Search results for 'Software' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nurbay Irmak (2012). Software is an Abstract Artifact. Grazer Philosophische Studien 86 (1):55-72.score: 24.0
    Software is a ubiquitous artifact, yet not much has been done to understand its ontological nature. There are a few accounts offered so far about the nature of software. I argue that none of those accounts give a plausible picture of the nature of software. I draw attention to the striking similarities between software and musical works. These similarities motivate to look more closely on the discussions regarding the nature of the musical works. With the lessons (...)
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  2. Paul B. de Laat (2005). Copyright or Copyleft?: An Analysis of Property Regimes for Software Development. Research Policy 34 (10):1511-1532.score: 24.0
    Two property regimes for software development may be distinguished. Within corporations, on the one hand, a Private Regime obtains which excludes all outsiders from access to a firm's software assets. It is shown how the protective instruments of secrecy and both copyright and patent have been strengthened considerably during the last two decades. On the other, a Public Regime among hackers may be distinguished, initiated by individuals, organizations or firms, in which source code is freely exchanged. It is (...)
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  3. Paul B. de Laat (2001). Open Source Software: A New Mertonian Ethos? In Anton Vedder (ed.), Ethics and the Internet. Intersentia.score: 24.0
    Hacker communities of the 1970s and 1980s developed a quite characteristic work ethos. Its norms are explored and shown to be quite similar to those which Robert Merton suggested govern academic life: communism, universalism, disinterestedness, and organized scepticism. In the 1990s the Internet multiplied the scale of these communities, allowing them to create successful software programs like Linux and Apache. After renaming themselves the `open source software' movement, with an emphasis on software quality, they succeeded in gaining (...)
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  4. Bryan W. Husted (2000). The Impact of National Culture on Software Piracy. Journal of Business Ethics 26 (3):197 - 211.score: 24.0
    This paper examines the impact of the level of economic development, income inequality, and five cultural variables on the rate of software piracy at the country level. The study finds that software piracy is significantly correlated to GNP per capita, income inequality, and individualism. Implications for anti-piracy programs and suggestions for future research are developed.
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  5. Vincent J. Calluzzo & Charles J. Cante (2004). Ethics in Information Technology and Software Use. Journal of Business Ethics 51 (3):301-312.score: 24.0
    The emerging concern about software piracy and illegal or unauthorized use of information technology and software has been evident in the media and open literature for the last few years. In the course of conducting their academic assignments, the authors began to compare observations from classroom experiences related to ethics in the use of software and information technology and systems. Qualitatively and anecdotally, it appeared that many if not most, students had misconceptions about what represented ethical and (...)
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  6. Kanika Tandon Bhal & Nivedita D. Leekha (2008). Exploring Cognitive Moral Logics Using Grounded Theory: The Case of Software Piracy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):635 - 646.score: 24.0
    The article reports findings of a study conducted to explore the cognitive moral logics used for considering software piracy as ethical or unethical. Since the objective was to elicit the moral logics from the respondents, semi-structured in-depth interviews of 38 software professionals of India were conducted. The content of the interviews was analyzed using the grounded theory framework which does not begin with constructs and their interlinkages and then seek proof instead it begins with an area of study (...)
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  7. Robert M. Siegfried (2004). Student Attitudes on Software Piracy and Related Issues of Computer Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (4):215-222.score: 24.0
    Software piracy is older than the PC and has been the subject of several studies, which have found it to be a widespread phenomenon in general, and among university students in particular. An earlier study by Cohen and Cornwell from a decade ago is replicated, adding questions about downloading music from the Internet. The survey includes responses from 224 students in entry-level courses at two schools, a nondenominational suburban university and a Catholic urban college with similar student profiles. The (...)
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  8. Mei-Fang Chen, Ching-Ti Pan & Ming-Chuan Pan (2009). The Joint Moderating Impact of Moral Intensity and Moral Judgment on Consumer's Use Intention of Pirated Software. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):361 - 373.score: 24.0
    Moral issues have been included in the studies of consumer misbehavior research, but little is known about the joint moderating effect of moral intensity and moral judgment on the consumer’s use intention of pirated software. This study aims to understand the consumer’s use intention of pirated software in Taiwan based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179, 1991). In addition, moral intensity and moral judgment are adopted as (...)
