Search results for 'Steen Olaf Welding' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Steen Olaf Welding (2013). Ist die ethische Disjunktion Determinismus oder Indeterminismus lösbar? Eine Auseinandersetzung mit dem Begriff der Handlung. Archiv Fuer Rechts- Und Sozialphilosphie 99 (4):556-563.score: 290.0
    It seems that actions are perceived from two different perspectives: on the one hand by the agent of the action and on the other hand by the observer. The latter perspective appears to be more reliable because of inter-subjective observations. Hence, determinists argue that actions can be causally explained by events, whereas the indeterminists claim that actions are acausal events. If e.g. Mary opens the door, we observe her behaviour but not her action; for it is not clear to us (...)
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  2. Steen Olaf Welding (1984). Die Struktur der Begründung Wissenschaftlicher Prognosen. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 15 (1):72-91.score: 290.0
    Summary Influenced by the account of K. Popper and, moreover, of C. G. Hempel and P. Oppenheim, it is generally assumed, that a prediction can be logically deduced from hypotheses, i. e. lawlike propositions, and initial conditions. It is not clear, in which respect a prediction can correctly be supposed to be a proposition which is either true or false. From a logical point of view, serious difficulties arise in assuming that the deductive-nomological model consists of a valid argument. Further (...)
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  3. Sten Olaf Welding (2005). Kann Es Ein Argument für den Skeptizismus Geben? Das Epistemische Problem der Irrtumsmöglichkeit. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 36 (1):107 - 118.score: 120.0
    Is there any argument for scepticism? The epistemic problem of the possibility of error. Arguments for scepticism rest on the assumption that knowledge claims are fallible. For this reason the concept of knowledge appears to be questionable. Since it is necessary to distinguish doubts from possible doubts, the arguments for scepticism appear to be unconvincing. If we take it into account that we know something that is immune to doubt, we should draw the conclusion that, contrary to scepticism, knowledge claims (...)
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  4. Monica Meijsing (2007). Steen Olaf Welding, Die Unerkennbarkeit Des Geistes. Phänomenale Erfahrung Und Menschliche Erkenntnis. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 38 (2):407-412.score: 90.0
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  5. Mamm Meijsing (2008). Steen Olaf Welding, Die Unerkennbarkeit des Geistes. Phänomenale Erfahrung und menschliche Erkenntnis.(Review of the book Die Unerkennbarkeit des Geistes. Phänomenale Erfahrung und menschliche Erkenntnis, 2002, 10838-007-9042-9). [REVIEW] Journal for the General Philosophy of Science 38:407-412.score: 90.0
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  6. Irem Kurtsal Steen (2010). Three-Dimensionalist's Semantic Solution to Diachronic Vagueness. Philosophical Studies 150 (1):79-96.score: 30.0
    A standard response to the problem of diachronic vagueness is ‘the semantic solution’, which demands an abundant ontology. Although it is known that the abundant ontology does not logically preclude endurantism, their combination is rejected because it necessitates massive coincidence between countless objects. In this paper, I establish that the semantic solution is available not only to perdurantists but also to endurantists by showing that there is no problem with such ubiquitous and principled coincidence.
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  7. Mark Steen (2011). Why Everyone Acts Altruistically All the Time: What Parodying Psychological Egoism Can Teach Us. Philosophia 39 (3):563-570.score: 30.0
    Psychological Altruism (PA) is the view that everyone, ultimately, acts altruistically all the time. I defend PA by showing strong prima facie support, and show how a reinterpretive strategy against supposed counterexamples is successful. I go on to show how PA can be argued for in ways which exactly mirror the arguments for an opposing view, Psychological Egoism. This shows that the case for PA is at least as plausible as PE. Since the case for PA is not plausible, neither (...)
