Search results for 'Sr Copeland' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Sr Copeland (1966). Mathematical Proof and Experimental Proof. Philosophy of Science 33 (4):303-.score: 240.0
    In studies of scientific methodology, surprisingly little attention has been given to tests of hypotheses. Such testing constitutes a methodology common to various scientific disciplines and is an essential factor in the development of science since it determines which theories are retained. The classical theory of tests is a major accomplishment but requires modification in order to produce a theory that accounts for the success of science. The revised theory is an analysis of the nondeductive aspect of scientific reasoning. It (...)
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  2. Warren R. Copeland (2009). Doing Justice in Our Cities: Lessons in Public Policy From America's Heartland. Westminster John Knox Press.score: 60.0
    Copeland draws from his experience of more than two decades in both city politics and as a professor of religion, and addresses head-on the issue of Christian ...
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  3. B. Jack Copeland (2000). The Turing Test. Minds and Machines 10 (4):519-539.score: 30.0
    Turing''s test has been much misunderstood. Recently unpublished material by Turing casts fresh light on his thinking and dispels a number of philosophical myths concerning the Turing test. Properly understood, the Turing test withstands objections that are popularly believed to be fatal.
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  4. B. Jack Copeland (1996). What is Computation? Synthese 108 (3):335-59.score: 30.0
    To compute is to execute an algorithm. More precisely, to say that a device or organ computes is to say that there exists a modelling relationship of a certain kind between it and a formal specification of an algorithm and supporting architecture. The key issue is to delimit the phrase of a certain kind. I call this the problem of distinguishing between standard and nonstandard models of computation. The successful drawing of this distinction guards Turing's 1936 analysis of computation against (...)
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  5. B. Jack Copeland (2002). The Genesis of Possible Worlds Semantics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (2):99-137.score: 30.0
    This article traces the development of possible worlds semantics through the work of: Wittgenstein, 1913-1921; Feys, 1924; McKinsey, 1945; Carnap, 1945-1947; McKinsey, Tarski and Jónsson, 1947-1952; von Wright, 1951; Becker, 1952; Prior, 1953-1954; Montague, 1955; Meredith and Prior, 1956; Geach, 1960; Smiley, 1955-1957; Kanger, 1957; Hintikka, 1957; Guillaume, 1958; Binkley, 1958; Bayart, 1958-1959; Drake, 1959-1961; Kripke, 1958-1965.
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  6. B. Jack Copeland (1995). Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction. Cambridge: Blackwell.score: 30.0
  7. B. Jack Copeland (1993). The Curious Case of the Chinese Gym. Synthese 95 (2):173-86.score: 30.0
    Searle has recently used two adaptations of his Chinese room argument in an attack on connectionism. I show that these new forms of the argument are fallacious. First I give an exposition of and rebuttal to the original Chinese room argument, and then a brief introduction to the essentials of connectionism.
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  8. Jack Copeland (1998). Turing's o-Machines, Searle, Penrose, and the Brain. Analysis 58 (2):128-138.score: 30.0
    In his PhD thesis (1938) Turing introduced what he described as 'a new kind of machine'. He called these 'O-machines'. The present paper employs Turing's concept against a number of currently fashionable positions in the philosophy of mind.
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  9. B. Jack Copeland (2006). Meredith, Prior, and the History of Possible Worlds Semantics. Synthese 150 (3):373 - 397.score: 30.0
    This paper charts some early history of the possible worlds semantics for modal logic, starting with the pioneering work of Prior and Meredith. The contributions of Geach, Hintikka, Kanger, Kripke, Montague, and Smiley are also discussed.
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  10. Jack Copeland (1999). Beyond the Universal Turing Machine. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-67.score: 30.0
    We describe an emerging field, that of nonclassical computability and nonclassical computing machinery. According to the nonclassicist, the set of well-defined computations is not exhausted by the computations that can be carried out by a Turing machine. We provide an overview of the field and a philosophical defence of its foundations.
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  11. B. Jack Copeland (2008). The Church-Turing Thesis. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.score: 30.0
    There are various equivalent formulations of the Church-Turing thesis. A common one is that every effective computation can be carried out by a Turing machine. The Church-Turing thesis is often misunderstood, particularly in recent writing in the philosophy of mind.
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  12. Jack Copeland, Heather Dyke & Diane Proudfoot (2001). Temporal Parts and Their Individuation. Analysis 61 (4):289–293.score: 30.0
    Ignoring the temporal dimension, an object such as a railway tunnel or a human body is a three-dimensional whole composed of three-dimensional parts. The four-dimensionalist holds that a physical object exhibiting identity across time—Descartes, for example—is a four-dimensional whole composed of 'briefer' four-dimensional objects, its temporal parts. Peter van Inwagen (1990) has argued that four-dimensionalism cannot be sustained, or at best can be sustained only by a counterpart theorist. We argue that different schemes of individuation of temporal parts are available, (...)
