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  1. Solomon Feferman, About and Around Computing Over the Reals.
    1. One theory or many? In 2004 a very interesting and readable article by Lenore Blum, entitled “Computing over the reals: Where Turing meets Newton,” appeared in the Notices of the American Mathematical Society. It explained a basic model of computation over the reals due to Blum, Michael Shub and Steve Smale (1989), subsequently exposited at length in their influential book, Complexity and Real Computation (1997), coauthored with Felipe Cucker. The ‘Turing’ in the title of Blum’s article refers of course (...)
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  2. Solomon Feferman, Axiomatizing Truth: How and Why.
    2. Various philosophical and semantical theories are candidates for axiomatization (but not all, e.g. coherence, pragmatic, fuzzy theories). NB: axiomatizations are not uniquely determined.
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  3. Solomon Feferman, For Jan Wolenski, on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday.
    In the summer of 1957 at Cornell University the first of a cavalcade of large-scale meetings partially or completely devoted to logic took place--the five-week long Summer Institute for Symbolic Logic. That meeting turned out to be a watershed event in the development of logic: it was unique in bringing together for such an extended period researchers at every level in all parts of the subject, and the synergetic connections established there would thenceforth change the face of mathematical logic both (...)
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  4. Solomon Feferman, Foundations of Category Theory: What Remains to Be Done.
    • Session on CF&FCT proposed by E. Landry; participants: G. Hellman, E. Landry, J.-P. Marquis and C. McLarty..
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  5. Solomon Feferman, Godel's Program for New Axioms: Why, Where, How and What?
    From 1931 until late in his life (at least 1970) Godel called for the pursuit of new axioms for mathematics to settle both undecided number-theoretical propositions (of the form obtained in his incompleteness results) and undecided set-theoretical propositions (in particular CH). As to the nature of these, Godel made a variety of suggestions, but most frequently he emphasized the route of introducing ever higher axioms of in nity. In particular, he speculated (in his 1946 Princeton remarks) that there might be (...)
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  6. Solomon Feferman, Hilbert's Program Modi Ed.
    The background to the development of proof theory since 1960 is contained in the article (MATHEMATICS, FOUNDATIONS OF), Vol. 5, pp. 208- 209. Brie y, Hilbert's program (H.P.), inaugurated in the 1920s, aimed to secure the foundations of mathematics by giving nitary consistency proofs of formal systems such as for number theory, analysis and set theory, in which informal mathematics can be represented directly. These systems are based on classical logic and implicitly or explicitly depend on the assumption of \completed (...)
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  7. Solomon Feferman, In Memory of Torkel Franzén.
    1. Logic, determinism and free will. The determinism-free will debate is perhaps as old as philosophy itself and has been engaged in from a great variety of points of view including those of scientific, theological and logical character; my concern here is to limit attention to two arguments from logic. To begin with, there is an argument in support of determinism that dates back to Aristotle, if not farther. It rests on acceptance of the Law of Excluded Middle, according to (...)
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  8. Solomon Feferman, Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Gödel.
    Like Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Gödel’s incompleteness theorem has captured the public imagination, supposedly demonstrating that there are absolute limits to what can be known. More specifically, it is thought to tell us that there are mathematical truths which can never be proved. These are among the many misconceptions and misuses of Gödel’s theorem and its consequences. Incompleteness has been held to show, for example, that there cannot be a Theory of Everything, the so-called holy grail of modern physics. Some philosophers (...)
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  9. Solomon Feferman, Three Conceptual Problems That Bug Me (7th Scandinavian Logic Symposium, Uppsala Lecture, Aug.18-20, 1996 Draft).
    I will talk here about three problems that have bothered me for a number of years, during which time I have experimented with a variety of solutions and encouraged others to work on them. I have raised each of them separately both in full and in passing in various contexts, but thought it would be worthwhile on this occasion to bring them to your attention side by side. In this talk I will explain the problems, together with some things that (...)
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  10. Solomon Feferman, Tarski's Influence on Computer Science.
    The following is the text of an invited lecture for the LICS 2005 meeting held in Chicago June 26-29, 2005.1 Except for the addition of references, footnotes, corrections of a few points and stylistic changes, the text is essentially as delivered. Subsequent to the lecture I received interesting comments from several colleagues that would have led me to expand on some of the topics as well as the list of references, had I had the time to do so.