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  9. Chechen Liao, Hong-Nan Lin & Yu-Ping Liu (2010). Predicting the Use of Pirated Software: A Contingency Model Integrating Perceived Risk with the Theory of Planned Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):237 - 252.score: 24.0
    As software piracy continues to be a threat to the growth of national and global economies, understanding why people continue to use pirated software and learning how to discourage the use of pirated software are urgent and important issues. In addition to applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective to capture behavioral intention to use pirated software, this paper considers perceived risk as a salient belief influencing attitude and intention toward using pirated software. Four (...)
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  10. Samir Chopra & Scott Dexter (2009). The Freedoms of Software and its Ethical Uses. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (4):287-297.score: 24.0
    The “free” in “free software” refers to a cluster of four specific freedoms identified by the Free Software Definition. The first freedom, termed “Freedom Zero,” intends to protect the right of the user to deploy software in whatever fashion, towards whatever end, he or she sees fit. But software may be used to achieve ethically questionable ends. This highlights a tension in the provision of software freedoms: while the definition explicitly forbids direct restrictions on users’ (...)
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  11. Jane L. Hsu & Charlene W. Shiue (2008). Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Non-Pirated Software. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):715 - 732.score: 24.0
    This study analyzed consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for non-pirated computer software and examined how attitudes toward intellectual property rights and perceived risk affect WTPs. Two commonly used software products, Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office, were used in the study as objects to reveal consumer assessed values. A consumer survey was administered in Taiwan and the total valid samples were 799. Respondents in this study included students from senior high schools, colleges, and graduate schools, and general consumers who (...)
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  12. Sameer Hinduja (2007). Neutralization Theory and Online Software Piracy: An Empirical Analysis. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (3):187-204.score: 24.0
    Accompanying the explosive growth of information technology is the increasing frequency of antisocial and criminal behavior on the Internet. Online software piracy is one such behavior, and this study approaches the phenomenon through the theoretical framework of neutralization theory. The suitability and applicability of nine techniques of neutralization in determining the act is tested via logistic regression analyses on cross-sectional data collected from a sample of university students in the United States. Generally speaking, neutralization was found to be weakly (...)
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  13. Peter Suber (1988). What is Software? Journal of Speculative Philosophy 2 (2):89-119.score: 24.0
    In defining the concept of software, I try at first to distinguish software from data, noise, and abstract patterns of information with no material embodiment. But serious objections prevent any of these distinctions from remaining stable. The strong thesis that software is pattern per se, or syntactical form, is initially refined to overcome obvious difficulties; but further arguments show that the refinements are trivial and that the strong thesis is defensible.
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  14. Deli Yang, Mahmut Sonmez, Derek Bosworth & Gerald Fryxell (2009). Global Software Piracy: Searching for Further Explanations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 87 (2):269 - 283.score: 24.0
    This paper identifies that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has a negative effect on software piracy rates in addition to consolidating prior research that economic development and the cultural dimension of individualism also negatively affect piracy rates. Using data for 59 countries from 2000 to 2005, the findings show that economic well-being, individualism and technology development as measured by ICT expenditures explain between 70% and 82% of the variation in software piracy rates during this period. The research results (...)
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  15. Stefan Gruner (2011). Problems for a Philosophy of Software Engineering. Minds and Machines 21 (2):275-299.score: 24.0
    On the basis of an earlier contribution to the philosophy of computer science by Amnon Eden, this essay discusses to what extent Eden’s ‘paradigms’ of computer science can be transferred or applied to software engineering. This discussion implies an analysis of how software engineering and computer science are related to each other. The essay concludes that software engineering can neither be fully subsumed by computer science, nor vice versa. Consequently, also the philosophies of computer science and (...) engineering—though related to each other—are not identical branches of a general philosophy of science. This also implies that not all of Eden’s earlier arguments can be directly mapped from the domain of computer science into the domain of software science. After the discussion of this main topic, the essay also points to some further problems and open issues for future studies in the philosophy of software science and engineering. (shrink)
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  16. David M. Douglas (2011). A Bundle of Software Rights and Duties. Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):185-197.score: 24.0
    Like the ownership of physical property, the issues computer software ownership raises can be understood as concerns over how various rights and duties over software are shared between owners and users. The powers of software owners are defined in software licenses, the legal agreements defining what users can and cannot do with a particular program. To help clarify how these licenses permit and restrict users’ actions, here I present a conceptual framework of software rights and (...)
