Search results for 'Spectrum Problem' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  13
    Arnaud Durand, Neil D. Jones, Johann A. Makowsky & Malika More (2012). Fifty Years of the Spectrum Problem: Survey and New Results. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):505-553.
    In 1952, Heinrich Scholz published a question in The Journal of Symbolic Logic asking for a characterization of spectra, i.e., sets of natural numbers that are the cardinalities of finite models of first order sentences. Günter Asser in turn asked whether the complement of a spectrum is always a spectrum. These innocent questions turned out to be seminal for the development of finite model theory and descriptive complexity. In this paper we survey developments over the last 50-odd years (...)
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  2. Wilhelm Ackermann (1957). Review: A. A. Zykov, The Spectrum Problem in the Extended Predicate Calculus. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (4):360-360.
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  3. Wilhelm Ackermann (1957). Zykov A. A.. Probléma Spéktra V Rasširénnom Isčislénii Prédikatov. Lzvéstiá Akadémii Nauk SSSR, Sériá Matématičéskaá, Bd. 17 , S. 63–76.Zykov A. A.. The Spectrum Problem in the Extended Predicate Calculus. Englische Übersetzung des Vorhergehenden, von G. L. Kline. American Mathematical Society Translations, 2. Reihe Bd. 3 , S. 1–14. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (4):360.
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  4.  31
    John Rossi, Craig Newschaffer & Michael Yudell (2013). Autism Spectrum Disorders, Risk Communication, and the Problem of Inadvertent Harm. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (2):105-138.
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an issue of growing public health significance. This set of neurodevelopmental disorders, which includes autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), is characterized by abnormalities in one or more of the following domains: language use, reciprocal social interactions, and/or a pattern of restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Prevalence estimates for ASDs have been increasing over the past few decades, with estimates at ~5/10,000 in the 1960s, and current estimates as (...)
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  5.  1
    Christian G. Simader (2006). The Weak Lq-Cosserat Spectrum for the First Boundary Value Problem in the Half-Space. Applications to Stokes' and Lamé's System. Analysis 26 (1).
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  6. Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm (2012). Informed Consent and ICT-Experiments Involving Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder–Redescribing the Problem of Dual Roles. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 6 (2).
     
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  7. Sydney Shoemaker (1982). The Inverted Spectrum. Journal of Philosophy 79 (July):357-381.
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  8.  52
    Bredo C. Johnsen (1986). The Inverted Spectrum. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (December):471-6.
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  9. William G. Lycan (1973). Inverted Spectrum. Ratio 15 (July):315-9.
     
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  10. Nathan Stout (forthcoming). "Conversation, Responsibility, and Autism Spectrum Disorder". Philosophical Psychology:1-14.
    In this paper, I present a challenge for Michael McKenna’s conversational theory of moral responsibility. On his view, to be a responsible agent is to be able to engage in a type of moral conversation. I argue that individuals with autism spectrum disorder present a considerable problem for the conversational theory because empirical evidence on the disorder seems to suggest that there are individuals in the world who meet all of the conditions for responsible agency that the theory (...)
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  11.  97
    David J. Cole (1990). Functionalism and Inverted Spectra. Synthese 82 (2):207-22.
    Functionalism, a philosophical theory, has empirical consequences. Functionalism predicts that where systematic transformations of sensory input occur and are followed by behavioral accommodation in which normal function of the organism is restored such that the causes and effects of the subject's psychological states return to those of the period prior to the transformation, there will be a return of qualia or subjective experiences to those present prior to the transform. A transformation of this type that has long been of philosophical (...)
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  12.  81
    Jason Ford (2011). Tye-Dyed Teleology and the Inverted Spectrum. Philosophical Studies 156 (2):267-281.
    Michael Tye’s considered position on visual experience combines representationalism with externalism about color, so when considering spectrum inversion, he needs a principled reason to claim that a person with inverted color vision is seeing things incorrectly. Tye’s responses to the problem of the inverted spectrum ( 2000 , in: Consciousness, color, and content, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA and 2002a , in: Chalmers (ed.) Philosophy of mind: classical and contemporary readings, Oxford University Press, Oxford) rely on a (...)
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  13.  17
    C. K. Raju (2004). The Electrodynamic 2-Body Problem and the Origin of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 34 (6):937-962.
    We numerically solve the functional differential equations (FDEs) of 2-particle electrodynamics, using the full electrodynamic force obtained from the retarded Lienard–Wiechert potentials and the Lorentz force law. In contrast, the usual formulation uses only the Coulomb force (scalar potential), reducing the electrodynamic 2-body problem to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The ODE formulation is mathematically suspect since FDEs and ODEs are known to be incompatible; however, the Coulomb approximation to the full electrodynamic force has been believed to (...)
