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  1. Stephen E. Newstead, Simon J. Handley & Helen L. Neilens (2011). Effects of Training and Instruction on Analytic and Belief-Based Reasoning Processes. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37-68.
    Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers (Fong, Krantz, & Nisbett, 1986). Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based (...)
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  2. Helen L. Neilens, Simon J. Handley & Stephen E. Newstead (2009). Effects of Training and Instruction on Analytic and Belief-Based Reasoning Processes. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37 – 68.
    Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers (Fong, Krantz, & Nisbett, 1986). Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based (...)
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  3. Stephen E. Newstead, Peter Bradon, Simon J. Handley, Ian Dennis & Jonathan St B. T. Evans (2006). Predicting the Difficulty of Complex Logical Reasoning Problems. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (1):62 – 90.
    The aim of the present research was to develop a difficulty model for logical reasoning problems involving complex ordered arrays used in the Graduate Record Examination. The approach used involved breaking down the problems into their basic cognitive elements such as the complexity of the rules used, the number of mental models required to represent the problem, and question type. Weightings for these different elements were derived from two experimental studies and from the reasoning literature. Based on these weights, difficulty (...)
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  4. Stephen E. Newstead (2003). Can Natural Language Semantics Explain Syllogistic Reasoning? Cognition 90 (2):193-199.
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  5. Maxwell J. Roberts, Stephen E. Newstead & Richard A. Griggs (2001). Quantifier Interpretation and Syllogistic Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):173 – 204.
    Many researchers have suggested that premise interpretation errors can account, at least in part, for errors on categorical syllogisms. However, although it is possible to show that people make such errors in simple inference tasks, the evidence for them is far less clear when actual syllogisms are administered. Part of the problem is due to the lack of clear predictions for the solutions that would be expected when using modified quantifiers, assuming that correct inferences are made from them. This paper (...)
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  6. Stephen E. Newstead (2000). Are There Two Different Types of Thinking? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):690-691.
    Stanovich & West's claim that there are two coherent and conceptually distinct types of thinking, System 1 and System 2, is questioned. Some authors equate System 2 with intelligence whereas other do not; and some authors regard the two types of system as distinct while others regard them as lying on a continuum.
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  7. Stephen E. Newstead (2000). What is an Ecologically Rational Heuristic? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):759-760.
    The notion of ecological rationality, although plausible, does not readily lead to testable predictions. This is illustrated with respect to heuristics in syllogistic reasoning. Several possible heuristics have been proposed but ecological rationality does not appear to offer a sensible rationale for choosing between these.
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  8. Richard A. Griggs, Richard D. Platt, Stephen E. Newstead & Sherri L. Jackson (1998). Attentional Factors in a Disjunctive Reasoning Task. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):1-14.
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  9. Stephen E. Newstead (1997). Conditional Reasoning with Realistic Material. Thinking and Reasoning 3 (1):49 – 76.
    Four experiments are reported which investigated the types of truth tables that people associate with conditional sentences and the kinds of inferences that they will draw from them. The present studies differed from most previous ones in using different types of content in the conditionals, for example promises and warnings. It was found that the type of content had a strong and consistent effect on both truth tables and inferences. It is suggested that this is because in real life conditionals (...)
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  10. Stephen E. Newstead (1994). Comments on Johnson-Laird By. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):65-68.
     
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  11. Stephen E. Newstead (1994). Do Verbs Act as Implicit Quantifiers? Journal of Semantics 11 (3):215-230.
    A number of studies suggest that verbs can act as implicit quantifiers on the subjects and objects of the sentences in which they are used; thus a sentence such as Children like animals has truth conditions which fall short of the universal. Furthermore, it has been claimed that the quantity implied varies as a function of the type of verb used, for example, whether the verb describes an observable event or a subjective state. The present research investigated this effect further (...)
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  12. Stephen E. Newstead (1994). Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning and Mental Models. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):65 – 67.
    (1994). Inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning and mental models. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 65-67. doi: 10.1080/02698599408573483.
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  13. Stephen E. Newstead (1994). Semantics and Psychology Part 1: The Semantics of Quantification. Journal of Semantics 11 (3):147.
     
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  14. Gary F. Marcus, Jane Oakhill, Alan Garnham, Stephen E. Newstead, Jonathan St Bt Evans, Kimj Vicente, William F. Brewer, Jc Marshall, Karen Emmorey & Stephen M. Kosslyn (1993). Janet Cohen Sherman (Massachusetts General Hospital) and Barbara Lust (Cornell University) Children Are in Control. Cognition 46:297.
     
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  15. Stephen E. Newstead (1993). Do Mental Models Provide an Adequate Account of Syllogistic Reasoning Performance? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):359.
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  16. Stephen E. Newstead & Jonathan St B. T. Evans (1993). Mental Models as an Explanation of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning. Cognition 46 (1):93-97.
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  17. Stephen E. Newstead & Jonathan StB. T. Evans (1993). Mental Models as an Explanation of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning. Cognition 46 (1):93-97.
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  18. Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard, Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Julie L. Allen (1992). The Source of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning. Cognition 45 (3):257-284.
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  19. Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard, Jonathan StB. T. Evans & Julie L. Allen (1992). The Source of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning. Cognition 45 (3):257-284.
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  20. Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard & Richard A. Griggs (1986). Response Bias in Relational Reasoning. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (2):95-98.
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  21. Stephen E. Newstead, Stephanie Keeble & Kenneth I. Manktelow (1985). Children's Performance on Set-Inclusion and Linear-Ordering Relationships. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23 (2):105-108.
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