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  17. Sigi Goode & Sam Cruise (2006). What Motivates Software Crackers? Journal of Business Ethics 65 (2):173 - 201.score: 24.0
    Software piracy is a serious problem in the software industry. Software authors and publishing companies lose revenue when pirated software rather than legally purchased software is used. Policy developers are forced to invest time and money into restricting software piracy. Much of the published research literature focuses on software piracy by end-users. However, end-users are only able to copy software once the copy protection has been removed by a ‘cracker’. This research aims (...)
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  18. Carl Mitcham (2009). Convivial Software: An End-User Perspective on Free and Open Source Software. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (4):299-310.score: 24.0
    The free and open source software (Foss) movement deserves to be placed in an historico-ethical perspective that emphasizes the end user. Such an emphasis is able to enhance and support the Foss movement by arguing the ways it is heir to a tradition of professional ethical idealism and potentially related to important issues in the history of science, technology, and society relations. The focus on software from an end-user’s perspective also leads to the concept of program conviviality. From (...)
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  19. Don Gotterbarn (1998). The Uniqueness of Software Errors and Their Impact on Global Policy. Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (3):351-356.score: 24.0
    The types of errors that emerge in the development and maintenance of software are essentially different from the types of errors that emerge in the development and maintenance of engineered hardware products. There is a set of standard responses to actual and potential hardware errors, including: engineering ethics codes, engineering practices, corporate policies and laws. The essential characteristics of software errors require new ethical, policy, and legal approaches to the development of software in the global arena.
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  20. Pola B. Gupta, Stephen J. Gould & Bharath Pola (2004). “To Pirate or Not to Pirate”: A Comparative Study of the Ethical Versus Other Influences on the Consumer's Software Acquisition-Mode Decision. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):255 - 274.score: 24.0
    Consumers of software often face an acquisition-mode decision, namely whether to purchase or pirate that software. In terms of consumer welfare, consumers who pirate software may stand in opposition to those who purchase it. Marketers also face a decision whether to attempt to thwart that piracy or to ignore, if not encourage it as an aid to their softwares diffusion, and policymakers face the decision whether to adopt interventionist policies, which are government-centric, or laissez faire policies, which (...)
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  21. Nicholas Kushmerick (1997). Software Agents and Their Bodies. Minds and Machines 7 (2):227-247.score: 24.0
    Within artificial intelligence and the philosophy of mind,there is considerable disagreement over the relationship between anagent's body and its capacity for intelligent behavior. Some treatthe body as peripheral and tangential to intelligence; others arguethat embodiment and intelligence are inextricably linked. Softwareagents–-computer programs that interact with software environmentssuch as the Internet–-provide an ideal context in which to studythis tension. I develop a computational framework for analyzingembodiment. The framework generalizes the notion of a body beyondmerely having a physical presence. My analysis (...)
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  22. Trevor T. Moores (2008). An Analysis of the Impact of Economic Wealth and National Culture on the Rise and Fall of Software Piracy Rates. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):39 - 51.score: 24.0
    A number of studies have investigated and found a significant relationship among economic wealth, Hofstede’s national culture dimensions, and software piracy rates (SPR). No study, however, has examined the relationship between economic wealth, culture, and the fact that national SPRs have been declining steadily since 1994. Using a larger sample than has previously been available (57 countries), we confirm the expected negative relationship between economic wealth, culture (individualism and masculinity) and levels of software piracy. The rate of decline (...)
