Search results for 'Stephan Schuhmacher' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, Stephan Schuhmacher & Gert Woerner (eds.) (1989). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala.score: 240.0
  2. Kritische Edition von Susanne Krause-Stinner Und Peter Stephan (2011). Textedition. T. 1. Das erste und zweite Buch : Vairagyaprakarana, Mumuksuvyavaharaprakarana / kritische Edition von Susanne Krause-Stinner. T. 2. Das dritte Buch : Utpattiprakaraṇa / kritische Edition von Jürgen Hanneder, Peter Stephan und Stanislav Jager. T. 3. Das vierte Buch : Sthitiprakaraṇa / kritische Edition von Susanne Krause-Stinner und Peter Stephan. T. 4. Das fünfte Buch : Upaśāntiprakaraṇa. [REVIEW] In Anonymus Casmiriensis (ed.), Mokṣopāya: Historisch-Kritische Gesamtausgabe. Harrassowitz.score: 180.0
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  3. Achim Stephan (2002). Emergentism, Irreducibility, and Downward Causation. Grazer Philosophische Studien 65 (1):77-93.score: 30.0
    Several theories of emergence will be distinguished. In particular, these are synchronic, diachronic, and weak versions of emergence. While the weaker theories are compatible with property reductionism, synchronic emergentism and strong versions of diachronic emergentism are not. Synchronice mergentism is of particular interest for the discussion of downward causation. For such a theory, a system's property is taken to be emergent if it is irreducible, i.e., if it is not reductively explainable. Furthermore, we have to distinguish two different types of (...)
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  4. Achim Stephan (2006). The Dual Role of 'Emergence' in the Philosophy of Mind and in Cognitive Science. Synthese 151 (3):485-498.score: 30.0
    The concept of emergence is widely used in both the philosophy of mind and in cognitive science. In the philosophy of mind it serves to refer to seemingly irreducible phenomena, in cognitive science it is often used to refer to phenomena not explicitly programmed. There is no unique concept of emergence available that serves both purposes.
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  5. F. C. Boogerd, F. J. Bruggeman, Robert C. Richardson, Achim Stephan & H. Westerhoff (2005). Emergence and Its Place in Nature: A Case Study of Biochemical Networks. Synthese 145 (1):131 - 164.score: 30.0
    We will show that there is a strong form of emergence in cell biology. Beginning with C.D. Broad's classic discussion of emergence, we distinguish two conditions sufficient for emergence. Emergence in biology must be compatible with the thought that all explanations of systemic properties are mechanistic explanations and with their sufficiency. Explanations of systemic properties are always in terms of the properties of the parts within the system. Nonetheless, systemic properties can still be emergent. If the properties of the components (...)
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  6. Achim Stephan (1999). Are Animals Capable of Concepts? Erkenntnis 51 (1):583-596.score: 30.0
    Often, the behavior of animals can be better explained and predicted, it seems, if we ascribe the capacity to have beliefs, intentions, and concepts to them. Whether we really can do so, however, is a debated issue. Particularly, Donald Davidson maintains that there is no basis in fact for ascribing propositional attitudes or concepts to animals. I will consider his and rival views, such as Colin Allen's three-part approach, for determining whether animals possess concepts. To avoid pure theoretical debate, however, (...)
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  7. Robert C. Richardson & Achim Stephan (2007). Emergence. Biological Theory 2 (1):91-96.score: 30.0
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  8. Johanna N. Y. Franklin & Frank Stephan (2010). Van Lambalgen's Theorem and High Degrees. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 52 (2):173-185.score: 30.0
    We show that van Lambalgen's Theorem fails with respect to recursive randomness and Schnorr randomness for some real in every high degree and provide a full characterization of the Turing degrees for which van Lambalgen's Theorem can fail with respect to Kurtz randomness. However, we also show that there is a recursively random real that is not Martin-Löf random for which van Lambalgen's Theorem holds with respect to recursive randomness.
