Search results for 'Spectrum Problem' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Arnaud Durand, Neil D. Jones, Johann A. Makowsky & Malika More (2012). Fifty Years of the Spectrum Problem: Survey and New Results. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):505-553.score: 60.0
    In 1952, Heinrich Scholz published a question in The Journal of Symbolic Logic asking for a characterization of spectra, i.e., sets of natural numbers that are the cardinalities of finite models of first order sentences. Günter Asser in turn asked whether the complement of a spectrum is always a spectrum. These innocent questions turned out to be seminal for the development of finite model theory and descriptive complexity. In this paper we survey developments over the last 50-odd years (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Wilhelm Ackermann (1957). Review: A. A. Zykov, The Spectrum Problem in the Extended Predicate Calculus. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (4):360-360.score: 45.0
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Sydney Shoemaker (1982). The Inverted Spectrum. Journal of Philosophy 79 (July):357-381.score: 39.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Bredo C. Johnsen (1986). The Inverted Spectrum. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (December):471-6.score: 39.0
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. John Rossi, Craig Newschaffer & Michael Yudell (2013). Autism Spectrum Disorders, Risk Communication, and the Problem of Inadvertent Harm. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (2):105-138.score: 39.0
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an issue of growing public health significance. This set of neurodevelopmental disorders, which includes autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), is characterized by abnormalities in one or more of the following domains: language use, reciprocal social interactions, and/or a pattern of restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Prevalence estimates for ASDs have been increasing over the past few decades, with estimates at ~5/10,000 in the 1960s, and current estimates as (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. William G. Lycan (1973). Inverted Spectrum. Ratio 15 (July):315-9.score: 39.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm (2012). Informed Consent and ICT-Experiments Involving Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder–Redescribing the Problem of Dual Roles. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 6 (2).score: 36.0
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. David J. Cole (1990). Functionalism and Inverted Spectra. Synthese 82 (2):207-22.score: 33.0
    Functionalism, a philosophical theory, has empirical consequences. Functionalism predicts that where systematic transformations of sensory input occur and are followed by behavioral accommodation in which normal function of the organism is restored such that the causes and effects of the subject's psychological states return to those of the period prior to the transformation, there will be a return of qualia or subjective experiences to those present prior to the transform. A transformation of this type that has long been of philosophical (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Neil Campbell (2000). Physicalism, Qualia Inversion, and Affective States. Synthese 124 (2):239-256.score: 33.0
    I argue that the inverted spectrum hypothesis is nota possibility we should take seriously. The principlereason is that if someone's qualia were inverted inthe specified manner there is reason to believe thephenomenal difference would manifest itself inbehaviour. This is so for two reasons. First, Isuggest that qualia, including phenomenal colours, arepartly constituted by an affective component whichwould be inverted along with the connected qualia. Theresulting affective inversions will, given theintimate connections that exist between emotions andbehaviour, likely manifest themselves in (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Joanna Golinska-Pilarek & Konrad Zdanowski (2003). Spectra of Formulae with Henkin Quantifiers. In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 31.0
    It is known that various complexity-theoretical problems can be translated into some special spectra problems. Thus, questions about complexity classes are translated into questions about the expressive power of some languages. In this paper we investigate the spectra of some logics with Henkin quantifiers in the empty vocabulary.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. David R. Hilbert (1987). Color and Color Perception: A Study in Anthropocentric Realism. Csli Press.score: 30.0
  12. Roberto Casati (1990). What is Wrong in Inverting Spectra? Teoria 10:183-6.score: 30.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Jason Ford (2011). Tye-Dyed Teleology and the Inverted Spectrum. Philosophical Studies 156 (2):267-281.score: 27.0