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  23. Chong Ju Choi, Sae Won Kim & Shui Yu (2009). Global Ethics of Collective Internet Governance: Intrinsic Motivation and Open Source Software. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):523 - 531.score: 24.0
    The ethical governance of the global Internet is an accelerating global phenomenon. A key paradox of the global Internet is that it allows individual and collective decision making to co-exist with each other. Open source software (OSS) communities are a globally accelerating phenomenon. OSS refers to groups of programs that allow the free use of the software and further the code sharing to the general and corporate users of the software. The combination of private provision and public (...)
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  24. Hung-Chang Chiu, Yi-Ching Hsieh & Mei-Chien Wang (2008). How to Encourage Customers to Use Legal Software. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (3):583 - 595.score: 24.0
    This study attempts to identify customer retention strategies for legal software and discusses their effectiveness for three consumer groups (stayers, dissatisfied switchers, and satisfied switchers). Although previous studies propose several antipirating strategies, they do not discuss how to enhance customer intentions to use legal software, which is crucial for software companies. The authors provide four generic retention strategies developed from both antipiracy and customer loyalty literature. The results indicate lower-pricing, legal, communication, and product strategies all enhance customer (...)
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  25. Timothy R. Colburn (1998). Information Modeling Aspects of Software Development. Minds and Machines 8 (3):375-393.score: 24.0
    The distinction between the modeling of information and the modeling of data in the creation of automated systems has historically been important because the development tools available to programmers have been wedded to machine oriented data types and processes. However, advances in software engineering, particularly the move toward data abstraction in software design, allow activities reasonably described as information modeling to be performed in the software creation process. An examination of the evolution of programming languages and development (...)
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  26. David M. Douglas (2011). The Social Disutility of Software Ownership. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):485-502.score: 24.0
    Software ownership allows the owner to restrict the distribution of software and to prevent others from reading the software’s source code and building upon it. However, free software is released to users under software licenses that give them the right to read the source code, modify it, reuse it, and distribute the software to others. Proponents of free software such as Richard M. Stallman and Eben Moglen argue that the social disutility of (...) ownership is a sufficient justification for prohibiting it. This social disutility includes the social instability of disregarding laws and agreements covering software use and distribution, inequality of software access, and the inability to help others by sharing software with them. Here I consider these and other social disutility claims against withholding specific software rights from users, in particular, the rights to read the source code, duplicate, distribute, modify, imitate, and reuse portions of the software within new programs. I find that generally while withholding these rights from software users does cause some degree of social disutility, only the rights to duplicate, modify and imitate cannot legitimately be denied to users on this basis. The social disutility of withholding the rights to distribute the software, read its source code and reuse portions of it in new programs is insufficient to prohibit software owners from denying them to users. A compromise between the software owner and user can minimise the social disutility of withholding these particular rights from users. However, the social disutility caused by software patents is sufficient for rejecting such patents as they restrict the methods of reducing social disutility possible with other forms of software ownership. (shrink)
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  27. Sameer Hinduja (2003). Trends and Patterns Among Online Software Pirates. Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):49-61.score: 24.0
    Computer crime on the Internet poses asignificant threat to the well-being ofbusinesses and individuals, and none are immunefrom the repercussions that can result. Onetype of this unethical and unlawful activity isonline software piracy. In this work, thesignificance of piracy as a topic for academicinquiry is first presented, followed by asummary of the conflicting stances on thisissue. Then, a review of scholarly literaturepreviously conducted in this area is given toprovide a backdrop for the current research. Univariate and bivariate findings from (...)
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  28. Edward Lee (2005). The Ethics of Innovation: P2p Software Developers and Designing Substantial Noninfringing Uses Under the Sony Doctrine. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 62 (2):147 - 162.score: 24.0
    This essay explores the controversy over peer-to-peer (p2p) software, examining the legal and ethical dimensions of allowing software companies to develop p2p technologies. It argues that, under the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Sony betamax case, technology developers must be accorded the freedom to innovate and develop technologies that are capable of substantial noninfringing uses. This doctrine, known as the Sony doctrine, provides an important safe harbor for technological development, including p2p. The safe harbor, however, does not immunize (...)