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  9. Karl J. Friston & Klaas E. Stephan (2007). Free-Energy and the Brain. Synthese 159 (3):417 - 458.score: 30.0
    If one formulates Helmholtz's ideas about perception in terms of modern-day theories one arrives at a model of perceptual inference and learning that can explain a remarkable range of neurobiological facts. Using constructs from statistical physics it can be shown that the problems of inferring what cause our sensory inputs and learning causal regularities in the sensorium can be resolved using exactly the same principles. Furthermore, inference and learning can proceed in a biologically plausible fashion. The ensuing scheme rests on (...)
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  10. Bjørn Kjos-Hanssen, André Nies, Frank Stephan & Liang Yu (2010). Higher Kurtz Randomness. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 161 (10):1280-1290.score: 30.0
    A real x is -Kurtz random if it is in no closed null set . We show that there is a cone of -Kurtz random hyperdegrees. We characterize lowness for -Kurtz randomness as being -dominated and -semi-traceable.
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  11. Achim Stephan (1997). Armchair Arguments Against Emergence. Erkenntnis 46 (3):305-14.score: 30.0
  12. André Nies, Frank Stephan & Sebastiaan A. Terwijn (2005). Randomness, Relativization and Turing Degrees. Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (2):515 - 535.score: 30.0
    We compare various notions of algorithmic randomness. First we consider relativized randomness. A set is n-random if it is Martin-Löf random relative to θ(n−1). We show that a set is 2-random if and only if there is a constant c such that infinitely many initial segments x of the set are c-incompressible: C(x) ≥ |x| − c. The 'only if' direction was obtained independently by Joseph Miller. This characterization can be extended to the case of time-bounded C-complexity. Next we prove (...)
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  13. Richard Beigel, William Gasarch, Martin Kummer, Georgia Martin, Timothy McNicholl & Frank Stephan (2000). The Complexity of Oddan. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (1):1 - 18.score: 30.0
    For a fixed set A, the number of queries to A needed in order to decide a set S is a measure of S's complexity. We consider the complexity of certain sets defined in terms of A: $ODD^A_n = \{(x_1, \dots ,x_n): {\tt\#}^A_n(x_1, \dots, x_n) \text{is odd}\}$ and, for m ≥ 2, $\text{MOD}m^A_n = \{(x_1, \dots ,x_n):{\tt\#}^A_n(x_1, \dots ,x_n) \not\equiv 0 (\text{mod} m)\},$ where ${\tt\#}^A_n(x_1, \dots ,x_n) = A(x_1)+\cdots+A(x_n)$ . (We identify A(x) with χ A (x), where χ A is (...)
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  14. Achim Stephan (1999). Introduction: Animal Beliefs, Concepts, and Communication. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 51 (1):1-6.score: 30.0
  15. Frank Stephan (2001). On One-Sided Versus Two-Sided Classification. Archive for Mathematical Logic 40 (7):489-513.score: 30.0
    One-sided classifiers are computable devices which read the characteristic function of a set and output a sequence of guesses which converges to 1 iff the set on the input belongs to the gven class. Such a classifier istwo-sided if the sequence of its output in addition converges to 0 on setsnot belonging to the class. The present work obtains the below mentionedresults for one-sided classes (= Σ0 2 classes) with respect to four areas: Turing complexity, 1-reductions, index sets and measure.There (...)
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  16. Achim Stephan, Sven Walter & Wendy Wilutzky (2013). Emotions Beyond Brain and Body. Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):1-17.score: 30.0
    The emerging consensus in the philosophy of cognition is that cognition is situated, i.e., dependent upon or co-constituted by the body, the environment, and/or the embodied interaction with it. But what about emotions? If the brain alone cannot do much thinking, can the brain alone do some emoting? If not, what else is needed? Do (some) emotions (sometimes) cross an individual's boundary? If so, what kinds of supra-individual systems can be bearers of affective states, and why? And does that make (...)