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  11. Solomon Feferman, The Signi Cance of Hermann Weyl's.
    In his 1918 monograph \Das Kontinuum", Hermann Weyl initiated a program for the arithmetical foundations of mathematics. In the years following, this was overshadowed by the foundational schemes of Hilbert's nitary consistency program and Brouwer's intuitionistic redevelopment of mathematics. In fact, not long after his own venture, Weyl became a convert to Brouwerian intuitionism and criticized his old teacher's program. Over the years, though, he became more and more pessimistic about the practical possibilities of reworking mathematics along (...)
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  12. Solomon Feferman, What Kind of Logic is “Independence Friendly” Logic?
    1. Two kinds of logic. To a first approximation there are two main kinds of pursuit in logic. The first is the traditional one going back two millennia, concerned with characterizing the logically valid inferences. The second is the one that emerged most systematically only in the twentieth century, concerned with the semantics of logical operations. In the view of modern, model-theoretical eyes, the first requires the second, but not vice-versa. According to Tarski’s generally accepted account of logical consequence (1936), (...)
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  13. Solomon Feferman, Which Quantifiers Are Logical?
    ✤ It is the characterization of those forms of reasoning that lead invariably from true sentences to true sentences, independently of the subject matter.
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  14. Solomon Feferman, Ah, Chu!
    A theorem obtained by van Benthem for preservation of formulas under Chu transforms between Chu spaces is strengthened and derived from a general many-sorted interpolation theorem. The latter has been established both by proof-theoretic and model-theoretic methods; there is some discussion as to how these methods compare and what languages they apply to. In the conclusion, several further questions are raised.
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  15. Solomon Feferman, Conceptions of the Continuum.
    Key words: the continuum, structuralism, conceptual structuralism, basic structural conceptions, Euclidean geometry, Hilbertian geometry, the real number system, settheoretical conceptions, phenomenological conceptions, foundational conceptions, physical conceptions.
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  16. Solomon Feferman, Conceptual Structuralism and the Continuum.
    • This comes from my general view of the nature of mathematics, that it is humanly based and that it deals with more or less clear conceptions of mathematical structures; for want of a better word, I call that view conceptual structuralism.
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  17. Solomon Feferman, Challenges to Predicative Foundations of Arithmetic.
    This is a sequel to our article “Predicative foundations of arithmetic” (1995), referred to in the following as [PFA]; here we review and clarify what was accomplished in [PFA], present some improvements and extensions, and respond to several challenges. The classic challenge to a program of the sort exemplified by [PFA] was issued by Charles Parsons in a 1983 paper, subsequently revised and expanded as Parsons (1992). Another critique is due to Daniel Isaacson (1987). Most recently, Alexander George and Daniel (...)
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  18. Solomon Feferman, Deciding the Undecidable: Wrestling with Hilbert's Problems.
    In the year 1900, the German mathematician David Hilbert gave a dramatic address in Paris, at the meeting of the 2nd International Congress of Mathematicians—an address which was to have lasting fame and importance. Hilbert was at that point a rapidly rising star, if not superstar, in mathematics, and before long he was to be ranked with Henri Poincar´.
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  19. Solomon Feferman, Enriched Stratified Systems for the Foundations of Category Theory.
    Four requirements are suggested for an axiomatic system S to provide the foundations of category theory: (R1) S should allow us to construct the category of all structures of a given kind (without restriction), such as the category of all groups and the category of all categories; (R2) It should also allow us to construct the category of all functors between any two given categories including the ones constructed under (R1); (R3) In addition, S should allow us to establish the (...)
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  20. Solomon Feferman, Finitary Inductively Presented Logics.
    A notion of finitary inductively presented (f.i.p.) logic is proposed here, which includes all syntactically described logics (formal systems)met in practice. A f.i.p. theory FS0 is set up which is universal for all f.i.p. logics; though formulated as a theory of functions and classes of expressions, FS0 is a conservative extension of PRA. The aims of this work are (i)conceptual, (ii)pedagogical and (iii)practical. The system FS0 serves under (i)and (ii)as a theoretical framework for the formalization of metamathematics. The general approach (...)