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  14.  52
    Neil Campbell (2000). Physicalism, Qualia Inversion, and Affective States. Synthese 124 (2):239-256.
    I argue that the inverted spectrum hypothesis is nota possibility we should take seriously. The principlereason is that if someone's qualia were inverted inthe specified manner there is reason to believe thephenomenal difference would manifest itself inbehaviour. This is so for two reasons. First, Isuggest that qualia, including phenomenal colours, arepartly constituted by an affective component whichwould be inverted along with the connected qualia. Theresulting affective inversions will, given theintimate connections that exist between emotions andbehaviour, likely manifest themselves in (...)
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  15. David R. Hilbert (1987). Color and Color Perception: A Study in Anthropocentric Realism. Csli Press.
  16. Joanna Golinska-Pilarek & Konrad Zdanowski (2003). Spectra of Formulae with Henkin Quantifiers. In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers
    It is known that various complexity-theoretical problems can be translated into some special spectra problems. Thus, questions about complexity classes are translated into questions about the expressive power of some languages. In this paper we investigate the spectra of some logics with Henkin quantifiers in the empty vocabulary.
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  17. Roberto Casati (1990). What is Wrong in Inverting Spectra? Teoria 10:183-6.
     
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  18.  10
    Mario Castagnino & Manuel Gadella (2006). The Problem of the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics and the Role of Self-Induced Decoherence. Foundations of Physics 36 (6):920-952.
    Our account of the problem of the classical limit of quantum mechanics involves two elements. The first one is self-induced decoherence, conceived as a process that depends on the own dynamics of a closed quantum system governed by a Hamiltonian with continuous spectrum; the study of decoherence is addressed by means of a formalism used to give meaning to the van Hove states with diagonal singularities. The second element is macroscopicity represented by the limit $\hbar \rightarrow 0$ : (...)
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  19.  2
    Kimberley Brownlee (2016). The Competent Judge Problem. Ratio 29 (3):312-326.
    We face an epistemic problem in competently judging some types of experience. The problem arises when an experience either defies our efforts to assess its quality, such as a traumatic event, or compromises our abilities to assess quality in general, such as starvation. In the latter type of case, the competent judge problem is actually a paradox since the experience undermines our competence to judge at the same time that it gives us competence to judge it against (...)
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  20.  32
    Philip D. Mannheim (2007). Solution to the Ghost Problem in Fourth Order Derivative Theories. Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):532-571.
    We present a solution to the ghost problem in fourth order derivative theories. In particular we study the Pais–Uhlenbeck fourth order oscillator model, a model which serves as a prototype for theories which are based on second plus fourth order derivative actions. Via a Dirac constraint method quantization we construct the appropriate quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian and Hilbert space for the system. We find that while the second-quantized Fock space of the general Pais–Uhlenbeck model does indeed contain the negative norm energy (...)
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  21.  8
    Kimberley Brownlee (2015). The Competent Judge Problem. Ratio 29 (2):n/a-n/a.
    We face an epistemic problem in competently judging some types of experience. The problem arises when an experience either defies our efforts to assess its quality, such as a traumatic event, or compromises our abilities to assess quality in general, such as starvation. In the latter type of case, the competent judge problem is actually a paradox since the experience undermines our competence to judge at the same time that it gives us competence to judge it against (...)
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  22. Oscar Horta (2011). Betterness, Spectrum Cases and the Challenge to Transitivity in Axiology. Diacritica 25:125-137.
    Larry Temkin and Stuart Rachels have argued that the “_ is better than _” relation need not be transitive. In support of this claim, they have presented several spectrum cases towards which our actual preferences appear not to be transitive. In this paper I examine one of them, and explain that there are several solutions we may give to the problem of what is the best global option within the spectrum. I point out that these solutions do (...)
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  23.  1
    Tjerk Gauderis (2014). To Envision a New Particle or Change an Existing Law? Hypothesis Formation and Anomaly Resolution for the Curious Case of the Β Decay Spectrum. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 45 (1):27-45.
    This paper addresses the question of how scientists determine which type of hypothesis is most suitable for tackling a particular problem by examining the historical case of the anomalous β spectrum in early nuclear physics , a puzzle that occasioned the most diverse hypotheses amongst physicists at the time. It is shown that such determinations are most often implicitly informed by scientists' individual perspectives on the structural relations between the various elements of the theory and the problem (...)
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  24.  12
    Steve Torrance (2014). Artificial Consciousness and Artificial Ethics: Between Realism and Social Relationism. Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):9-29.