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  17. Jan Slaby, Graham Katz, Kai-Uwe Kühnberger & Achim Stephan (2006). Embodied Targets, or the Origins of Mind-Tools. Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):103 – 118.score: 30.0
  18. Frank Stephan (2001). On the Structures Inside Truth-Table Degrees. Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (2):731-770.score: 30.0
    The following theorems on the structure inside nonrecursive truth-table degrees are established: Dëgtev's result that the number of bounded truth-table degrees inside a truth-table degree is at least two is improved by showing that this number is infinite. There are even infinite chains and antichains of bounded truth-table degrees inside every truth-table degree. The latter implies an affirmative answer to the following question of Jockusch: does every truth-table degree contain an infinite antichain of many-one degrees? Some but not all truth-table (...)
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  19. Achim Stephan (1994). Theorien der Emergenz - Metaphysik oder? Grazer Philosophische Studien 48:105-115.score: 30.0
    Emergenztheorien werden stets dann interessant, wenn orthodox monistische und orthodox dualistische Antworten auf metaphysische Fragen nach der Natur bestimmter Phänomene nicht überzeugen können. So ist der nichtreduktive Physikalismus, eine Spielart des synchronen Eigenschaftsemergentismus, eine Reaktion auf die vermeintlichen Schwierigkeiten mit ,,Brentanos Problem" und dem Qualia-Problem. Von den reduktionistischen Positionen unterscheidet sich der Eigenschaftsemergentismus durch die Behauptung, einige systematische Eigenschaften seien irreduzibel bezüglich der Eigenschaften und Relationen der Bestandteile des betrachteten Systems. Die Charakterisierung eines Phänomens als emergent erfolgt nach positivistischer Auffassung (...)
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  20. Achim Stephan (2012). Emotions, Existential Feelings, and Their Regulation. Emotion Review 4 (2):157-162.score: 30.0
    This article focuses on existential feelings. To begin with, it depicts how they differ from other affective phenomena and what type of intentionality they manifest. Furthermore, a detailed analysis shows that existential feelings can be subdivided, first, into elementary and nonelementary varieties, and second, into three foci of primary relatedness: oneself, the social environment, and the world as such. Eventually, five strategies of emotion regulation are examined with respect to their applicability to existential feelings. In the case of harmful existential (...)
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  21. Lieske Voget-Kleschin & Setareh Stephan (2013). The Potential of Standards and Codes of Conduct in Governing Large-Scale Land Acquisition in Developing Countries Towards Sustainability. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1157-1179.score: 30.0
    Commercial interest in land (large-scale land acquisition, LaSLA) in developing countries is a hot topic for debate and its potential consequences are contentious: proponents conceive of it as much needed investment into the formerly neglected agricultural sector while opponents point to severe social and environmental effects. This contribution discusses, if and how sustainability standards and codes of conduct can contribute towards governing LaSLA. Based on the WCED-definition we develop a conception of sustainability that allows framing potential negative effects as issues (...)
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  22. A. Stephan (2013). Enactive Emotion and Impaired Agency in Depression. Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (7-8):7-8.score: 30.0
    We propose an action-oriented understanding of emotion. Emotions are modifications of a basic form of goal-oriented striving characteristic of human life. They are appetitive orientations: pursuits of the good, avoidances of the bad. Thus, emotions are not truly distinct from, let alone opposed to, actions -- as erroneously suggested by the classical understanding of emotions as 'passions'. In the present paper, we will outline and defend this broadly enactive approach and motivate its main claims. Our proposal gains plausibility from a (...)
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  23. Pavel Semukhin & Frank Stephan (2013). Automatic Models of First Order Theories. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 164 (9):837-854.score: 30.0
    Khoussainov and Nerode [14] posed various open questions on model-theoretic properties of automatic structures. In this work we answer some of these questions by showing the following results: There is an uncountably categorical but not countably categorical theory for which only the prime model is automatic; There are complete theories with exactly 3,4,5,…3,4,5,… countable models, respectively, and every countable model is automatic; There is a complete theory for which exactly 2 models have an automatic presentation; If LOGSPACE=PLOGSPACE=P then there is (...)