    Michael Tye’s considered position on visual experience combines representationalism with externalism about color, so when considering spectrum inversion, he needs a principled reason to claim that a person with inverted color vision is seeing things incorrectly. Tye’s responses to the problem of the inverted spectrum ( 2000 , in: Consciousness, color, and content, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA and 2002a , in: Chalmers (ed.) Philosophy of mind: classical and contemporary readings, Oxford University Press, Oxford) rely on a (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. C. K. Raju (2004). The Electrodynamic 2-Body Problem and the Origin of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 34 (6):937-962.score: 27.0
    We numerically solve the functional differential equations (FDEs) of 2-particle electrodynamics, using the full electrodynamic force obtained from the retarded Lienard–Wiechert potentials and the Lorentz force law. In contrast, the usual formulation uses only the Coulomb force (scalar potential), reducing the electrodynamic 2-body problem to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The ODE formulation is mathematically suspect since FDEs and ODEs are known to be incompatible; however, the Coulomb approximation to the full electrodynamic force has been believed to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Steve Torrance (2014). Artificial Consciousness and Artificial Ethics: Between Realism and Social Relationism. Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):9-29.score: 24.0
    I compare a ‘realist’ with a ‘social–relational’ perspective on our judgments of the moral status of artificial agents (AAs). I develop a realist position according to which the moral status of a being—particularly in relation to moral patiency attribution—is closely bound up with that being’s ability to experience states of conscious satisfaction or suffering (CSS). For a realist, both moral status and experiential capacity are objective properties of agents. A social relationist denies the existence of any such objective properties in (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Daniel Howard-Snyder (2013). The Logical Problem of Evil: Mackie and Plantinga. In Justin McBrayer & Daniel Howard-Snyder (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil. Wiley-Blackwell. 19-33.score: 21.0
    J.L. Mackie’s version of the logical problem of evil is a failure, as even he came to recognize. Contrary to current mythology, however, its failure was not established by Alvin Plantinga’s Free Will Defense. That’s because a defense is successful only if it is not reasonable to refrain from believing any of the claims that constitute it, but it is reasonable to refrain from believing the central claim of Plantinga’s Free Will Defense, namely the claim that, possibly, every essence (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Massimo Pigliucci (2013). The Demarcation Problem: A (Belated) Response to Laudan. In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. 9.score: 21.0
    The “demarcation problem,” the issue of how to separate science from pseu- doscience, has been around since fall 1919—at least according to Karl Pop- per’s (1957) recollection of when he first started thinking about it. In Popper’s mind, the demarcation problem was intimately linked with one of the most vexing issues in philosophy of science, David Hume’s problem of induction (Vickers 2010) and, in particular, Hume’s contention that induction cannot be logically justified by appealing to the fact (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (2013). Why the Demarcation Problem Matters. In Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem.score: 21.0
    Ever since Socrates, philosophers have been in the business of asking ques- tions of the type “What is X?” The point has not always been to actually find out what X is, but rather to explore how we think about X, to bring up to the surface wrong ways of thinking about it, and hopefully in the process to achieve an increasingly better understanding of the matter at hand. In the early part of the twentieth century one of the most (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Philip D. Mannheim (2007). Solution to the Ghost Problem in Fourth Order Derivative Theories. Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):532-571.score: 21.0
    We present a solution to the ghost problem in fourth order derivative theories. In particular we study the Pais–Uhlenbeck fourth order oscillator model, a model which serves as a prototype for theories which are based on second plus fourth order derivative actions. Via a Dirac constraint method quantization we construct the appropriate quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian and Hilbert space for the system. We find that while the second-quantized Fock space of the general Pais–Uhlenbeck model does indeed contain the negative norm energy (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Mario Castagnino & Manuel Gadella (2006). The Problem of the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics and the Role of Self-Induced Decoherence. Foundations of Physics 36 (6):920-952.score: 21.0