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  29. Christian V. Lundestad & Anique Hommels (2007). Software Vulnerability Due to Practical Drift. Ethics and Information Technology 9 (2):89-100.score: 24.0
    The proliferation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into all aspects of life poses unique ethical challenges as our modern societies become increasingly dependent on the flawless operation of these technologies. As we increasingly entrust our privacy, our well-being and our lives to an ever greater number of computers we need to look more closely at the risks and ethical implications of these developments. By emphasising the vulnerability of software and the practice of professional software developers, we want (...)
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  30. S. Chopra & S. Dexter (2011). Free Software and the Economics of Information Justice. Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):173-184.score: 24.0
    Claims about the potential of free software to reform the production and distribution of software are routinely countered by skepticism that the free software community fails to engage the pragmatic and economic ‘realities’ of a software industry. We argue to the contrary that contemporary business and economic trends definitively demonstrate the financial viability of an economy based on free software. But the argument for free software derives its true normative weight from social justice considerations: (...)
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  31. Ranjan B. Kini, H. V. Ramakrishna & B. S. Vijayaraman (2004). Shaping of Moral Intensity Regarding Software Piracy: A Comparison Between Thailand and U.S. Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 49 (1):91-104.score: 24.0
    Software piracy is a major global concern forbusinesses that generate their revenues throughsoftware products. Moral intensity regardingsoftware piracy has been argued to be relatedto the extent of software piracy. Anunderstanding of the development of moralintensity regarding software piracy inindividuals would aid businesses in developingand implementing policies that may help themreduce software piracy. In this research westudied the similarities and differences indevelopment of moral intensity regardingsoftware piracy among university students intwo different cultures, the U.S. and Thailand. In (...)
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  32. Matthew K. McGowan, Paul Stephens & Dexter Gruber (2007). An Exploration of the Ideologies of Software Intellectual Property: The Impact on Ethical Decision Making. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 73 (4):409 - 424.score: 24.0
    This article helps to clarify and articulate the ideological, legal, and ethical attitudes regarding software as intellectual property (IP). Computer software can be viewed as IP from both ethical and legal perspectives. The size and growth of the software industry suggest that large profits are possible through the development and sale of software. The rapid growth of the open source movement, fueled by the development of the Linux operating system, suggests another model is possible. The large (...)
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  33. Ari Takanen, Petri Vuorijärvi, Marko Laakso & Juha Röning (2004). Agents of Responsibility in Software Vulnerability Processes. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (2):93-110.score: 24.0
    Modern software is infested with flaws having information security aspects. Pervasive computing has made us and our society vulnerable. However, software developers do not fully comprehend what is at stake when faulty software is produced and flaws causing security vulnerabilites are discovered. To address this problem, the main actors involved with software vulnerability processes and the relevant roles inside these groups are identified. This categorisation is illustrated through a fictional case study, which is scrutinised in the (...)
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  34. M. J. Wolf, K. W. Miller & F. S. Grodzinsky (2009). On the Meaning of Free Software. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (4):279-286.score: 24.0
    To many who develop and use free software, the GNU General Public License represents an embodiment of the meaning of free software. In this paper we examine the definition and meaning of free software in the context of three events surrounding the GNU General Public License. We use a case involving the GPU software project to establish the importance of Freedom 0 in the meaning of free software. We analyze version 3 of the GNU General (...)
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  35. Ian Phau & James Ng (2010). Predictors of Usage Intentions of Pirated Software. Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):23 - 37.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the salient factors influencing consumers’ attitudes and usage intentions towards pirated software. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study investigates the relationships between three sets of factors, i.e. personal, social and perceived behavioural control onto attitudes towards pirated software. Through a multiple regression, only personal factors have shown significant relationship with attitudes towards software piracy. Further results from this study have supported that favourable attitudes towards pirated software (...)
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  36. Keith Miller (1998). Software Informed Consent: Docete Emptorem, Not Caveat Emptor. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (3):357-362.score: 24.0
    Should software be sold “as is”, totally guaranteed, or something else? This paper suggests that “informed consent”, used extensively in medical ethics, is an appropriate way to envision the buyer/developer relationship when software is sold. We review why the technical difficulties preclude delivering perfect software, but allow statistical predictions about reliability. Then we borrow principles refined by medical ethics and apply them to computer professionals.
