readily accepted the concept of evolution because, lacking Christianity, there was no religious opposition. However, the theory of evolution was treated as a kind of social scientific tool, i.e., social Spencerism and eugenics. Although evolutionary biology was developed during the late 19th and the early 20th century, orthodox Darwinian theory was neglected for a (...)
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  15.  17
    Tamas Bereczkei (1993). An Intellectual Legacy of the Past: The Reception of Sociobiology in the East-European Countries. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):399-407.
    Sociobiology has not been well received in Eastern Europe. Reasons for this are listed and discussed. It is suggested that times are changing and that sociobiology will have more success in the future.
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  16.  6
    Herbert Gintis (2014). Inclusive Fitness and the Sociobiology of the Genome. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):477-515.
    Inclusive fitness theory provides conditions for the evolutionary success of a gene. These conditions ensure that the gene is selfish in the sense of Dawkins (The selfish gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1976): genes do not and cannot sacrifice their own fitness on behalf of the reproductive population. Therefore, while natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world (Dawkins in The blind watchmaker: why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design, W. W. Norton, New York, (...)
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  17.  19
    J. Dupre (1996). Review of Sober's "Philosophy of Biology". [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations 63:143-145.
    Elliott Sober is among the leading contemporary contributors to the philosophy of biology. He also has an exceptional ability to explain difficult ideas clearly. He is therefore very well equipped to provide an accessible yet state-of-the-art introduction to the philosophy of biology, and in most respects this optimistic prognosis is justified by the present volume. Focussing on evolutionary biology, Sober provides a general overview of evolutionary theory; a chapter on creationism that serves as (...)
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  18. Peter Singer (1981/1983). The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  19.  2
    Jeffrie G. Murphy (1982). Evolution, Morality, and the Meaning of Life. Rowman and Littlefield.
  20. James H. Fetzer (1991). Philosophy and Cognitive Science. Paragon House.
  21. David P. Barash (2008). Natural Selections: Selfish Altruists, Honest Liars, and Other Realities of Evolution. Bellevue Literary Press.
  22.  17
    Lansana Keita (1990). Marxism and Human Sociobiology: A Reply to Zhang Boshu. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (1):79-83.
  23.  21
    Edward O. Wilson & Charles J. Lumsden (1991). Holism and Reduction in Sociobiology: Lessons From the Ants and Human Culture. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):401-412.
    Most research in the natural sciences passes through repeated cycles of a analytic reduction to the next lower level of organization, then resynthesis to the original level, then new analyticareduction, and so on. A residue of unexplained phenomena at the original level appears at first to require a holistic description independent of the lower level, but the residue shrinks as knowledge increases.This principle is well illustrated by recent studies from the social organization of insects, several examples of which are cited (...)
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  24.  23
    Harmon R. Holcomb (1998). Explaining World History: Marxism, Evolutionism, and Sociobiology. Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):597-618.
  25.  18
    Paul Crook (1998). Human Pugnacity and War: Some Anticipations of Sociobiology, 1880–1919. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):263-288.
    Almost all of the themes contained in E.O.Wilson's sociobiological writing on war and human aggression were prefigured in Anglo-American bio-social discourse, c. 1880–1919. Instinct theory – stemming from animal psychology and the genetics revolution – encouraged the belief that pugnacity had been programmed into the ancient part of the human brain as a result of evolutionary pressures dating from prehistory. War was seen to be instinct-driven, and genocidal fighting postulated as a eugenic force in early human evolution. War was explained (...)
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  26. Walter Rochs Goldschmidt (1990). The Human Career: The Self in the Symbolic World. B. Blackwell.
     
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  27. Harmon R. Holcomb Iii (1998). Explaining World History: Marxism, Evolutionism, and Sociobiology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):597-618.
  28.  3
    Richard C. Lewontin (1977). Science for the People.
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  29. Mario von Cranach (1976). Methods Of Inference From Animal To Human Behaviour. The Hague: Mouton.
     