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  24. Paul B. Stephan (2006). Process Values, International Law, and Justice. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (1):131-152.score: 30.0
    A focus on the lawmaking process, I submit, permits us to explore a particular dimension of justice, namely the relationship between law and liberty. Laws that reflect the arbitrary whims of the lawmaker are presumptively unjust, because they constrain liberty for no good reason. A strategy for making arbitrary laws less likely involves recognizing checks on the lawmaker's powers and grounding those checks in processes that allow the governed to express their disapproval. The system of checks and balances employed in (...)
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  25. Achim Stephan (2009). Affect Programs and Feelings. Mind and Matter 7 (2):163-176.score: 30.0
    Interdisciplinary approaches to emotions hold a tension which we know already from other discourses such as the debate about free will or the problem of phenomenal qualities { the tension between the perspective of the observer and the personal point of view . While we know, from our own experience, some portion of the richness which emotional experiences are capable of affording, we can partake in experiences and feelings of others through narratives. By contrast, insights into the neuronal mechanisms forming (...)
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  26. J. Slaby & A. StephAn (2008). Affective Intentionality and Self-Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):506-513.score: 30.0
    We elaborate and defend the claim that human affective states are, among other things, self-disclosing. We will show why affective intentionality has to be considered in order to understand human self-consciousness. One specific class of affective states, so-called existential feelings, although often neglected in philosophical treatments of emotions, will prove central. These feelings importantly pre-structure affective and other intentional relations to the world. Our main thesis is that existential feelings are an important manifestation of self-consciousness and figure prominently in human (...)
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  27. Frank Stephan & Jason Teutsch (2012). An Incomplete Set of Shortest Descriptions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 77 (1):291-307.score: 30.0
    The truth-table degree of the set of shortest programs remains an outstanding problem in recursion theory. We examine two related sets, the set of shortest descriptions and the set of domain-random strings, and show that the truth-table degrees of these sets depend on the underlying acceptable numbering. We achieve some additional properties for the truth-table incomplete versions of these sets, namely retraceability and approximability. We give priority-free constructions of bounded truth-table chains and bounded truth-table antichains inside the truth-table complete degree (...)
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  28. Martin Kummer & Frank Stephan (1994). Effective Search Problems. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (2):224-236.score: 30.0
    The task of computing a function F with the help of an oracle X can be viewed as a search problem where the cost measure is the number of queries to X. We ask for the minimal number that can be achieved by a suitable choice of X and call this quantity the query complexity of F. This concept is suggested by earlier work of Beigel, Gasarch, Gill, and Owings on “Bounded query classes”. We introduce a fault tolerant version and (...)
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  29. Susanne Stephan (2003). Browning, G.: Electronic Democracy?Using the Internet to Transform American Politics. Poiesis and Praxis 1 (4):317-320.score: 30.0
  30. Achim Stephan (1992). Wissen, Glauben, Nicht-Wissen. Freuds Vexierspiel für die epistemische Logik. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 46 (2):257 - 265.score: 30.0
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  31. Richard Beigel, Harry Buhrman, Peter Fejer, Lance Fortnow, Piotr Grabowski, Luc Longpré, Andrej Muchnik, Frank Stephan & Leen Torenvliet (2006). Enumerations of the Kolmogorov Function. Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (2):501 - 528.score: 30.0
    A recursive enumerator for a function h is an algorithm f which enumerates for an input x finitely many elements including h(x), f is a k(n)-enumerator if for every input x of length n, h(x) is among the first k(n) elements enumerated by f. If there is a k(n)-enumerator for h then h is called k(n)-enumerable. We also consider enumerators which are only A-recursive for some oracle A. We determine exactly how hard it is to enumerate the Kolmogorov function, which (...)