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  8. Mark Steen (2011). More Problems for MaxCon: Contingent Particularity and Stuff-Thing Coincidence. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 26 (2):135-154.score: 30.0
    Ned Markosian argues (Australasian Journal of Philosophy 76:213-228, 1998a; Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82:332-340, 2004a, The Monist 87:405-428, 2004b) that simples are ‘maximally continuous’ entities. This leads him to conclude that there could be non-particular ‘stuff’ in addition to things. I first show how an ensuing debate on this issue McDaniel (Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81(2):265-275, 2003); Markosian (Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82:332-340, 2004a) ended in deadlock. I attempt to break the deadlock. Markosian’s view entails stuff-thing coincidence, which I show (...)
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  9. Mark Steen, The Metaphysics of Mass Expressions. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
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  10. Mark Steen, Ontological Nihilisms and Their Problems.score: 30.0
    Concerns of ontological parsimony have driven some philosophers to defend the view that there are absolutely no things at all (or, at most one—the World). I examine these (given their counterintuitiveness) surprisingly well-motivated views and diagnose their errors. Both Spinoza’s ‘field metaphysic’ (attributed to him by Bennett), and Cortens and Hawthorne’s feature-placing based ‘ontological nihilism’ surreptitiously re-introduce ‘things’ or ‘substances’ into their systems. Alan Sidelle’s stuff-ontological object nihilism either has to re-admit objects back into his system, or, perhaps incoherently, and (...)
     
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  11. Wim J. Steen (1986). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology VI. The Force of Evolutionary Epistemology. Acta Biotheoretica 35 (3).score: 30.0
    Evolutionary epistemology takes various forms. As a philosophical discipline, it may use analogies by borrowing concepts from evolutionary biology to establish new foundations. This is not a very successful enterprise because the analogies involved are so weak that they hardly have explanatory force. It may also veil itself with the garbs of biology. Proponents of this strategy have only produced irrelevant theories by transforming epistemology's concepts beyond recognition. Sensible theories about knowledge and biology should presuppose that various long-standing problems concerning (...)
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  12. S. O. Welding (2004). Die Differenz Von Meinung Und Wissen. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 35 (1):147-155.score: 30.0
    The Difference between Belief and Knowledge. The assumption that knowledge can be defined in terms of belief is considered to be mistaken. Since Gettier problems are shown to be misconstrued, the question cannot arise whether his conditions for knowledge are sufficient for claiming ``knowledge is justified true belief''. Ayers' conditions for knowledge in addition with a specific stipulation proof to be instructive for elaborating the differences between knowledge and belief.
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  13. Mark Steen (2008). Chisholm's Changing Conception of Ordinary Objects. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76 (1):1-56.score: 30.0
    Roderick Chisholm changed his mind about ordinary objects. Circa 1973-1976, his analysis of them required the positing of two kinds of entities—part-changing ens successiva and non-part-changing, non-scatterable primary objects. This view has been well noted and frequently discussed (e.g., recently in Gallois 1998 and Sider 2001). Less often treated is his later view of ordinary objects (1986-1989), where the two kinds of posited entities change, from ens successiva to modes, and, while retaining primary objects, he now allows them to survive (...)
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  14. Wim J. Steen (1990). Interdisciplinary Integration in Biology? An Overview. Acta Biotheoretica 38 (1).score: 30.0
    Philosophical theories about reduction and integration in science are at variance with what is happenign in science. A realistic approach to science show that possibilities for reduction and integration are limited. The classical ideal of a unified science has since long been rejected in philosophy. But the current emphasis on interdisciplinary integration in philosophy and in science shows that it survives in a different guise. It is necessary to redress the balance, specifically in biology. Methodological analysis shows that many of (...)
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  15. Anne-Cathrine Naess, Reidun Foerde & Petter Andreas Steen (2001). Patient Autonomy in Emergency Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (1):71-77.score: 30.0
    Theoretical models for patient-physician communication in clinical practice are frequently described in the literature. Respecting patient autonomy is an ethical problem the physician faces in a medical emergency situation. No theoretical physician-patient model seems to be ideal for solving the communication problem in clinical practice. Theoretical models can at best give guidance to behavior and judgement in emergency situations. In this article the premises of autonomous treatment decisions are discussed. Based on a case-report we discuss different genuine efforts the physician (...)
