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Profile: Stephen R. Palmquist (Hong Kong Baptist University)
  1. Stephen Palmquist (1992). Does Kant Reduce Religion to Morality? Kant-Studien 83 (2):129-148.
  2.  61
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2012). Could Kant's Jesus Be God? International Philosophical Quarterly 52 (4):421-437.
    Although Kant had a high regard for Jesus as a moral teacher, interpreters typically assume that his philosophy disallows belief in Jesus as God. Those who regard Kant as a moral reductionist are especially likely to offer a negative construal of the densely-argued subsection of his 1793 Religion that relates directly to this issue. The recent “affirmative” trend in Kant-scholarship provides the basis for an alternative reading. First, theologians must regard Jesus as human so that belief in Jesus can empower (...)
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  3. Stephen Palmquist (1987). A Priori Knowledge in Perspective: Naming, Necessity and the Analytic a Posteriori. Review of Metaphysics 41 (2):255 - 282.
    This is the second in a two part series of articles that attempt to clarify the nature and enduring relevance of Kant's concept of a priori knowledge. (For Part I, see below.) In this article I focus mainly on Saul Kripke's critique of Kant, in Naming and Necessity. I argue that Kripke draws attention to a genuine defect in Kant's epistemological framework, but that he used definitions of certain key terms that were quite different from Kant's definitions. When Kripke's definitions (...)
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  4. Stephen Palmquist (1996). How'Chinese'Was Kant? The Philosopher 84 (1):3-9.
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  5. Stephen Palmquist (1984). Faith as Kant's Key to the Justification of Transcendental Reflection. Heythrop Journal 25 (4):442–455.
    A revised version of this article became Chapter V in my 1993 book, Kant's System of Perspectives.
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  6.  99
    Stephen R. Palmquist & Otterman (2013). The Implied Standpoint of Kant's Religion_: An Assessment of Kant's Reply to an Early Book Review of _Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 18 (1):73-97.
    In the second edition Preface of Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason Kant responds to an anonymous review of the first edition. We present the first English translation of this obscure book review. Following our translation, we summarize the reviewer's main points and evaluate the adequacy of Kant's replies to five criticisms, including two replies that Kant provides in footnotes added in the second edition. A key issue is the reviewer's claim that Religion adopts an implied standpoint, described using (...)
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  7. Stephen Palmquist (2008). Kant's Quasi-Transcendental Argument for a Necessary and Universal Evil Propensity in Human Nature. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (2):261-297.
    In Part One of Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason, Kant repeatedly refers to a “proof ” that human nature has a necessary and universal “evil propensity,” but he provides only obscure hints at its location. Interpreters have failed to identify such an argument in Part One. After examining relevant passages, summarizing recent attempts to reconstruct the argument, and explaining why these do not meet Kant’s stated needs, I argue that the elusive proof must have atranscendental form (called quasi-transcendental (...)
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  8.  81
    Stephen Palmquist (2008). Kant's Moral Panentheism. Philosophia 36 (1):17-28.
    Although Kant is often interpreted as an Enlightenment Deist, Kant scholars are increasingly recognizing aspects of his philosophy that are more amenable to theism. If Kant regarded himself as a theist, what kind of theist was he? The theological approach that best fits Kant’s model of God is panentheism, whereby God is viewed as a living being pervading the entire natural world, present ‘in’ every part of nature, yet going beyond the physical world. The purpose of Kant’s restrictions on our (...)
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  9. Stephen R. Palmquist (2009). Kant's Religious Argument for the Existence of God. Faith and Philosophy 26 (1):3-22.
    After reviewing Kant’s well-known criticisms of the traditional proofs of God’s existence and his preferred moral argument, this paper presents a detailed analysis of a densely-packed theistic argument in Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Humanity’s ultimate moral destiny can be fulfilled only through organized religion, for only by participating in a religious community (or “church”) can we overcome the evil in human nature. Yet we cannot conceive how such a community can even be founded without presupposing God’s existence. (...)
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  10. Stephen Palmquist (2000). Kant's Critical Religion. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
  11.  4
    Chris L. Firestone & Stephen R. Palmquist (eds.) (2006). Kant and the New Philosophy of Religion. Indiana University Press.
    While earlier work has emphasized Kant’s philosophy of religion as thinly disguised morality, this timely and original reappraisal of Kant’s philosophy of religion incorporates recent scholarship. In this volume, Chris L. Firestone, Stephen R. Palmquist, and the other contributors make a strong case for more specific focus on religious topics in the Kantian corpus. Main themes include the relationship between Kant’s philosophy of religion and his philosophy as a whole, the contemporary relevance of specific issues arising out of Kant’s philosophical (...)
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  12. Stephen Palmquist (2007). Emergence, Evolution, and the Geometry of Logic: Causal Leaps and the Myth of Historical Development. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 12 (1):9-37.
    After sketching the historical development of “emergence” and noting several recent problems relating to “emergent properties”, this essay proposes that properties may be either “emergent” or “mergent” and either “intrinsic” or “extrinsic”. These two distinctions define four basic types of change: stagnation, permanence, flux, and evolution. To illustrate how emergence can operate in a purely logical system, the Geometry of Logic is introduced. This new method of analyzing conceptual systems involves the mapping of logical relations onto geometrical figures, following (...)