    I compare a ‘realist’ with a ‘social–relational’ perspective on our judgments of the moral status of artificial agents (AAs). I develop a realist position according to which the moral status of a being—particularly in relation to moral patiency attribution—is closely bound up with that being’s ability to experience states of conscious satisfaction or suffering (CSS). For a realist, both moral status and experiential capacity are objective properties of agents. A social relationist denies the existence of any such objective properties in (...)
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  25.  35
    M. Krynicki & K. Zdanowski (2005). Theories of Arithmetics in Finite Models. Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (1):1-28.
    We investigate theories of initial segments of the standard models for arithmetics. It is easy to see that if the ordering relation is definable in the standard model then the decidability results can be transferred from the infinite model into the finite models. On the contrary we show that the Σ₂—theory of multiplication is undecidable in finite models. We show that this result is optimal by proving that the Σ₁—theory of multiplication and order is decidable in finite models as well (...)
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  26. Guy Axtell (2010). Agency Ascriptions in Ethics and Epistemology: Or, Navigating Intersections, Narrow and Broad. Metaphilosophy 41 (1):73-94.
    Abstract: In this article, the logic and functions of character-trait ascriptions in ethics and epistemology is compared, and two major problems, the "generality problem" for virtue epistemologies and the "global trait problem" for virtue ethics, are shown to be far more similar in structure than is commonly acknowledged. I suggest a way to put the generality problem to work by making full and explicit use of a sliding scale--a "narrow-broad spectrum of trait ascription"-- and by accounting (...)
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  27.  38
    M. A. Trump & W. C. Schieve (1998). Perihelion Precession in the Special Relativistic Two-Body Problem. Foundations of Physics 28 (9):1407-1416.
    The classical two-body system with Lorentz-invariant Coulomb work function V = -k/ρ is solved in 3+1 dimensions using the manifestly covariant Hamiltonian mechanics of Stückelberg. Particular solutions for the reduced motion are obtained which correspond to bound attractive, unbound attractive, and repulsive scattering motion. A lack of perihelion precession is found in the bound attractive orbit, and the semiclassical hydrogen spectrum subsequently contains no fine structure corrections. It is argued that this prediction is indicative of the correct classical special (...)
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  28.  29
    Pigulevskiy Victor (2008). Aroma and the Problem of Harmony. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 1:233-237.
    In nature scent is important for man primarily as a marker of food and sexual attractiveness, it polarizes as objects of life and decay, death. Scent, just like touch and taste exists till subject and object get opposed to each other, it is the sphere where body is included into material world, and flesh of the world is incrusted into the body. Aesthetics in its anthropologic meaning is limited by a body- perceptible dimension. Development of such categories as the sublime, (...)
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  29.  7
    Dorothy Edgington (2001). The Philosophical Problem of Vagueness. Legal Theory 7 (4):371-378.
    Think of the color spectrum, spread out before you. You can identify the different colors with ease. But if you are asked to indicate the point at which one color ends and the next begins, you are at a loss. "There is no such point", is a natural thought: one color just shades gradually into the next.
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  30.  14
    John Lawson (2003). Depth Accessibility Difficulties: An Alternative Conceptualisation of Autism Spectrum Conditions. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33 (2):189–202.
    Autism and Asperger syndrome are psychiatric conditions diagnosed primarily on the basis of deficits and problems in social behaviour; interaction and communication. At present the explanation of these behavioural features is dominated by three cognitive models. However, it is a characteristic of each of these models that they only explain a sub-set of the overall features.The aim of this paper is to suggest an alternative conceptual theory of autism and Asperger syndrome that unites the current three models. Thus, the aim (...)
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  31.  15
    Antonio Vairo (1998). The Barbieri-Remiddi Solution of the Bound-State Problem in QED. Foundations of Physics 28 (5):829-841.
    We derive the so-called Barbieri-Remiddi solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in QED in its general form and discuss its application to the bound-state energy spectrum.
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  32.  5
    Piotr Winkielman (2010). Embodied and Disembodied Processing of Emotional Expressions: Insights From Autism Spectrum Disorders. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):463 - 464.
    Processing of facial expressions goes beyond simple pattern recognition. To elucidate this problem, Niedenthal et al. offer a model that identifies multiple embodied and disembodied routes for expression processing, and spell out conditions triggering use of different routes. I elaborate on this model by discussing recent research on emotional recognition in individuals with autism, who can use multiple routes of emotion processing, and consequently can show atypical and typical patterns of embodied simulation and mimicry.
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  33.  14
    E. Kelman, R. S. Levy & Y. Levy (2001). Optimization of Solutions for the One Plant Protection Problem. Acta Biotheoretica 49 (1):61-71.