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  16. Wim J. Steen (1983). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology I. Testability and Tautologies. Acta Biotheoretica 32 (3).score: 30.0
    The impact of philosophy of science on biology is slight. Evolutionary biology, however, is nowadays an exception. The status of the neo-Darwinian (synthetic) theory of evolution is seriously challenged from a methodological perspective. However, the methodology used in the relevant discussions is plainly defective. A correct application of methodology to evolutionary theory leads to the following conclusions. (a) The theory of natural selection (the core of neo-Darwinism) is unfalsifiable in a strict sense of the term. This, however, does not militate (...)
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  17. Eldri Steen & Liv Haugli (2000). Generalised Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain as a Rational Reaction to a Life Situation? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (6):581-599.score: 30.0
    While the biomedical model is still theleading paradigm within modern medicine and healthcare, and people with generalised chronicmusculoskeletal pain are frequent users of health careservices, their diagnoses are rated as having thelowest prestige among health care personnel. Anepistemological framework for understanding relationsbetween body, emotions, mind and meaning is presented.An approach based on a phenomenological epistemologyis discussed as a supplement to actions based on thebiomedical model.Within the phenomenological frame of understanding,the body is viewed as a subject and carrier ofmeaning, and therefore (...)
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  18. Wim J. Steen (1983). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology II. Appraisal of Arguments Against Adaptationism. Acta Biotheoretica 32 (3).score: 30.0
    Methodological analysis shows that the concepts of fitness and adaptation are more complex than the literature suggests. Various arguments against adaptationism are inadequate since they are couched in terms of unduly simplistic notions.
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  19. R. G. Steen (2011). Misinformation in the Medical Literature: What Role Do Error and Fraud Play? Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):498-503.score: 30.0
    Media attention to retracted research suggests that a substantial number of papers are corrupted by misinformation. In reality, every paper contains misinformation; at issue is whether the balance of correct versus incorrect information is acceptable. This paper postulates that analysis of retracted research papers can provide insight into medical misinformation, although retracted papers are not a random sample of incorrect papers. Error is the most common reason for retraction and error may be the principal cause of misinformation as well. Still, (...)
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  20. Wim J. Steen & Martin Scholten (1985). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology IV. Stress and Stress Tolerance, an Excercise in Definitions. Acta Biotheoretica 34 (1).score: 30.0
    Grime (1979) in a recently developed theory distinguished three basic plant strategies: stress tolerance,ruderality and competition. He relates them to environments characterized in terms of stress and disturbance. Classifications of strategies and environments both are ultimately defined in terms of production. This tends to make the theory tautological. If the theory is to make sense, environments had better be defined in independent terms.
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  21. S. W. P. Steen (1962). Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 12 (48):80-83.score: 30.0
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  22. R. G. Steen (2011). Retractions in the Medical Literature: How Many Patients Are Put at Risk by Flawed Research? Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (11):688-692.score: 30.0
    Background Clinical papers so flawed that they are eventually retracted may put patients at risk. Patient risk could arise in a retracted primary study or in any secondary study that draws ideas or inspiration from a primary study. Methods To determine how many patients were put at risk, we evaluated 788 retracted English-language papers published from 2000 to 2010, describing new research with humans or freshly derived human material. These primary papers—together with all secondary studies citing them—were evaluated using ISI (...)
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  23. Wim J. Steen & Bert Musschenga (1992). The Issue of Generality in Ethics. Journal of Value Inquiry 26 (4):511-524.score: 30.0
    Does ethics have adequate general theories? Our analysis shows that this question does not have a straightforward answer since the key terms are ambiguous. So we should not concentrate on the answer but on the question itself. “Ethics” stands for many things, but we let that pass. “Adequate” may refer to varied arrays of methodological principles which are seldom fully articulated in ethics. “General” is a notion with at least three meanings. Different kinds of generality may be at cross-purposes, so (...)