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  32. George Barmpalias, Andrew Em Lewis & Frank Stephan (2008). Http://Ars. Els-Cdn. Com/Content/Image/Http://Origin-Ars. Els-Cdn. Com/Content/Image/1-S2. 0-S0168007208000821-Si1. Gif"/> Classes, LR Degrees and Turing Degrees. [REVIEW] Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 156 (1):21-38.score: 30.0
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  33. Lance Fortnow, William Gasarch, Sanjay Jain, Efim Kinber, Martin Kummer, Stuart Kurtz, Mark Pleszkovich, Theodore Slaman, Robert Solovay & Frank Stephan (1994). Extremes in the Degrees of Inferability. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 66 (3):231-276.score: 30.0
    Most theories of learning consider inferring a function f from either observations about f or, questions about f. We consider a scenario whereby the learner observes f and asks queries to some set A. If I is a notion of learning then I[A] is the set of concept classes I-learnable by an inductive inference machine with oracle A. A and B are I-equivalent if I[A] = I[B]. The equivalence classes induced are the degrees of inferability. We prove several results about (...)
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  34. Frank Stephan & Jason Teutsch (2008). Immunity and Hyperimmunity for Sets of Minimal Indices. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 49 (2):107-125.score: 30.0
    We extend Meyer's 1972 investigation of sets of minimal indices. Blum showed that minimal index sets are immune, and we show that they are also immune against high levels of the arithmetic hierarchy. We give optimal immunity results for sets of minimal indices with respect to the arithmetic hierarchy, and we illustrate with an intuitive example that immunity is not simply a refinement of arithmetic complexity. Of particular note here are the fact that there are three minimal index sets located (...)
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  35. Johanna N. Y. Franklin & Frank Stephan (2010). Schnorr Trivial Sets and Truth-Table Reducibility. Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (2):501-521.score: 30.0
    We give several characterizations of Schnorr trivial sets, including a new lowness notion for Schnorr triviality based on truth-table reducibility. These characterizations allow us to see not only that some natural classes of sets, including maximal sets, are composed entirely of Schnorr trivials, but also that the Schnorr trivial sets form an ideal in the truth-table degrees but not the weak truth-table degrees. This answers a question of Downey, Griffiths and LaForte.
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  36. Carl Jockusch & Frank Stephan (1993). A Cohesive Set Which is Not High. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):515-530.score: 30.0
    We study the degrees of unsolvability of sets which are cohesive . We answer a question raised by the first author in 1972 by showing that there is a cohesive set A whose degree a satisfies a' = 0″ and hence is not high. We characterize the jumps of the degrees of r-cohesive sets, and we show that the degrees of r-cohesive sets coincide with those of the cohesive sets. We obtain analogous results for strongly hyperimmune and strongly hyperhyperimmune sets (...)
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  37. Jacques Laget, Caroline Sofia, Monique Bolognini, Bernard Plancherel, Olivier Halfon & Philippe Stéphan (2006). Use of a Multidimensional Assessment Tool in a Psychiatric Adolescent Care Unit. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (5):549-558.score: 30.0
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  38. Philipp Schlicht & Frank Stephan (2013). Automata on Ordinals and Automaticity of Linear Orders. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 164 (5):523-527.score: 30.0
    We investigate structures recognizable by finite state automata with an input tape of length a limit ordinal. At limits, the set of states which appear unboundedly often before the limit are mapped to a limit state. We describe a method for proving non-automaticity and apply this to determine the optimal bounds for the ranks of linear orders recognized by such automata.
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  39. W. W. Schuhmacher (1972). Zur Substitution Gruppe -> Ban Dein der Umgebung Baader-Meinhof Durch Einen Teil der Medien in der BRD. Philosophica 10.score: 30.0
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  40. Jan Slaby & Achim Stephan (2012). Depression als Handlungsstörung. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 60 (6):919-935.score: 30.0
    We develop a philosophical interpretation of altered experience in conditions of severe unipolar depression. Drawing on phenomenological analysis, on published depression memoires and on a recent questionnaire study with patients in Britain, we hold that depression is a profound impairment of agency. Its experiential core consists in a paralyzing loss of drive and energy, a suspension of initiative, an inability to adopt a stance and act in accordance with it. Moreover, we show that experiences such as a loss of self (...)