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  21. Solomon Feferman, Is the Continuum Hypothesis a Definite Mathematical Problem?
    The purpose of this article is to explain why I believe that the Continuum Hypothesis (CH) is not a definite mathematical problem. My reason for that is that the concept of arbitrary set essential to its formulation is vague or underdetermined and there is no way to sharpen it without violating what it is supposed to be about. In addition, there is considerable circumstantial evidence to support the view that CH is not definite.
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  22. Solomon Feferman, Odel's Dialectica Interpretation and its Two-Way Stretch.
    In 1958, G¨ odel published in the journal Dialectica an interpretation of intuitionistic number theory in a quantifier-free theory of functionals of finite type; this subsequently came to be known as G¨ odel’s functional or Dialectica interpretation. The article itself was written in German for an issue of that journal in honor of Paul Bernays’ 70th birthday. In 1965, Bernays told G¨.
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  23. Solomon Feferman, On the Strength of Some Semi-Constructive Theories.
    Most axiomatizations of set theory that have been treated metamathematically have been based either entirely on classical logic or entirely on intuitionistic logic. But a natural conception of the settheoretic universe is as an indefinite (or “potential”) totality, to which intuitionistic logic is more appropriately applied, while each set is taken to be a definite (or “completed”) totality, for which classical logic is appropriate; so on that view, set theory should be axiomatized on some correspondingly mixed basis. Similarly, in the (...)
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  24. Solomon Feferman, Predicativity.
    What is predicativity? While the term suggests that there is a single idea involved, what the history will show is that there are a number of ideas of predicativity which may lead to different logical analyses, and I shall uncover these only gradually. A central question will then be what, if anything, unifies them. Though early discussions are often muddy on the concepts and their employment, in a number of important respects they set the stage for the further developments, and (...)
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  25. Solomon Feferman, For Philosophy of Mathematics: 5 Questions.
    When I was a teenager growing up in Los Angeles in the early 1940s, my dream was to become a mathematical physicist: I was fascinated by the ideas of relativity theory and quantum mechanics, and I read popular expositions which, in those days, besides Einstein’s The Meaning of Relativity, was limited to books by the likes of Arthur S. Eddington and James Jeans. I breezed through the high-school mathematics courses (calculus was not then on offer, and my teachers barely understood (...)
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  26. Solomon Feferman, Presentation to the Panel, “Does Mathematics Need New Axioms?” Asl 2000 Meeting, Urbana Il, June 5, 2000.
    The point of departure for this panel is a somewhat controversial paper that I published in the American Mathematical Monthly under the title “Does mathematics need new axioms?” [4]. The paper itself was based on a lecture that I gave in 1997 to a joint session of the American Mathematical Society and the Mathematical Association of America, and it was thus written for a general mathematical audience. Basically, it was intended as an assessment of Gödel’s program for new axioms that (...)
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  27. Solomon Feferman, Relationships Between Constructive, Predicative and Classical Systems of Analysis.
    Both the constructive and predicative approaches to mathematics arose during the period of what was felt to be a foundational crisis in the early part of this century. Each critiqued an essential logical aspect of classical mathematics, namely concerning the unrestricted use of the law of excluded middle on the one hand, and of apparently circular \impredicative" de nitions on the other. But the positive redevelopment of mathematics along constructive, resp. predicative grounds did not emerge as really viable alternatives to (...)
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  28. Solomon Feferman, Typical Ambiguity: Trying to Have Your Cake and Eat It Too.
    Ambiguity is a property of syntactic expressions which is ubiquitous in all informal languages–natural, scientific and mathematical; the efficient use of language depends to an exceptional extent on this feature. Disambiguation is the process of separating out the possible meanings of ambiguous expressions. Ambiguity is typical if the process of disambiguation can be carried out in some systematic way. Russell made use of typical ambiguity in the theory of types in order to combine the assurance of its (apparent) consistency (“having (...)
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  29. Solomon Feferman, The Development of Programs for the Foundations of Mathematics in the First Third of the 20th Century.