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  24. Wim J. Van der Steen (1998). Forging Links Between Philosophy, Ethics, and the Life Sciences: A Tale of Disciplines and Trenches. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 20 (2):233 - 248.score: 30.0
    Philosophy of medicine and its daughter bioethics seldom undertake a critical analysis of live medical science. That is a serious shortcoming since some forms of bias in medical science have a negative impact on health care. Most notably, many areas of medicine focus on a restricted area of biology to the exclusion of ecology. Ecological thinking should lead to fundamental changes in medicine and the philosophy of medicine.
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  25. R. G. Steen (2012). Retractions in the Medical Literature: How Can Patients Be Protected From Risk? Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (4):228-232.score: 30.0
    Background Medical research so flawed as to be retracted may put patients at risk by influencing treatments. Objective To explore hypotheses that more patients are put at risk if a retracted paper appears in a journal with a high impact factor (IF) so that the paper is widely read; is written by a ‘repeat offender’ author who has produced other retracted research; or is a clinical trial. Methods English language papers (n=788) retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 (...)
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  26. Richard M. Burian & Wim J. Steen (1993). Introduction. Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):255-257.score: 30.0
  27. Patsy Haccou & Wim J. Steen (1992). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 40 (4).score: 30.0
    One of the major criticisms of optimal foraging theory (OFT) is that it is not testable. In discussions of this criticism opposing parties have confused methodological concepts and used meaningless biological concepts. In this paper we discuss such misunderstandings and show that OFr has an empirically testable, and even well-confirmed, general core theory. One of our main conclusions is that specific model testing should not be aimed at proving optimality, but rather at identifying the context in which certain types of (...)
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  28. Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. Steen (1987). The Nature of Evolutionary Theory: The Semantic Challenge. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.score: 30.0
  29. Wim J. Van Der Steen (2000). Science, Religion, and Experience. International Philosophical Quarterly 40 (3):339-349.score: 30.0
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  30. Marc Steen (2013). Virtues in Participatory Design: Cooperation, Curiosity, Creativity, Empowerment and Reflexivity. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):945-962.score: 30.0
    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative (...)
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  31. İrem Kurtsal Steen (2014). Almost-Ontology: Why Epistemicism Cannot Help Us Avoid Unrestricted Composition or Diachronic Plenitude. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):130-139.score: 30.0
    That any filled location of spacetime contains a persisting thing has been defended based on the ‘argument from vagueness.’ It is often assumed that since the epistemicist account of vagueness blocks the argument from vagueness it facilitates a conservative ontology without gerrymandered objects. It doesn't. The epistemic vagueness of ordinary object predicates such as ‘bicycle’ requires that objects that can be described as almost-but-not-quite-bicycle exist even though they fall outside the predicate's sharp extension. Since the predicates that begin with ‘almost’ (...)
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  32. Wim J. Steen & Peter B. Sloep (1988). Mere Generality is Not Enough. Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):217-219.score: 30.0
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  33. Wim J. Steen & Bart Voorzanger (1984). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology III. Selection and Levels of Organization. Acta Biotheoretica 33 (3).score: 30.0
    Apparently factual disagreement on the level(s) at which selection operates often results from different interpretations of the term selection. Attempts to resolve terminological problems must come to grips with a dilemma: a narrow interpretation of selection may lead to a restricted view on evolution; a broader, less precise, definition may wrongly suggest that selection is the centre of a unified, integrated theory of evolution. Different concepts of selection, therefore, should carefully be kept apart.
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  34. S. W. P. Steen (1954). Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 5 (17):80-83.score: 30.0
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  35. Wim J. Van Der Steen (1996). Screening-Off and Natural Selection. Philosophy of Science 63 (1):115 - 121.score: 30.0
    Sober (1992) and Brandon et al. (1994) disagree about the role of screening-off in the appraisal of theories of natural selection. Some problems disregarded by them are unearthed in this discussion note.
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  36. W. J. Steen (1980). The Classification of Disciplines in Biology: A Plea for Pluralism. Acta Biotheoretica 29 (2).score: 30.0
    Pluralism is a sound strategy in classifying disciplines of biology. The relevance of a particular classification depends on various methodological issues, on the way in which the scientist's problems are specified, and on factual matters.
