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  1. Soshichi Uchii (forthcoming). The Law of Freedom, the Logic of Interest. Minerva.
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  2. Soshichi Uchii, Sherlock Holmes on Reasoning.
    In this paper, I will show that Sherlock Holmes was a good logician, according to the standard of the 19th century, both in his character and knowledge (sections 2 and 3). Holmes, in all probability, knew William Stanley Jevons’ clarification of deductive reasoning in terms of “logical alphabets” (section 4). And in view of his use of “analytic-synthetic” distinction and “analytic reasoning,” I will argue that Holmes knew rather well philosophy too, as far as logic and methodology are concerned (section (...)
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  3. Soshichi Uchii, An Informational Interpretation of Monadology.
    In this paper, I will try to exploit the implication of Leibniz's statement in Monadology (1714) that "there is a kind of self-sufficiency which makes them [monads] sources of their own internal actions, or incorporeal automata, as it were" (Monadology, sect.18). Leibniz's monads are simple substances, with no shape, no magnitude; but they are supposed to produce the phenomena resulting from their activities, which for us humans look as the whole world, the nature. The activities of a monad are characterized (...)
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  4. Soshichi Uchii, The Evolution of Darwin's Evolutionary Thinking.
    (1) Darwin inherited Lyell’s methodology and applied it to the animate beings. This led him, eventually, to the principle of natural selection. This principle enabled him to expel God from biology. (2) Darwin diverged from Lyell on Man and Morality, presumably because of his experience in Tierra del Fuego. This led him to the thesis of continuity of man and animals, and he noticed the function of morality. (3) The process of Darwin’s theory construction may be likened to gradual evolution. (...)
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  5. Soshichi Uchii, Darwin's Principle of Divergence.
    Darwin's famous book, is not an easy book for the reader. Especially, the central part of his doctrine addressing the problem of how a small difference between varieties of a single species may become larger and larger and become a large difference between two distinct species or between two genera etc. is often confusing. Darwin brings in the "principle of divergence" in order to answer this central question, but the problem is: what is the status (...)
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  6. Soshichi Uchii, Is Philosophy of Science Alive in the East? A Report From Japan.

    Do you know the Japanese equivalent for "philosophy"? That word, "tetsugaku", was coined after the Meiji Revolution (1868). Do you know when the standard philosophy of science, in the form of the logical empiricism, was introduced into Japan? After the World War II, around 1950. Do you know whether or not the philosophy of science, especially its "hardcore", is studied seriously in Japan? Very few people are studying the philosophy of space and time, the philosophy of quantum mechanics, the philosophy (...)

    Here is an Outline:

    1. Three Basic Facts (1868-2002)

    2. Taketani's Doctrine of the Three Stages (1936-1968)

    3. Logical Empiricism (1950-1970)

    4. Scientists and Philosophers (1950-2002)

    5. "New" Philosophy of Science (1970-1995)

    6. What is needed for Japanese Philosophy of Science? (1991-????)

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  7. Soshichi Uchii, Notes on Mayo's Notion of Severity.
    Deborah Mayo propounded the epistemology of experiment in her Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge (1996), and the notion of severity plays an essential role in her epistemolgy. In the following two notes, I wish to point out a defect of her definition of severity, and to argue that she must revise this definition in conformity with what she actually does in her book (Note 1). The revision has some important consequence: in order to apply Mayo's severity consideration to (...)
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  8. Soshichi Uchii, The Responsibility of the Scientist.
    The problems of the social responsibility of the scientist became a subject of public debate after the World War II in Japan, thanks to the activities and publications of Yukawa and Tomonaga. And such authors as J. Karaki, M.Taketani, Y. Murakami, and S. Fujinaga continued discussion in their books. However, many people seem to be still unaware of the most important source of these problems. As I see it, one of the most important treatments of these problems was the Franck (...)
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  9. Soshichi Uchii, Darwin on the Evolution of Morality.
    Darwin argued for the biological basis of morality in his Descent of Man (1871). Beginning with the thesis of the continuity of man and animals, he tried to explain the origin of the moral sense, or conscience, as understood as an ability to discern right and wrong, and to feel guilty if one realizes to have done wrong. His argument is that, in any animal with social instincts and sufficient intellectual powers, a moral sense would be developed. Although Darwin's argument (...)
     
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  10. Soshichi Uchii, Sherlock Holmes and Probabilistic Induction.
    In this paper, (1) I argue that Sherlock Holmes was a good logician according to the standard of his day, and (2) I try to show what his method of reasoning was. Now, (2) is a harder task than (1), because we have to identify the essential features of his method of reasoning. In order to show this, I have not only to examine what Holmes says he is doing, but also to look at the methods of scientific reasoning recommended (...)
     
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  11. Soshichi Uchii, Theory Reduction: The Case of the Kinetic Theory of Gases.
    It is often said that the kinetic theory of gases is one of the best examples of the reduction of one theory into another; that is, the classical theory of thermodynamics [or to be more exact, a significant portion of it] is alleged to be reduced to the kinetic theory, which is based on the Newtonian mechanics and the atomistic view of the matter. But what is the nature of this alleged "reduction"? If you want to know the right answer (...)
     
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  12. Soshichi Uchii (1976). Induction and Causality in a Cellular Space. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1976:448 - 461.
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  13. Soshichi Uchii (1974). Knowledge (Complex Logic). Philosophia 4 (4):583-599.
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  14. Soshichi Uchii (1974). “Ought” and Conditionals. Logique Et Analyse 17 (17):143-64.
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  15. Soshichi Uchii (1973). Higher Order Probabilities and Coherence. Philosophy of Science 40 (3):373-381.
    It is well known that a degree-of-belief function P is coherent if and only if it satisfies the probability calculus. In this paper, we show that the notion of coherence can be extended to higher order probabilities such as P(P(h)=p)=q, and that a higher order degree-of-belief function P is coherent if and only if it satisfies the probability calculus plus the following axiom: P(h)=p iff P(P(h)=p)=1. Also, a number of lemmata which extend an incomplete probability function to a complete one (...)
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  16. Soshichi Uchii (1973). Inductive Logic with Causal Modalities: A Deterministic Approach. Synthese 26 (2):264 - 303.
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  17. Soshichi Uchii (1972). Inductive Logic with Causal Modalities: A Probabilistic Approach. Philosophy of Science 39 (2):162-178.
    This paper tries to extend Hintikka's inductive logic so that we can confirm a causally necessary statement. For this purpose, a joint system of inductive logic and logic of causal modalities is constructed. This system can offer a plausible explication of the distinction between nomic and accidental universality, as well as a good formulation of a causal law. And the transition from actuality to causal necessity is construed, in this system, as essentially probabilistic; i.e. no statements about actuality can entail (...)
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