    The most prominent “schools” or programs for the foundations of mathematics that took shape in the first third of the 20th century emerged directly from, or in response to, developments in mathematics and logic in the latter part of the 19th century. The first of these programs, so-called logicism, had as its aim the reduction of mathematics to purely logical principles. In order to understand properly its achievements and resulting problems, it is necessary to review the background from that previous (...)
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  30. Solomon Feferman, The Impact of the Incompleteness Theorems on Mathematics.
    In addition to this being the centenary of Kurt Gödel’s birth, January marked 75 years since the publication (1931) of his stunning incompleteness theorems. Though widely known in one form or another by practicing mathematicians, and generally thought to say something fundamental about the limits and potentialities of mathematical knowledge, the actual importance of these results for mathematics is little understood. Nor is this an isolated example among famous results. For example, not long ago, Philip Davis wrote me about what (...)
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  31. Solomon Feferman, The Nature and Significance of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.
    What Gödel accomplished in the decade of the 1930s before joining the Institute changed the face of mathematical logic and continues to influence its development. As you gather from my title, I’ll be talking about the most famous of his results in that period, but first I want to indulge in some personal reminiscences. In many ways this is a sentimental journey for me. I was a member of the Institute in 1959-60, a couple of years after receiving my PhD (...)
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  32. Solomon Feferman, The Proof Theory of Classical and Constructive Inductive Definitions. A 40 Year Saga, 1968-2008.
    1. Pohlers and The Problem. I first met Wolfram Pohlers at a workshop on proof theory organized by Walter Felscher that was held in Tübingen in early April, 1973. Among others at that workshop relevant to the work surveyed here were Kurt Schütte, Wolfram’s teacher in Munich, and Wolfram’s fellow student Wilfried Buchholz. This is not meant to slight in the least the many other fine logicians who participated there.2 In Tübingen I gave a couple of survey lectures on (...)
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  33. Solomon Feferman, What's Definite? What's Not?
    • Definite totalities are set-like. If definite totalities are sets then the totality of all sets is indefinite (Russell).
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  34. Solomon Feferman (forthcoming). 2005 Annual Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
     
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  35. Solomon Feferman (2013). Foundations of Unlimited Category Theory: What Remains to Be Done. Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (1):6-15.
    Following a discussion of various forms of set-theoretical foundations of category theory and the controversial question of whether category theory does or can provide an autonomous foundation of mathematics, this article concentrates on the question whether there is a foundation for or category theory. The author proposed four criteria for such some years ago. The article describes how much had previously been accomplished on one approach to meeting those criteria, then takes care of one important obstacle that had been met (...)
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  36. Solomon Feferman (2012). And so On...: Reasoning with Infinite Diagrams. Synthese 186 (1):371 - 386.
    This paper presents examples of infinite diagrams (as well as infinite limits of finite diagrams) whose use is more or less essential for understanding and accepting various proofs in higher mathematics. The significance of these is discussed with respect to the thesis that every proof can be formalized, and a "pre" form of this thesis that every proof can be presented in everyday statements-only form.
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  37. Solomon Feferman (2012). On Rereading van Heijenoort's Selected Essays. Logica Universalis 6 (3-4):535-552.
    This is a critical reexamination of several pieces in van Heijenoort’s Selected Essays that are directly or indirectly concerned with the philosophy of logic or the relation of logic to natural language. Among the topics discussed are absolutism and relativism in logic, mass terms, the idea of a rational dictionary, and sense and identity of sense in Frege.
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  38. Solomon Feferman (2011). Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems, Free Will and Mathematical Thought. In Richard Swinburne (ed.), Free Will and Modern Science. Oup/British Academy.
  39. Anita Burdman Feferman & Solomon Feferman (2010). Logic and Methodology, Center Stage1. Philosophia Scientiae 14:159-168.
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  40. Solomon Feferman (2010). GENERAL. The Gödel Editorial Project : A Synopsis. In Kurt Gödel, Solomon Feferman, Charles Parsons & Stephen G. Simpson (eds.), Kurt Gödel: Essays for His Centennial. Association for Symbolic Logic.
  41. Solomon Feferman (2010). Set-Theoretical Invariance Criteria for Logicality. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (1):3-20.