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  37. Mandy Northover, Derrick G. Kourie, Andrew Boake, Stefan Gruner & Alan Northover (2008). Towards a Philosophy of Software Development: 40 Years After the Birth of Software Engineering. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 39 (1):85 - 113.score: 24.0
    Over the past four decades, software engineering has emerged as a discipline in its own right, though it has roots both in computer science and in classical engineering. Its philosophical foundations and premises are not yet well understood. In recent times, members of the software engineering community have started to search for such foundations. In particular, the philosophies of Kuhn and Popper have been used by philosophically-minded software engineers in search of a deeper understanding of their discipline. (...)
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  38. John Symons & Jack Horner (2014). Software Intensive Science. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):461-477.score: 24.0
    This paper argues that the difference between contemporary software intensive scientific practice and more traditional non-software intensive varieties results from the characteristically high conditionality of software. We explain why the path complexity of programs with high conditionality imposes limits on standard error correction techniques and why this matters. While it is possible, in general, to characterize the error distribution in inquiry that does not involve high conditionality, we cannot characterize the error distribution in inquiry that depends on (...)
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  39. V. Wiegel, M. J. Van den Hoven & G. J. C. Lokhorst (2005). Privacy, Deontic Epistemic Action Logic and Software Agents. Ethics and Information Technology 7 (4):251-264.score: 24.0
    In this paper we present an executable approach to model interactions between agents that involve sensitive, privacy-related information. The approach is formal and based on deontic, epistemic and action logic. It is conceptually related to the Belief-Desire-Intention model of Bratman. Our approach uses the concept of sphere as developed by Waltzer to capture the notion that information is provided mostly with restrictions regarding its application. We use software agent technology to create an executable approach. Our agents hold beliefs about (...)
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  40. Frances Brazier, Anja Oskamp, Corien Prins, Maurice Schellekens & Niek Wijngaards (2004). Anonymity and Software Agents: An Interdisciplinary Challenge. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (1-2):137-157.score: 24.0
    Software agents that play a role in E-commerce and E-government applications involving the Internet often contain information about the identity of their human user such as credit cards and bank accounts. This paper discusses whether this is necessary: whether human users and software agents are allowed to be anonymous under the relevant legal regimes and whether an adequate interaction and balance between law and anonymity can be realised from both the perspective of Computer Systems and the perspective of (...)
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  41. Shariffah Zamoon & Shawn P. Curley (2008). Ripped From the Headlines: What Can the Popular Press Teach Us About Software Piracy? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):515 - 533.score: 24.0
    Software piracy is an instance of unauthorized duplication of information goods where laws and norms are not agreed-upon. This article presents a content analysis of articles from the five highest circulating U.S. newspapers 1989-2004 as evidence of the prevailing social environment surrounding software piracy. The rationales in the news articles are analyzed as evidence of the social and psychological underpinnings of attitudes toward software piracy. An expanded version of Sykes and Matza's (American Sociological Review 22, 664-670, 1957); (...)
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  42. Marco C. Bettoni (1995). Kant and the Software Crisis: Suggestions for the Construction of Human-Centred Software Systems. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (4):396-401.score: 24.0
    -/- In this article I deal with the question “How could we renew and enrich computer technology with Kant's help?”. By this I would like to invite computer scientists and engineers to initiate or intensify their cooperation with Kant experts. -/- What I am looking for is a better “method of definition” for software systems, particularly for the development of object-oriented and knowledge-based systems. -/- After a description of the “software crisis”, I deal first with the question why (...)
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  43. Behrouz Homayoun Far & Romi Satria Wahono (2003). Cognitive-Decision-Making Issues for Software Agents. Brain and Mind 4 (2):239-252.score: 24.0
    Rational decision making depends on what one believes, what one desires, and what one knows. In conventional decision models, beliefs are represented by probabilities and desires are represented by utilities. Software agents are knowledgeable entities capable of managing their own set of beliefs and desires, and they can decide upon the next operation to execute autonomously. They are also interactive entities capable of filtering communications and managing dialogues. Knowledgeability includes representing knowledge about the external world, reasoning with it, and (...)
