Is there any argument for scepticism? The epistemic problem of the possibility of error. Arguments for scepticism rest on the assumption that knowledge claims are fallible. For this reason the concept of knowledge appears to be questionable. Since it is necessary to distinguish doubts from possible doubts, the arguments for scepticism appear to be unconvincing. If we take it into account that we know something that is immune to doubt, we should draw the conclusion that, contrary to scepticism, knowledge claims (...) have to be compatible with being fallible. Thus any knowledge claim is capable of being doubted. (shrink)
Summary Influenced by the account of K. Popper and, moreover, of C. G. Hempel and P. Oppenheim, it is generally assumed, that a prediction can be logically deduced from hypotheses, i. e. lawlike propositions, and initial conditions. It is not clear, in which respect a prediction can correctly be supposed to be a proposition which is either true or false. From a logical point of view, serious difficulties arise in assuming that the deductive-nomological model consists of a valid argument. Further (...) objections to this account are developed with regard to lawlike propositions. Since a lawlike proposition is â by definition â not true or definitely true, but only supposed to be true, it cannot function as a true premise among other true premises for the purpose of deduction. Special difficulties arise with regard to predictions: A predictive argument does not give any reason for the truth of the predictionK, but only â if at all â for the prediction of the truth ofK. In the latter case, the conclusion K clearly does not consist of a proposition (which could be either true or false) but rather of a predicting proposition. (shrink)
The Difference between Belief and Knowledge. The assumption that knowledge can be defined in terms of belief is considered to be mistaken. Since Gettier problems are shown to be misconstrued, the question cannot arise whether his conditions for knowledge are sufficient for claiming ``knowledge is justified true belief''. Ayers' conditions for knowledge in addition with a specific stipulation proof to be instructive for elaborating the differences between knowledge and belief.
Sir Alan?s PhD thesis describes his research into cracking during arc welding of armour steels. Throughout his career, he had a strong interest in defects of all types, how they formed in metallic structures and how the larger ones could be detected and sized by non-destructive techniques. He was also vitally concerned with how defects impacted on the engineering integrity of welded structures, particularly the risk of fracture in nuclear plant. This study presents a view of some of the (...) major milestones in global welding technology that took place over the 60 or more years of Sir Alan?s career and highlights those where he had a personal and direct involvement. (shrink)
Soit K un corps de rang de Morley fini; s'il est de caractéristique p non nulle, tout sous-groupe simple définissable de GLn(K) est définissablement isomorphe à un groupe algébrique sur K; en toute caractéristique, tout sous-groupe définissable de GLn(K) est résoluble par fini, ou bien contient SL2(K).
Este libro, resultado de un esfuerzo compartido por diversas instituciones, investigadores y editores, encabezados por el Grupo de Investigación E Pluribus Unum? Ethnic Identities in Transnational Integration Processes in the Americas de la Universidad de Bielefeld, trata un tema central para el futuro de nuestras mestizas sociedades latinoamericanas: la necesaria construcción -en el presente que vivimos- de la interculturalidad en nuestra América Latina. Esto en el nuevo contexto donde los ..