    Our account of the problem of the classical limit of quantum mechanics involves two elements. The first one is self-induced decoherence, conceived as a process that depends on the own dynamics of a closed quantum system governed by a Hamiltonian with continuous spectrum; the study of decoherence is addressed by means of a formalism used to give meaning to the van Hove states with diagonal singularities. The second element is macroscopicity represented by the limit $\hbar \rightarrow 0$ : (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. M. Krynicki & K. Zdanowski (2005). Theories of Arithmetics in Finite Models. Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (1):1-28.score: 21.0
    We investigate theories of initial segments of the standard models for arithmetics. It is easy to see that if the ordering relation is definable in the standard model then the decidability results can be transferred from the infinite model into the finite models. On the contrary we show that the Σ₂—theory of multiplication is undecidable in finite models. We show that this result is optimal by proving that the Σ₁—theory of multiplication and order is decidable in finite models as well (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. J. Fonseca (2004). On Bickle's Failure to Give a Formal Account of the Location in the New-Wave Reductionist Spectrum. Disputatio 17 (17):1 - 9.score: 21.0
    In this paper I discuss John Bickle�s attempt to provide a formal procedure to locate a certain reduction relation in the Hooker�s and Churchland�s New wave reductionist spectrum. Bickle�s main motivation is to react against the �Khunnian flavored,� internal-to-scientific-practice pragmatist solution endorsed by Patricia Churchland when faced with the lack of a formal and external way to identify a reduction in the spectrum. Bickle tries to solve this problem by reformulating Hooker�s insights within a structuralist framework so (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Oscar Horta (2011). Betterness, Spectrum Cases and the Challenge to Transitivity in Axiology. Diacritica 25:125-137.score: 21.0
    Larry Temkin and Stuart Rachels have argued that the “_ is better than _” relation need not be transitive. In support of this claim, they have presented several spectrum cases towards which our actual preferences appear not to be transitive. In this paper I examine one of them, and explain that there are several solutions we may give to the problem of what is the best global option within the spectrum. I point out that these solutions do (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Philippa Foot (1967). The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Oxford Review 5:5-15.score: 18.0
    One of the reasons why most of us feel puzzled about the problem of abortion is that we want, and do not want, to allow to the unborn child the rights that belong to adults and children. When we think of a baby about to be born it seems absurd to think that the next few minutes or even hours could make so radical a difference to its status; yet as we go back in the life of the fetus (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Moti Mizrahi (2014). The Problem of Natural Inequality: A New Problem of Evil. Philosophia 42 (1):127-136.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue that there is a kind of evil, namely, the unequal distribution of natural endowments, or natural inequality, which presents theists with a new evidential (not logical or incompatibility) problem of evil. The problem of natural inequality is a new evidential problem of evil not only because, to the best of my knowledge, it has not yet been discussed in the literature, but also because available theodicies, such the free will defense and the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Andrew M. Bailey, Joshua Rasmussen & Luke van Horn (2011). No Pairing Problem. Philosophical Studies 154 (3):349-360.score: 18.0
    Many have thought that there is a problem with causal commerce between immaterial souls and material bodies. In Physicalism or Something Near Enough, Jaegwon Kim attempts to spell out that problem. Rather than merely posing a question or raising a mystery for defenders of substance dualism to answer or address, he offers a compelling argument for the conclusion that immaterial souls cannot causally interact with material bodies. We offer a reconstruction of that argument that hinges on two premises: (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. James R. Beebe, Logical Problem of Evil. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 18.0
    The existence of evil and suffering in our world seems to pose a serious challenge to belief in the existence of a perfect God. If God were all-knowing, it seems that God would know about all of the horrible things that happen in our world. If God were all-powerful, God would be able to do something about all of the evil and suffering. Furthermore, if God were morally perfect, then surely God would want to do something about it. And yet (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Massimo Pigliucci (2013). What Hard Problem? Philosophy Now (99).score: 18.0
