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  1. Emma C. Palmer, Anthony S. David & Stephen M. Fleming (2014). Effects of Age on Metacognitive Efficiency. Consciousness and Cognition 28:151-160.
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  2. Leonora G. Weil, Stephen M. Fleming, Iroise Dumontheil, Emma J. Kilford, Rimona S. Weil, Geraint Rees, Raymond J. Dolan & Sarah-Jayne Blakemore (2013). The Development of Metacognitive Ability in Adolescence. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):264-271.
    Introspection, or metacognition, is the capacity to reflect on our own thoughts and behaviours. Here, we investigated how one specific metacognitive ability develops in adolescence, a period of life associated with the emergence of self-concept and enhanced self-awareness. We employed a task that dissociates objective performance on a visual task from metacognitive ability in a group of 56 participants aged between 11 and 41 years. Metacognitive ability improved significantly with age during adolescence, was highest in late adolescence and plateaued going (...)
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  3. Chen Song, Ryota Kanai, Stephen M. Fleming, Rimona S. Weil, D. Samuel Schwarzkopf & Geraint Rees (2011). Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Metacognitive Performance on Different Perceptual Tasks. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1787.
    Human behavior depends on the ability to effectively introspect about our performance. For simple perceptual decisions, this introspective or metacognitive ability varies substantially across individuals and is correlated with the structure of focal areas in prefrontal cortex. This raises the possibility that the ability to introspect about different perceptual decisions might be mediated by a common cognitive process. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether inter-individual differences in metacognitive ability were correlated across two different perceptual tasks where individuals made judgments (...)
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  4. Stephen M. Fleming & Raymond J. Dolan (2010). Effects of Loss Aversion on Post-Decision Wagering: Implications for Measures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):352-363.
    Wagering contingent on a previous decision, or post-decision wagering, has recently been proposed to measure conscious awareness. Whilst intuitively appealing, it remains unclear whether economic context interacts with subjective confidence and how such interactions might impact on the measurement of awareness. Here we propose a signal detection model which predicts that advantageous wagers placed on the identity of preceding stimuli are affected by loss aversion, despite stimulus visibility remaining constant. This pattern of predicted results was evident in a psychophysical task (...)
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  5. Dorit Wenke, Stephen M. Fleming & Patrick Haggard (2010). Subliminal Priming of Actions Influences Sense of Control Over Effects of Action. Cognition 115 (1):26-38.
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