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  41. Achim Stephan (1996). John Stuart Mills doppelte Vaterschaft für den Britischen Emergentismus. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 78 (3):277-308.score: 30.0
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  42. Kejia Ho & Frank Stephan (2002). Classes Bounded by Incomplete Sets. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 116 (1-3):273-295.score: 30.0
    We study connections between strong reducibilities and properties of computably enumerable sets such as simplicity. We say that a class of computably enumerable sets bounded iff there is an m-incomplete computably enumerable set A such that every set in is m-reducible to A. For example, we show that the class of effectively simple sets is bounded; but the class of maximal sets is not. Furthermore, the class of computably enumerable sets Turing reducible to a computably enumerable set B is bounded (...)
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  43. Carl Jockusch & Frank Stephan (1997). Correction to “a Cohesive Set Which is Not High”. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 43 (4):569-569.score: 30.0
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  44. Martin Kummer & Frank Stephan (1993). Weakly Semirecursive Sets and R.E. Orderings. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 60 (2):133-150.score: 30.0
    Weakly semirecursive sets have been introduced by Jockusch and Owings . In the present paper their investigation is pushed forward by utilizing r.e. partial orderings, which turn out to be instrumental for the study of degrees of subclasses of weakly semirecursive sets.
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  45. Achim Stephan (2012). Existentielle Gefühle und Emotionen: Intentionalität und Regulierbarkeit. In Sabine Marienberg & Jörg Fingerhut (eds.), Feelings of Being Alive / Gefühle des Lebendigseins. De Gruyter. 8--101.score: 30.0
  46. Frank Stephan & Guohua Wu (2013). Highness, Locally Noncappability and Nonboundings. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 164 (5):511-522.score: 30.0
    In this paper, we improve a result of Seetapun and prove that above any nonzero, incomplete recursively enumerable degree a, there is a high2 r.e. degree c>ac>a witnessing that a is locally noncappable . Theorem 1.1 provides a scheme of obtaining high2 nonboundings , as all known high2 nonboundings, such as high2 degrees bounding no minimal pairs, high2 plus-cuppings, etc.
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  47. Frank Stephan (1998). Learning Via Queries and Oracles. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 94 (1-3):273-296.score: 30.0
    Inductive inference considers two types of queries: Queries to a teacher about the function to be learned and queries to a non-recursive oracle. This paper combines these two types — it considers three basic models of queries to a teacher (QEX[Succ], QEX[ The results for each of these three models of query-inference are the same: If an oracle is omniscient for query-inference then it is already omniscient for EX. There is an oracle of trivial EX-degree, which allows nontrivial query-inference. Furthermore, (...)
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  48. Walter G. Stephan (1992). Sexual Motivation, Patriarchy and Compatibility. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (1):111-112.score: 30.0
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  49. George Barmpalias, Andrew E. M. Lewis & Frank Stephan (2008). Classes, Degrees and Turing Degrees. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 156 (1):21-38.score: 30.0
    We say that A≤LRB if every B-random set is A-random with respect to Martin–Löf randomness. We study this relation and its interactions with Turing reducibility, classes, hyperimmunity and other recursion theoretic notions.
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  50. B. Khoussainov, P. Semukhin & F. Stephan (2007). Applications of Kolmogorov Complexity to Computable Model Theory. Journal of Symbolic Logic 72 (3):1041 - 1054.score: 30.0
    In this paper we answer the following well-known open question in computable model theory. Does there exist a computable not ‮א‬₀-categorical saturated structure with a unique computable isomorphism type? Our answer is affirmative and uses a construction based on Kolmogorov complexity. With a variation of this construction, we also provide an example of an ‮א‬₁-categorical but not ‮א‬₀-categorical saturated $\Sigma _{1}^{0}$ -structure with a unique computable isomorphism type. In addition, using the construction we give an example of an ‮א‬₁-categorical but (...)
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