    The philosophical study of consciousness is chock full of thought experiments: John Searle’s Chinese Room, David Chalmers’ Philosophical Zombies, Frank Jackson’s Mary’s Room, and Thomas Nagel’s ‘What is it like to be a bat?’ among others. Many of these experiments and the endless discussions that follow them are predicated on what Chalmers famously referred as the ‘hard’ problem of consciousness: for him, it is ‘easy’ to figure out how the brain is capable of perception, information integration, attention, reporting on (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. David Robb (2013). The Identity Theory as a Solution to the Exclusion Problem. In S. C. Gibb, E. J. Lowe & R. D. Ingthorsson (eds.), Mental Causation and Ontology. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    This is about a proposed solution to the exclusion problem, one I've defended elsewhere (for example, in "The Properties of Mental Causation"). Details aside, it's just the identity theory: mental properties face no threat of exclusion from, or preemption by, physical properties, because every mental property is a physical property. Here I elaborate on this solution and defend it from some objections. One of my goals is to place it in the context of a more general ontology of properties, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Nate Charlow (2014). The Problem with the Frege–Geach Problem. Philosophical Studies 167 (3):635-665.score: 18.0
    I resolve the major challenge to an Expressivist theory of the meaning of normative discourse: the Frege–Geach Problem. Drawing on considerations from the semantics of directive language (e.g., imperatives), I argue that, although certain forms of Expressivism (like Gibbard’s) do run into at least one version of the Problem, it is reasonably clear that there is a version of Expressivism that does not.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Bryan Paton, Jakob Hohwy & Peter Enticott (2011). The Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals Proprioceptive and Sensorimotor Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.score: 18.0
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by differences in unimodal and multimodal sensory and proprioceptive processing, with complex biases towards local over global processing. Many of these elements are implicated in versions of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which were therefore studied in high-functioning individuals with ASD and a typically developing control group. Both groups experienced the illusion. A number of differences were found, related to proprioception and sensorimotor processes. The ASD group showed reduced sensitivity to visuotactile-proprioceptive discrepancy but (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Alessandro Lanteri, Chiara Chelini & Salvatore Rizzello (2008). An Experimental Investigation of Emotions and Reasoning in the Trolley Problem. Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):789 - 804.score: 18.0
    Elaborating on the notions that humans possess different modalities of decision-making and that these are often influenced by moral considerations, we conducted an experimental investigation of the Trolley Problem. We presented the participants with two standard scenarios (‹lever’ and ‹stranger’) either in the usual or in reversed order. We observe that responses to the lever scenario, which result from (moral) reasoning, are affected by our manipulation; whereas responses to the stranger scenario, triggered by moral emotions, are unaffected. Furthermore, when (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Kelly Becker (2008). Epistemic Luck and the Generality Problem. Philosophical Studies 139 (3):353 - 366.score: 18.0
    Epistemic luck has been the focus of much discussion recently. Perhaps the most general knowledge-precluding type is veritic luck, where a belief is true but might easily have been false. Veritic luck has two sources, and so eliminating it requires two distinct conditions for a theory of knowledge. I argue that, when one sets out those conditions properly, a solution to the generality problem for reliabilism emerges.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Nicholas Unwin (1999). Quasi-Realism, Negation and the Frege-Geach Problem. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (196):337-352.score: 18.0
    Expressivists, such as Blackburn, analyse sentences such as 'S thinks that it ought to be the case that p' as S hoorays that p'. A problem is that the former sentence can be negated in three different ways, but the latter in only two. The distinction between refusing to accept a moral judgement and accepting its negation therefore cannot be accounted for. This is shown to undermine Blackburn's solution to the Frege-Geach problem.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. David J. Chalmers & Brian Rabern (2014). Two-Dimensional Semantics and the Nesting Problem. Analysis 74 (2):210-224.score: 18.0
    Graeme Forbes (2011) raises some problems for two-dimensional semantic theories. The problems concern nested environments: linguistic environments where sentences are nested under both modal and epistemic operators. Closely related problems involving nested environments have been raised by Scott Soames (2005) and Josh Dever (2007). Soames goes so far as to say that nested environments pose the “chief technical problem” for strong two-dimensionalism. We call the problem of handling nested environments within two-dimensional semantics “the nesting problem”. We show (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Marc Ereshefsky (2010). Darwin's Solution to the Species Problem. Synthese 175 (3):405 - 425.score: 18.0