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  37. Wim J. Steen (1993). Towards Disciplinary Disintegration in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):259-275.score: 30.0
    Interdisciplinary integration has fundamental limitations. This is not sufficiently realized in science and in philosophy. Concerning scientific theories there are many examples of pseudo-integration which should be unmasked by elementary philosophical analysis. For example, allegedly over-arching theories of stress which are meant to unite biology and psychology, upon analysis, turn out to represent terminological rather than substantive unity. They should be replaced by more specific, local theories. Theories of animal orientation, likewise, have been formulated in unduly general terms. A natural (...)
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  38. S. O. Welding (1971). Aristotle's Theory of the Syllogism. A Logico-Philological Study of Book A of the Prior Analytics. Philosophy and History 4 (2):156-156.score: 30.0
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  39. Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe & Erik Steen (2002). Index–Volume 19–2002. Agriculture and Human Values 19:381-384.score: 30.0
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  40. Kenneth Hugdahl, Else-Marie Løberg, Karsten Specht, Vidar M. Steen, Heidi van Wageningen & Hugo A. Jørgensen (2007). Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: The Role of Cognitive, Brain Structural and Genetic Disturbances in the Left Temporal Lobe. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2.score: 30.0
    In this article we review research in our laboratory on auditory hallucinations using behavioral and MRI measure. The review consists of both previously published and new data that for the fi rst time is presented together in a cohesive way. Auditory hallucinations are among the most common symptoms in schizophrenia, affecting more than 70% of the patients. We here advance the hypothesis that auditory hallucinations are internally generated speech perceptions that are lateralized to the left temporal lobe, in the peri-Sylvian (...)
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  41. Kenneth Hugdahl, Else-Marie Løberg, Karsten Specht, Vidar M. Steen, Heidi van Wageningen & Hugo A. Jørgensen (2007). Frontiers: Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: The Role of Cognitive, Brain Structural and Genetic Disturbances in the Left Temporal Lobe. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2.score: 30.0
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  42. Malaak Nasser Moussa, Crystal D. Vechlekar, Jonathan H. Burdette, Matt R. Steen, Christina E. Hugenschmidt & Paul J. Laurienti (2011). Changes in Cognitive State Alter Human Functional Brain Networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:83.score: 30.0
  43. Hans-Jorg Rheinberger & Wim J. Van der Steen (1994). Experiment, Differenz Schrift: Zur Geschichte Epistemiscber/Dinge. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):355.score: 30.0
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  44. Martin E. P. Seligman, Acacia C. Parks & Steen & Tracy (2005). A Balanced Psychology and a Full Life. In Felicia A. Huppert, Nick Baylis & Barry Keverne (eds.), The Science of Well-Being. Oup Oxford.score: 30.0
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  45. Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. Steen (1987). Syntacticism Versus Semanticism: Another Attempt at Dissolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):33-41.score: 30.0
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  46. Francis Steen (2006). A Cognitive Account of Aesthetics. In Mark Turner (ed.), The Artful Mind: Cognitive Science and the Riddle of Human Creativity. Oup Usa. 57--71.score: 30.0
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  47. Wim J. Steen (1993). Additional Notes on Integration. Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):349-352.score: 30.0
  48. Gonda van Steen (2013). Bakogianni A. Electra Ancient and Modern: Aspects of the Reception of the Tragic Heroine (Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies Supplement 113). London: Institute of Classical Studies, 2011. Pp. 250, Illus. £32. 9781905670376. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 133:313-314.score: 30.0
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  49. Mark Steen, Bare Objects, Ordinary Objects, and Mereological Essentialism.score: 30.0
    From five plausible premises about ordinary objects it follows that ordinary objects are either functions, fictions or processes. Assuming that the function and fiction accounts of ordinary objects are not plausible, in this paper I develop and defend a (non-Whiteheadian) process account of ordinary objects. I first offer an extended deduction that argues for mereological essentialism for masses or quantities, and then offer an inductive argument in favor of interpreting ordinary objects as processes. The ontology has two main types of (...)
     
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  50. Phyllis Steen (1981). Editorial. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39 (4):363-365.score: 30.0
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