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  13. B. Jack Copeland & Oron Shagrir (2007). Physical Computation: How General Are Gandy's Principles for Mechanisms? [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 17 (2):217-231.score: 30.0
    What are the limits of physical computation? In his ‘Church’s Thesis and Principles for Mechanisms’, Turing’s student Robin Gandy proved that any machine satisfying four idealised physical ‘principles’ is equivalent to some Turing machine. Gandy’s four principles in effect define a class of computing machines (‘Gandy machines’). Our question is: What is the relationship of this class to the class of all (ideal) physical computing machines? Gandy himself suggests that the relationship is identity. We do not share this view. We (...)
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  14. Jack Copeland (1997). The Broad Conception of Computation. American Behavioral Scientist 40 (6):690-716.score: 30.0
    A myth has arisen concerning Turing's paper of 1936, namely that Turing set forth a fundamental principle concerning the limits of what can be computed by machine - a myth that has passed into cognitive science and the philosophy of mind, to wide and pernicious effect. This supposed principle, sometimes incorrectly termed the 'Church-Turing thesis', is the claim that the class of functions that can be computed by machines is identical to the class of functions that can be computed by (...)
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  15. B. Jack Copeland (1997). Vague Identity and Fuzzy Logic. Journal of Philosophy 94 (10):514-534.score: 30.0
  16. B. Jack Copeland (2000). Narrow Versus Wide Mechanism: Including a Re-Examination of Turing's Views on the Mind-Machine Issue. Journal of Philosophy 97 (1):5-33.score: 30.0
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  17. Diane Proudfoot & B. Jack Copeland (1994). Turing, Wittgenstein and the Science of the Mind. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (4):497 – 519.score: 30.0
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  18. B. Jack Copeland (2002). Hypercomputation. Minds and Machines 12 (4):461-502.score: 30.0
  19. B. Jack Copeland (2002). Accelerating Turing Machines. Minds and Machines 12 (2):281-300.score: 30.0
    Accelerating Turing machines are Turing machines of a sort able to perform tasks that are commonly regarded as impossible for Turing machines. For example, they can determine whether or not the decimal representation of contains n consecutive 7s, for any n; solve the Turing-machine halting problem; and decide the predicate calculus. Are accelerating Turing machines, then, logically impossible devices? I argue that they are not. There are implications concerning the nature of effective procedures and the theoretical limits of computability. Contrary (...)
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  20. Andrew Sikula Sr (1996). Concepts of Moral Management and Moral Maximization. Ethics and Behavior 6 (3):181 – 188.score: 30.0
    This article introduces two new concepts into the business ethics literature, moral management and moral maximization, and explains the ways to measure and implement these concepts using four major subcomponents of human rights, human freedoms, human equity, and human development. Each of these subcomponents is subdivided into eight factors or items, resulting in 32 specific and tangible measures of the morality of human behavior. Figures are provided to illustrate the relationships between moral management and moral maximization and their 32 submeasures.
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  21. Jack Copeland (2002). Narrow Versus Wide Mechanism. In Matthias Scheutz (ed.), Computationalism: New Directions. MIT Press. 5-32.score: 30.0
  22. Jack Copeland (1998). Super Turing-Machines. Complexity 4 (1):30-32.score: 30.0
    The tape is divided into squares, each square bearing a single symbol—'0' or '1', for example. This tape is the machine's general-purpose storage medium: the machine is set in motion with its input inscribed on the tape, output is written onto the tape by the head, and the tape serves as a short-term working memory for the results of intermediate steps of the computation. The program governing the particular computation that the machine is to perform is also stored on the (...)
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  23. B. J. Copeland (1979). On When a Semantics is Not a Semantics: Some Reasons for Disliking the Routley-Meyer Semantics for Relevance Logic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 8 (1):399 - 413.score: 30.0
  24. Jack Copeland (1996). On Alan Turing's Anticipation of Connectionism. Synthese 108 (3):361-377.score: 30.0
    It is not widely realised that Turing was probably the first person to consider building computing machines out of simple, neuron-like elements connected together into networks in a largely random manner. Turing called his networks unorganised machines. By the application of what he described as appropriate interference, mimicking education an unorganised machine can be trained to perform any task that a Turing machine can carry out, provided the number of neurons is sufficient. Turing proposed simulating both the behaviour of the (...)