    Plant protection problems are simulated by a system of ordinary differential equations with given initial conditions. The sensitivity and resistance of pathogen subpopulations to fungicide mixtures, fungicide weathering, plant growth, etc. are taken into consideration. The system of equations is solved numerically for each set of initial conditions and parameters of the disease and fungicide applications. Optimization algorithms were investigated and a computer program was developed for optimization of these solutions. 14 typical cases of the disease were simulated and optimized (...)
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  34.  2
    M. A. Trump & W. C. Schieve (1998). Perihelion Precession in the Special Relativistic Two-Body Problem. Foundations of Physics 28 (9):1407-1416.
    The classical two-body system with Lorentz-invariant Coulomb work function V = -k/ρ is solved in 3+1 dimensions using the manifestly covariant Hamiltonian mechanics of Stückelberg. Particular solutions for the reduced motion are obtained which correspond to bound attractive, unbound attractive, and repulsive scattering motion. A lack of perihelion precession is found in the bound attractive orbit, and the semiclassical hydrogen spectrum subsequently contains no fine structure corrections. It is argued that this prediction is indicative of the correct classical special (...)
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  35. Dorothy Edgington, The Philosophical Problem of Vagueness.
    Think of the color spectrum, spread out before you. You can identify the different colors with ease. But if you are asked to indicate the point at which one color ends and the next begins, you are at a loss. "There is no such point", is a natural thought: one color just shades gradually into the next.
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  36.  2
    Michael C. Rea & Louis P. Pojman (eds.) (2010). Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology (6th Edition). Wadsworth.
    The most comprehensive text in its field, this anthology includes 74 articles in 9 areas of philosophy of religion: The Concept of God; Traditional Arguments for the Existence of God; Religious Experience; The Problem of Evil; Miracles, Death and Immortality; Faith and Reason; Science, Religion, and Evolution; and Religious Pluralism. The arrangement of the articles and the introductions which accompany them help students place the readings in their historical or contemporary context, and to ensure that students can be exposed (...)
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  37. Massimo Pigliucci (2013). The Demarcation Problem: A (Belated) Response to Laudan. In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press 9.
    The “demarcation problem,” the issue of how to separate science from pseu- doscience, has been around since fall 1919—at least according to Karl Pop- per’s (1957) recollection of when he first started thinking about it. In Popper’s mind, the demarcation problem was intimately linked with one of the most vexing issues in philosophy of science, David Hume’s problem of induction (Vickers 2010) and, in particular, Hume’s contention that induction cannot be logically justified by appealing to the fact (...)
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  38.  3
    Bakhadyr Khoussainov & Richard A. Shore (1998). Computable Isomorphisms, Degree Spectra of Relations, and Scott Families. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 93 (1-3):153-193.
    The spectrum of a relation on a computable structure is the set of Turing degrees of the image of R under all isomorphisms between and any other computable structure . The relation is intrinsically computably enumerable if its image under all such isomorphisms is c.e. We prove that any computable partially ordered set is isomorphic to the spectrum of an intrinsically c.e. relation on a computable structure. Moreover, the isomorphism can be constructed in such a way that the (...)
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  39.  90
    W. R. Webster (2006). Human Zombies Are Metaphysically Impossible. Synthese 151 (2):297-310.
    Chalmers has argued for a form of property dualism on the basis of the concept of a zombie , and the concept of the inverted spectrum. He asserts that these concepts show that the facts about consciousness, such as experience or qualia, are really further facts about our world, over and above the physical facts. He claims that they are the hard part of the mind-body issue. He also claims that consciousness is a fundamental feature of the world like (...)
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  40.  25
    William H. Brenner (2015). From Inverted Spectra to Colorless Qualia: A Wittgensteinian Critique. Philosophical Investigations 38 (4):360-381.
    This is terribly hard, Thouless, I'm sorry. I have thought over all this for years. … It is now as if we had ploughed furrows in different parts of a field. There is a lot left to do. Judging from their writings, most contemporary analytic philosophers have not been persuaded that “the inverted spectrum problem” is – as Wittgenstein maintained – really a conceptual puzzle calling for dissolution, rather than a straight problem calling for a solution. In (...)
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  41.  3
    William Robert Webster (2006). Human Zombies Are Metaphysically Impossible. Synthese 151 (2):297-310.
    Chalmers has argued for a form of property dualism on the basis of the concept of a zombie , and the concept of the inverted spectrum. He asserts that these concepts show that the facts about consciousness, such as experience or qualia, are really further facts about our world, over and above the physical facts. He claims that they are the hard part of the mind-body issue. He also claims that consciousness is a fundamental feature of the world like (...)