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  44. Gonzalo Génova, M. Rosario González & Anabel Fraga (2007). Ethical Education in Software Engineering: Responsibility in the Production of Complex Systems. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):505-522.score: 24.0
    Among the various contemporary schools of moral thinking, consequence-based ethics, as opposed to rule-based, seems to have a good acceptance among professionals such as software engineers. But naïve consequentialism is intellectually too weak to serve as a practical guide in the profession. Besides, the complexity of software systems makes it very hard to know in advance the consequences that will derive from professional activities in the production of software. Therefore, following the spirit of well-known codes of ethics (...)
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  45. Mikko Siponen (2001). The Relevance of Software Rights: An Anthology of the Divergence of Sociopolitical Doctrines. [REVIEW] AI and Society 15 (1-2):128-148.score: 24.0
    The relevance of different concepts of computer software (henceforth SW) rights is analysed from the viewpoint of divergent sociopolitical doctrines. The question of software rights is considered from the ontological assumptions, on one extreme, to the relevance of current practical applications of SW rights (such as copyright and patent), on the other extreme. It will be argued (from a non-descriptive/non-cognitive account) that the current expression of SW rights in Western societies (namely copyright, excluding patent) can be seen to (...)
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  46. Andrew Thatcher & Mary Matthews (2012). Comparing Software Piracy in South Africa and Zambia Using Social Cognitive Theory. African Journal of Business Ethics 6 (1):1.score: 24.0
    This study examines cross-national differences in relation to software piracy between a Zambian and a South Africa student sample on components of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. The sample was selected based on the vastly different software piracy rates between Zambia (82%) and South Africa (35%) and the fact that software piracy rates are higher amongst student groups. The questionnaire was composed of previously developed scales measuring attitudes, social norms, intentions, incentives, deterrents, self-efficacy, and moral disengagement within the (...)
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  47. Taiwo A. Oriola (2010). The Use of Legal Software by Non-Lawyers and the Perils of Unauthorised Practice of Law Charges in the United States: A Review of Jayson Reynoso Decision. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (3):285-309.score: 24.0
    This paper critically reviews the judgment of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit In re: Jayson Reynoso: Frankfort Digital Services et al., v. Sara L. Kistler, United States Trustee et al. (2007) 447 F.3d 1117. The appellants, who were non-lawyers, were indicted with unauthorised practice of law for offering bankruptcy petition services via online legal software or expert systems in law configured for filing bankruptcy petition forms. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth (...)
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  48. Gary Santillanes & Ryan Marshall Felder (forthcoming). Software Piracy in Research: A Moral Analysis. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-11.score: 24.0
    Researchers in virtually every discipline rely on sophisticated proprietary software for their work. However, some researchers are unable to afford the licenses and instead procure the software illegally. We discuss the prohibition of software piracy by intellectual property laws, and argue that the moral basis for the copyright law offers the possibility of cases where software piracy may be morally justified. The ethics codes that scientific institutions abide by are informed by a rule-consequentialist logic: by preserving (...)
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  49. Nicola Angius (2014). The Problem of Justification of Empirical Hypotheses in Software Testing. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):423-439.score: 24.0
    This paper takes part in the methodological debate concerning the nature and the justification of hypotheses about computational systems in software engineering by providing an epistemological analysis of Software Testing, the practice of observing the programs’ executions to examine whether they fulfil software requirements. Property specifications articulating such requirements are shown to involve falsifiable hypotheses about software systems that are evaluated by means of tests which are likely to falsify those hypotheses. Software Reliability metrics, used (...)
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  50. Flora Dauphin (2010). Software Livre: Genealogia e "ideologias" de um movimento social. Logos 15 (2 (2008)):71-85.score: 24.0
    O artigo tenta compreender como o software livre tornou-se vetor de um movimento social militante para criação e difusão de bens comuns. Como, para além de suas características de “meio” esses softwares foram transformados em questões de política, economia, sociedade, cultura e ética? São emergência, os modos de organização e as ideologias desse movimento que o artigo se propõe a analisar.
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