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  30. Edward O. Wilson (1989). Talks at Georgetown Univ. Bicentennial, Washington, D.C.
     
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  31.  22
    Philip Kitcher (1989). Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature. Journal of Philosophy 86 (7):385-391.
  32.  4
    Edward O. Wilson (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Distributed by Random House.
    An enormous intellectual adventure. In this groundbreaking new book, the American biologist Edward O. Wilson, considered to be one of the world's greatest living scientists, argues for the fundamental unity of all knowledge and the need to search for consilience--the proof that everything in our world is organized in terms of a small number of fundamental natural laws that comprise the principles underlying every branch of learning. Professor Wilson, the pioneer of sociobiology and biodiversity, now once again breaks out (...)
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  33.  34
    Antony Flew (1994). E. O. Wilson After Twenty Years: Is Human Sociobiology Possible? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 24 (3):320-335.
    The second word in the subtitle of this article is crucial. For there can be no doubt but that the possibility of sociobiology below the human level has already been abundantly realized in, for instance, the main body of E. O. Wilson's enormous and encyclopedic treatise Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. What may more reasonably be doubted, and what is in fact questioned here, is whether, as Wilson and others hope and believe, there is much room, or indeed any, (...)
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  34. Jason M. Byron (2005). Sociobiology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term 'sociobiology' was introduced in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies. This survey attempts to clarify and evaluate the aim of sociobiology. Given that a neutral account is impossible, this entry does the next best thing. It (...)
     
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  35.  11
    Philip Kitcher (1986). The Transformation of Human Sociobiology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:63-74.
    I offer some proposals for how human sociobiology might be transformed from a collection of unsupported claims into a rigorous successor discipline. The achievement of behavioral ecology in providing functional descriptions of animal behavior suggest that the goal of human sociobiology ought to be to give functional characterizations of human behavior. Much traditional human sociobiology tries to be more ambitious, attempting to build grand theories of human nature. I argue that these ventures fail, and that pursuit of (...)
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  36.  23
    Michael Ruse (1987). Is Sociobiology a New Paradigm? Philosophy of Science 54 (1):98-104.
    Is sociobiology a new paradigm? A number of people have claimed that it is. I argue that, sociologically speaking, it may well be. But epistemologically, it is not. The case rests on one's interpretation of the major Darwinian evolutionary mechanism, natural selection. In this note, it is shown that sociobiology relies on an orthodox understanding of selection. Thus, in crucial epistemological respects, sociobiology is continuous with the rest of Darwinian evolutionary theory.
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  37.  6
    Vittorio Hösle (2012). Sociobiology. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 16 (1):112-128.
    An essay is presented on the development of sociobiology and its contributions to the study of ethics and human nature. It asserts that Darwinism provides the possible interpretation of sociobiology as manifested in the expansion of altruism. Moreover, it connects the difference between the reproductive systems of animals and the ecological conditions.
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  38.  14
    Ronald de Sousa (1990). The Sociology of Sociobiology. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (3):271 – 283.
    Abstract This paper turns the tables on the criticisms of sociobiology that stem from a sociological perspective; many of those criticisms lack cogency and coherence in such measure as to demand, in their turn, a psycho?sociological explanation rather than a rational justification. This thesis, after a brief exposition of the main ideas of sociobiology, is argued in terms of four of the most prominent complaints made against it. Far from embodying tired prejudices about the psychological and sociological implications (...)
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  39.  9
    Barbara L. Horan (1986). Sociobiology and the Semantic View of Theories. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:322 - 330.
    The semantic view of scientific theories has been defended as more adequate than the "received" view, especially with respect to biological theories. However, the semantic view has not been evaluated on its own terms. In this paper it is first shown how the theory of sociobiology propounded by E.O. Wilson can be understood on the semantic approach. The criticism that Wilson's theory is beset by the problem of unreliable generalizations is discussed. It is (...)
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  40.  10
    R. Paul Thompson (1980). Is Sociobiology a Pseudoscience? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:363 - 370.
    Among the numerous criticisms of sociobiology is the criticism that it is not genuine science. This paper defends sociobiology against this criticism. There are three aspects to the defense. First, it is argued that the testability criterion of pseudoscience is generally problematic as a criterion and that even if accepted it fails to mark sociobiology as a pseudoscience. Second, it is argued that Thagard's more comprehensive and sophisticated criterion of pseudoscience fails to mark sociobiology as a (...)
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  41.  11
    Alan Haworth (2001). Genes and Citizens: Can Moral Philosophy Learn From Evolutionary Biology? Res Publica 7 (2):137-157.
    The claim that moral philosophers have something to learn from recent neo-Darwinian theory cannot be sustained – at least, not in the case of the three theses characteristic of the latter on which I concentrate. The first thesis, reductionism, is open to some serious, and familiar, objections. Neo-Darwinism can escape those objections only by weakening its position to a point at which it can no longer be described as distinctively reductionist. The second, atavism, mistakenly attempts to generalise from the apparent (...)
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  42.  1
    Andrew Johnson (1989). Sociobiology and Concern for the Future. Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (2):141-148.
    ABSTRACT Despite its excesses, sociobiology can make a useful contribution to ethics, if it is recognised that it need not impinge on free‐will, and if the ‘naturalistic fallacy’ can be avoided. This contribution is the central concept of evolutionary stability, and the implication which can be drawn from it, that concern for the future is a basic part of human nature. In stable societies, such concern is manifested as fear of change, or strict adherence to tradition, but modern ideas (...)
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  43. Harmon R. Holcomb Iii & Douglas Allchin (1997). Sociobiology Sex and Science. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (3):423.
    This book examines sociobiology’s validity and significance, using the sociobiological theory of the evolution of mating and parenting as an example. It identifies and discusses the array of factors that determine sociobiology’s effort to become a science, providing a rare, balanced account—more critical than that of its advocates and more constructive than that of its critics. It sees a role for sociobiology in changing the way we understand the goals of evolutionary biology, the proper way to evaluate (...)
     