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  42. Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (2013). Why the Demarcation Problem Matters. In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem.
    Ever since Socrates, philosophers have been in the business of asking ques- tions of the type “What is X?” The point has not always been to actually find out what X is, but rather to explore how we think about X, to bring up to the surface wrong ways of thinking about it, and hopefully in the process to achieve an increasingly better understanding of the matter at hand. In the early part of the twentieth century one of the most (...)
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  43. Daniel Howard-Snyder (2013). The Logical Problem of Evil: Mackie and Plantinga. In Justin McBrayer & Daniel Howard-Snyder (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil. Wiley-Blackwell 19-33.
    J.L. Mackie’s version of the logical problem of evil is a failure, as even he came to recognize. Contrary to current mythology, however, its failure was not established by Alvin Plantinga’s Free Will Defense. That’s because a defense is successful only if it is not reasonable to refrain from believing any of the claims that constitute it, but it is reasonable to refrain from believing the central claim of Plantinga’s Free Will Defense, namely the claim that, possibly, every essence (...)
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  44. Philippa Foot (1967). The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Oxford Review 5:5-15.
    One of the reasons why most of us feel puzzled about the problem of abortion is that we want, and do not want, to allow to the unborn child the rights that belong to adults and children. When we think of a baby about to be born it seems absurd to think that the next few minutes or even hours could make so radical a difference to its status; yet as we go back in the life of the fetus (...)
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  45. Moti Mizrahi (2014). The Problem of Natural Inequality: A New Problem of Evil. Philosophia 42 (1):127-136.
    In this paper, I argue that there is a kind of evil, namely, the unequal distribution of natural endowments, or natural inequality, which presents theists with a new evidential problem of evil. The problem of natural inequality is a new evidential problem of evil not only because, to the best of my knowledge, it has not yet been discussed in the literature, but also because available theodicies, such the free will defense and the soul-making defense, are not (...)
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  46. Nate Charlow (2014). The Problem with the Frege–Geach Problem. Philosophical Studies 167 (3):635-665.
    I resolve the major challenge to an Expressivist theory of the meaning of normative discourse: the Frege–Geach Problem. Drawing on considerations from the semantics of directive language (e.g., imperatives), I argue that, although certain forms of Expressivism (like Gibbard’s) do run into at least one version of the Problem, it is reasonably clear that there is a version of Expressivism that does not.
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  47. Massimo Pigliucci (2013). What Hard Problem? Philosophy Now (99).
    The philosophical study of consciousness is chock full of thought experiments: John Searle’s Chinese Room, David Chalmers’ Philosophical Zombies, Frank Jackson’s Mary’s Room, and Thomas Nagel’s ‘What is it like to be a bat?’ among others. Many of these experiments and the endless discussions that follow them are predicated on what Chalmers famously referred as the ‘hard’ problem of consciousness: for him, it is ‘easy’ to figure out how the brain is capable of perception, information integration, attention, reporting on (...)
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  48. Robert Francescotti (2013). The Problem of Animal Pain and Suffering. In Justin McBrayer Daniel Howard-Snyder (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil. 113-127.
    Here I discuss some theistic responses to the problem of animal pain and suffering with special attention to Michael Murray’s presentation in Nature Red in Tooth and Claw. The neo-Cartesian defenses he describes are reviewed, along with the appeal to nomic regularity and Murray’s emphasis on the progression of the universe from chaos to order. It is argued that despite these efforts to prove otherwise the problem of animal suffering remains a serious threat to the belief that an (...)
     
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  49.  45
    Matthew Frise (forthcoming). Internalism and the Problem of Stored Beliefs. Erkenntnis:1-20.
    A belief is stored if it is in no way before the subject’s mind. The problem of stored beliefs is that of satisfactorily explaining how the stored beliefs which seem justified are indeed justified. In this paper I challenge the two leading internalist attempts to solve this problem. Internalism about epistemic justification, at a minimum, states that one’s mental life alone determines what one is justified in believing. First I dispute the attempt from epistemic conservatism, which states that (...)
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  50. Michael Thau (2002). Consciousness and Cognition. Oxford University Press.
    This book maintains that our conception of consciousness and cognition begins with and depends upon a few fundamental errors. Thau elucidates these errors by discussing three important philosophical puzzles - Spectrum Inversion, Frege's Puzzle, and Black-and-White Mary - each of which concerns some aspect of either consciousness or cognition. He argues that it has gone unnoticed that each of these puzzles presents the very same problem and, in bringing this commonality to light, the errors in our natural conception (...)
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