    Biologists and philosophers that debate the existence of the species category fall into two camps. Some believe that the species category does not exist and the term 'species' should be eliminated from biology. Others believe that with new biological insights or the application of philosophical ideas, we can be confident that the species category exists. This paper offers a different approach to the species problem. We should be skeptical of the species category, but not skeptical of the existence of (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Anil Gomes (2011). Is There a Problem of Other Minds? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 111 (3pt3):353-373.score: 18.0
    Scepticism is sometimes expressed about whether there is any interesting problem of other minds. In this paper I set out a version of the conceptual problem of other minds which turns on the way in which mental occurrences are presented to the subject and situate it in relation to debates about our knowledge of other people's mental lives. The result is a distinctive problem in the philosophy of mind concerning our relation to other people.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. John V. Canfield (2009). Ned Block, Wittgenstein, and the Inverted Spectrum. Philosophia 37 (4):691-712.score: 18.0
    In ‘Wittgenstein and Qualia’ Ned Block argues for the existence of inverted spectra and those ineffable things, qualia. The essence of his discussion is a would-be proof, presented through a series of pictures, of the possible existence of an inverted spectrum. His argument appeals to some remarks by Wittgenstein which, Block holds, commit the former to a certain ‘dangerous scenario’ wherein inverted spectra, and consequently qualia live and breath. I hold that a key premise of this proof is incoherent. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Daan Evers (2014). Moral Contextualism and the Problem of Triviality. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):285-297.score: 18.0
    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If this claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then its truth conditions are trivial: ‘Relative to utilitarianism, you ought to maximize happiness’. But it certainly doesn’t seem trivial that you ought to maximize happiness (utilitarianism is a highly controversial position). Some (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Earl Conee (2013). The Specificity of the Generality Problem. Philosophical Studies 163 (3):751-762.score: 18.0
    In “Why the generality problem is everybody’s problem,” Michael Bishop argues that every theory of justification needs a solution to the generality problem. He contends that a solution is needed in order for any theory to be used in giving an acceptable account of the justificatory status of beliefs in certain examples. In response, first I will describe the generality problem that is specific to process reliabilism and two other sorts of problems that are essentially the (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Graham Oddie & Dan Demetriou (2007). The Fictionalist's Attitude Problem. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (5):485 - 498.score: 18.0
    According to John Mackie, moral talk is representational (the realists go that bit right) but its metaphysical presuppositions are wildly implausible (the non-cognitivists got that bit right). This is the basis of Mackie’s now famous error theory: that moral judgments are cognitively meaningful but systematically false. Of course, Mackie went on to recommend various substantive moral judgments, and, in the light of his error theory, that has seemed odd to a lot of folk. Richard Joyce has argued that Mackie’s approach (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Cameron Buckner (forthcoming). The Semantic Problem(s) with Research on Animal Mindreading. Mind and Language.score: 18.0
    Philosophers have worried that research on animal mind-reading faces a “logical problem”: the difficulty of experimentally determining whether animals represent mental states (e.g. seeing) or merely the observable evidence for those states (e.g. line-of-gaze). The most impressive attempt to confront this problem has been mounted recently by Robert Lurz (2009, 2011). However, Lurz’ approach faces its own logical problem, revealing this challenge to be a special case of the more general problem of distal content. Moreover, participants (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Chris Tucker (2009). Evidential Support, Reliability, and Hume's Problem of Induction. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (4):503-519.score: 18.0