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  44.  22
    Philip Kitcher (2003). In Mendel's Mirror: Philosophical Reflections on Biology. Oxford University Press.
    Philip Kitcher is one of the leading figures in the philosophy of science today. Here he collects, for the first time, many of his published articles on the philosophy of biology, spanning from the mid-1980's to the present. The book's title refers to Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian monk who was one of the first scientists to develop a theory of heredity. Mendel's work has been deeply influential to our understanding of our selves and our world, just as the (...)
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  45. Edward O. Wilson (1976). Sociobiology. Philosophy of Science 43 (2):305-306.
     
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  46.  1
    Barbara L. Horan (1989). Functional Explanations in Sociobiology. Biology and Philosophy 4 (2):131.
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  47.  25
    Joachim Dagg (2012). The Paradox of Sexual Reproduction and the Levels of Selection: Can Sociobiology Shed a Light? Philosophy and Theory in Biology 4 (20130604).
    The group selection controversy largely focuses on altruism (e.g., Wilson 1983; Lloyd 2001; Shavit 2004; Okasha 2006, 173ff; Borrello 2010; Leigh 2010; Rosas 2010; Hamilton and Dimond in press). Multilevel selection theory is a resolution of this controversy. Whereas kin selection partitions inclusive fitness into direct and indirect components (via influencing the replication of copies of genes in other individuals), multilevel selection considers within-group and between-group components of fitness (Gardner et al. 2011; Lion et al. 2011). Two scenarios of multilevel (...)
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  48.  12
    Robert C. Richardson (1980). On Sociobiology. Teaching Philosophy 3 (4):479-489.
  49. Michael Ruse (unknown). Human Sociobiology: A Philosophical Perspective. Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 3.
     
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  50.  4
    Martin Hollis (1982). Forms of Explanation by Alan Garfinkel and Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science by Alexander Rosenberg. Journal of Philosophy 79 (5):283-286.
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