    This is a survey of work on set-theoretical invariance criteria for logicality. It begins with a review of the Tarski-Sher thesis in terms, first, of permutation invariance over a given domain and then of isomorphism invariance across domains, both characterized by McGee in terms of definability in the language L∞,∞. It continues with a review of critiques of the Tarski-Sher thesis, and a proposal in response to one of those critiques via homomorphism invariance. That has quite divergent characterization results depending (...)
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  42. Solomon Feferman & Thomas Strahm (2010). Unfolding Finitist Arithmetic. Review of Symbolic Logic 3 (4):665-689.
    The concept of the (full) unfolding of a schematic system is used to answer the following question: Which operations and predicates, and which principles concerning them, ought to be accepted if one has accepted ? The program to determine for various systems of foundational significance was previously carried out for a system of nonfinitist arithmetic, ; it was shown that is proof-theoretically equivalent to predicative analysis. In the present paper we work out the unfolding notions for a basic schematic system (...)
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  43. Kurt Gödel, Solomon Feferman, Charles Parsons & Stephen G. Simpson (eds.) (2010). Kurt Gödel: Essays for His Centennial. Association for Symbolic Logic.
    Machine generated contents note: Part I. General: 1. The Gödel editorial project: a synopsis Solomon Feferman; 2. Future tasks for Gödel scholars John W. Dawson, Jr., and Cheryl A. Dawson; Part II. Proof Theory: 3. Kurt Gödel and the metamathematical tradition Jeremy Avigad; 4. Only two letters: the correspondence between Herbrand and Gödel Wilfried Sieg; 5. Gödel's reformulation of Gentzen's first consistency proof for arithmetic: the no-counter-example interpretation W. W. Tait; 6. Gödel on intuition and on Hilbert's finitism W. W. (...)
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  44. Solomon Feferman (2009). Gödel, Nagel, Minds, and Machines. Journal of Philosophy 106 (4):201-219.
    Ernest Nagel Lecture, Columbia University, Sept. 27, 2007.
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  45. Solomon Feferman (2008). Axioms for Determinateness and Truth. Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (2):204-217.
    elaboration of the last part of my Tarski Lecture, “Truth unbound”, UC Berkeley, 3 April 2006, and of the lecture, “A nicer formal theory of non-hierarchical truth”, Workshop on Mathematical Methods in Philosophy, Banff , 18-23 Feb. 2007.
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  46. Solomon Feferman (2008). Harmonious Logic: Craig's Interpolation Theorem and Its Descendants. Synthese 164 (3):341 - 357.
    Though deceptively simple and plausible on the face of it, Craig's interpolation theorem (published 50 years ago) has proved to be a central logical property that has been used to reveal a deep harmony between the syntax and semantics of first order logic. Craig's theorem was generalized soon after by Lyndon, with application to the characterization of first order properties preserved under homomorphism. After retracing the early history, this article is mainly devoted to a survey of subsequent generalizations and applications, (...)
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  47. Solomon Feferman (2008). Lieber Herr Bernays!, Lieber Herr Gödel! Gödel on Finitism, Constructivity and Hilbert's Program. Dialectica 62 (2: Table of Contents"/> Select):179–203.
  48. Solomon Feferman (2008). My Route to Arithmetization. Theoria 63 (3):168-181.
    I had the pleasure of renewing my acquaintance with Per Lindström at the meeting of the Seventh Scandinavian Logic Symposium, held in Uppsala in August 1996. There at lunch one day, Per said he had long been curious about the development of some of the ideas in my paper [1960] on the arithmetization of metamathematics. In particular, I had used the construction of a non-standard definition !* of the set of axioms of P (Peano Arithmetic) to show that P + (...)
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  49. Solomon Feferman (2008). Tarski's Conceptual Analysis of Semantical Notions. In Douglas Patterson (ed.), New Essays on Tarski and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 72.
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  50. Steve Awodey, Raf Cluckers, Ilijas Farah, Solomon Feferman, Deirdre Haskell, Andrey Morozov, Vladimir Pestov, Andre Scedrov, Andreas Weiermann & Jindrich Zapletal (2006). Stanford University, Stanford, CA March 19–22, 2005. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (1).
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