    Necessity holds that, if a proposition A supports another B, then it must support B. John Greco contends that one can resolve Hume's Problem of Induction only if she rejects Necessity in favor of reliabilism. If Greco's contention is correct, we would have good reason to reject Necessity and endorse reliabilism about inferential justification. Unfortunately, Greco's contention is mistaken. I argue that there is a plausible reply to Hume's Problem that both endorses Necessity and is at least as (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Marcus P. Adams (2013). Explaining the Theory of Mind Deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Philosophical Studies 163 (1):233-249.score: 18.0
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. Most involved in the debate about the explanation of the ToM deficit have failed to notice that autism’s status as a spectrum disorder has implications about which explanation is more plausible. In this paper, I argue that the shift from viewing autism as a unified syndrome to a spectrum disorder increases the plausibility of the explanation (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Michael Wheeler (2008). Cognition in Context: Phenomenology, Situated Robotics and the Frame Problem. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):323 – 349.score: 18.0
    The frame problem is the difficulty of explaining how non-magical systems think and act in ways that are adaptively sensitive to context-dependent relevance. Influenced centrally by Heideggerian phenomenology, Hubert Dreyfus has argued that the frame problem is, in part, a consequence of the assumption (made by mainstream cognitive science and artificial intelligence) that intelligent behaviour is representation-guided behaviour. Dreyfus' Heideggerian analysis suggests that the frame problem dissolves if we reject representationalism about intelligence and recognize that human agents (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Qilin Li, Quine’s Naturalized Epistemology, Epistemic Normativity and the Gettier Problem.score: 18.0
    In this paper, it is argued that there are (at least) two different kinds of ‘epistemic normativity’ in epistemology, which can be scrutinized and revealed by some comparison with some naturalistic studies of ethics. The first kind of epistemic normativity can be naturalized, but the other not. The doctrines of Quine’s naturalized epistemology is firstly introduced; then Kim’s critique of Quine’s proposal is examined. It is argued that Quine’s naturalized epistemology is able to save some room for the concept of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Rivka Weinberg (2008). Identifying and Dissolving the Non-Identity Problem. Philosophical Studies 137 (1):3 - 18.score: 18.0
    Philosophers concerned with procreative ethics have long been puzzled by Parfit’s Non-Identity Problem (NIP). Various solutions have been proposed, but I argue that we have not solved the problem on its own narrow person-affecting terms, i.e., in terms of the identified individuals affected by procreative decisions and acts, especially future children. Thus, the core problem remains unsolved. This is a nagging concern for all who hold the common intuition that actions that harm no one are permissible. I (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Jeff Speaks (2011). Spectrum Inversion Without a Difference in Representation is Impossible. Philosophical Studies 156 (3):339-361.score: 18.0
    Even if spectrum inversion of various sorts is possible, spectrum inversion without a difference in representation is not. So spectrum inversion does not pose a challenge for the intentionalist thesis that, necessarily, within a given sense modality, if two experiences are alike with respect to content, they are also alike with respect to their phenomenal character. On the contrary, reflection on variants of standard cases of spectrum inversion provides a strong argument for intentionalism. Depending on one’s (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Jared Bates (2005). The Old Problem of Induction and the New Reflective Equilibrium. Dialectica 59 (3):347–356.score: 18.0
    In 1955, Goodman set out to 'dissolve' the problem of induction, that is, to argue that the old problem of induction is a mere pseudoproblem not worthy of serious philosophical attention. I will argue that, under naturalistic views of the reflective equilibrium method, it cannot provide a basis for a dissolution of the problem of induction. This is because naturalized reflective equilibrium is -- in a way to be explained -- itself an inductive method, and thus renders (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Alan Hájek (2007). The Reference Class Problem is Your Problem Too. Synthese 156 (3):563--585.score: 18.0
    The reference class problem arises when we want to assign a probability to a proposition (or sentence, or event) X, which may be classified in various ways, yet its probability can change depending on how it is classified. The problem is usually regarded as one specifically for the frequentist interpretation of probability and is often considered fatal to it. I argue that versions of the classical, logical, propensity and subjectivist interpretations also fall prey to their own variants of (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000