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  25. B. Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot (2010). Deviant Encodings and Turing's Analysis of Computability. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):247-252.score: 30.0
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  26. B. Jack Copeland, The Modern History of Computing. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
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  27. Rita Copeland (1995). Book Review: Rhetoric, Hermeneutics, and Translation in the Middle Ages. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Literature 19 (2).score: 30.0
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  28. B. Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot (2000). What Turing Did After He Invented the Universal Turing Machine. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):491-509.score: 30.0
    Alan Turing anticipated many areas of current research incomputer and cognitive science. This article outlines his contributionsto Artificial Intelligence, connectionism, hypercomputation, andArtificial Life, and also describes Turing's pioneering role in thedevelopment of electronic stored-program digital computers. It locatesthe origins of Artificial Intelligence in postwar Britain. It examinesthe intellectual connections between the work of Turing and ofWittgenstein in respect of their views on cognition, on machineintelligence, and on the relation between provability and truth. Wecriticise widespread and influential misunderstandings of theChurch–Turing thesis (...)
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  29. David E. Copeland (2006). Theories of Categorical Reasoning and Extended Syllogisms. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (4):379 – 412.score: 30.0
    The aim of this study was to examine the predictions of three theories of human logical reasoning, (a) mental model theory, (b) formal rules theory (e.g., PSYCOP), and (c) the probability heuristics model, regarding the inferences people make for extended categorical syllogisms. Most research with extended syllogisms has been restricted to the quantifier “All” and to an asymmetrical presentation. This study used three-premise syllogisms with the additional quantifiers that are used for traditional categorical syllogisms as well as additional syllogistic figures. (...)
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  30. B. Jack Copeland (1995). On Vague Objects, Fuzzy Logic and Fractal Boundaries. Southern Journal of Philosophy 33 (S1):83-96.score: 30.0
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  31. B. J. Copeland (1995). Vagueness and Bivalence: A Discussion of Williamson and Simons. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 95 (1):193 - 200.score: 30.0
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  32. B. Jack Copeland, Arthur Prior. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
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  33. B. J. Copeland (1983). Pure Semantics and Applied Semantics. Topoi 2 (2):197-204.score: 30.0
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  34. B. J. Copeland (1985). Substitutional Quantification and Existence. Analysis 45 (1):1 - 4.score: 30.0
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  35. B. Jack Copeland (2000). Indeterminate Identity, Contingent Identity, and Property Identity, Aristotelian-Style. Philosophical Topics 28 (1):11-25.score: 30.0
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  36. B. J. Copeland (1986). What is a Semantics for Classical Negation? Mind 95 (380):478-490.score: 30.0
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  37. Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot (2012). Our Posthuman Future. The Philosophers' Magazine 57 (57):73-78.score: 30.0
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  38. Jack Copeland (1994). Turing, Wittgenstein, and the Science of the Mind. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (4):497-519.score: 30.0
  39. B. Jack Copeland (ed.) (2005). Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to Build the Modern Computer. OUP Oxford.score: 30.0
    The mathematical genius Alan Turing (1912-1954) was one of the greatest scientists and thinkers of the 20th century. Now well known for his crucial wartime role in breaking the ENIGMA code, he was the first to conceive of the fundamental principle of the modern computer-the idea of controlling a computing machine's operations by means of a program of coded instructions, stored in the machine's 'memory'. In 1945 Turing drew up his revolutionary design for an electronic computing machine-his Automatic Computing Engine (...)
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  40. Morris A. Copeland (1927). An Instrumental View of the Part-Whole Relation. Journal of Philosophy 24 (4):96-104.score: 30.0
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  41. John W. Copeland (1971). B. F. Skinner's Skepticism About Choices and Future Consequences. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 31 (4):540-545.score: 30.0
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  42. B. J. Copeland & D. R. Murdoch (1991). The Arthur Prior Memorial Conference. Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (1):372-382.score: 30.0
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  43. B. J. Copeland (1980). The Trouble Anderson and Belnap Have with Relevance. Philosophical Studies 37 (4):325 - 334.score: 30.0
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  44. David Heinze, Scott Sibary & Andrew Sikula Sr (1999). Relations Among Corporate Social Responsibility, Financial Soundness, and Investment Value in 22 Manufacturing Industry Groups. Ethics and Behavior 9 (4):331 – 347.score: 30.0
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  45. B. J. Copeland (1983). Tense Trees: A Tree System for ${\Rm K}_{{\Rm T}}$. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24 (3):318-322.score: 30.0
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  46. B. Jack Copeland & Oron Shagrir (2011). Do Accelerating Turing Machines Compute the Uncomputable? Minds and Machines 21 (2):221-239.score: 30.0
  47. Rita Copeland (2014). Pathos and Pastoralism: Aristotle's Rhetoric in Medieval England. Speculum 89 (1):96-127.score: 30.0
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  48. Arthur H. Copeland (1962). Statistical Induction and the Foundations of Probability. Theoria 28 (2):87-109.score: 30.0
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  49. Ian C. Copeland (1994). The Primary School Brochure: A Sample Analysis. Educational Studies 20 (3):387-398.score: 30.0
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  50. Lawrence C. Rubin, Laura S. Brown, Walter M. Robinson, Andrew Sikula Sr & Lorraine P. Anderson (2003). The Forum. Ethics and Behavior 13 (4):401 – 413.score: 30.0
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