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  13. Stephen Palmquist, Kant's Critical Hermeneutic of Prayer.
    This essay is a systematic exposition and partial defense of Kant's philosophy of prayer. "Does Kant even HAVE a philosophy of prayer?" you may ask.
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  14.  53
    Stephen Palmquist (2010). The Kantian Grounding of Einstein's Worldview. Polish Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):45-64.
    Recent perspectival interpretations of Kant suggest a way of relating his epistemology to empirical science that makes it plausible to regard Einstein’s theory of relativity as having a Kantian grounding. This first of two articles exploring this topic focuses on how the foregoing hypothesis accounts for various resonances between Kant’s philosophy and Einstein’s science. The great attention young Einstein paid to Kant in his early intellectual development demonstrates the plausibility of this hypothesis, while certain features of Einstein’s cultural-political context account (...)
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  15.  85
    Stephen Palmquist (1987). A Priori Knowledge in Perspective: Mathematics, Method, and Pure Intuition. Review of Metaphysics 41 (1):3 - 22.
    This article is mainly a critique of Philip Kitcher's book, The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge. Four weaknesses in Kitcher's objection to Kant arise out of Kitcher's failure to recognize the perspectival nature of Kant's position. A proper understanding of Kant's theory of mathematics requires awareness of the perspectival nuances implicit in Kant's theory of pure intuition. (Apologies that the pdf of this article was prepared with every other page upside down. Take it as an opportunity to practice changing one's perspective!).
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  16.  80
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2011). Architectonic Reasoning and Interpretation in Kant and the Yijing. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (4):569-583.
    This is a thoroughly revised version of a paper that I originally presented at the "Kant in Asia" international conference on "The Unity of Human Personhood, held in Hong Kong in May of 2009. After explaining what Kant means by his "architectonic" form of reasoning, I argue that the Yijing (the Chinese "Book of Changes") exhibits the same type of reasoning. I contrast two uses of architectonic reasoning: divining the truth vs. divination. The article concludes with an illustration of how (...)
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  17.  47
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2012). A Daoist Model for a Kantian Church. Comparative Philosophy 4 (1):67-89.
    Although significant differences undoubtedly exist between Daoism and Kant’s philosophy, the two systems also have some noteworthy similarities. After calling attention to a few such parallels and sketching the outlines of Kant’s philosophy of religion, this article focuses on an often-neglected feature of the latter: the four guiding principles of what Kant calls an “invisible church” (universality, purity, freedom, and unchangeableness). Numerous passages from Lao Z i’s classic text, Dao-De-Jing , seem to uphold these same principles, thus suggesting that they (...)
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  18.  77
    Stephen Palmquist (1987). Kant's Cosmogony Re-Evaluated. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 18 (3):255-269.
    This article is primarily a reply to criticisms leveled against Kant by Stanley Jaki in the Introduction to his translation of Kant's Allgemeine Naturgeschichte.
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  19.  75
    Stephen Palmquist, Silence as the Ultimate Fulfillment of the Philosophical Quest.
    The surprising comment Wittgenstein makes at the end of his Tractatus suggests that, even though the analysis of words is the proper method of doing philosophy, philosophy’s ultimate aim may be to experience silence. Whereas Wittgenstein never explains what he meant by his cryptic conclusion, Kant provides numerous clues as to how the same position can be understood in a more complete and systematic way. Distinguishing between the meanings of “silence,” “noise” and “sound” provides a helpful way of understanding how (...)
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  20.  12
    Stephen Palmquist (1994). Triangulating God. Faith and Philosophy 11 (2):302-310.
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  21.  55
    Stephen Palmquist (1994). The Kingdom of God Is at Hand! History of Philosophy Quarterly 11 (4):421-437.
    Could Kant have possibly been the author of this quote? Believe it or not, he did write that! What did he mean?
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  22.  11
    Stephen Palmquist (2008). Where Money and Philosophy Mix. The Philosophers' Magazine 41 (41):26-28.
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  23.  61
    Stephen Palmquist, Kant On Euclid: Geometry in Perspective.
    There is a common assumption among philosophers, shared even by many Kant scholars, that Kant had a naive faith in the absolute valid­ity of Euclidean geometry, Aristotelian logic, and Newtonian physics, and that his primary goal in the Critique of Pure Reason was to pro­vide a rational foundation upon which these classical scientific theories could be based. This, it might be thought, is the essence of his attempt to solve the problem which, as he says in a footnote to the (...)
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  24.  5
    Stephen Palmquist (2011). The Kantian Grounding of Einstein’s Worldview: Simultaneity, Synthetic Apriority and the Mystical. Polish Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):97-116.
    Part I in this two-part series employed a perspectival interpretation to argue that Kant’s epistemology serves as the philosophical grounding for modern revolutions in science. Although Einstein read Kant at an early age and immersed himself in Kant’s philosophy throughout his early adulthood, he was reluctant to admit Kant’s influence, possibly due to personal factors relating to his cultural-political situation. This sequel argues that Einstein’s early Kant-studies would have brought to his attention the problem of simultaneity and the method of (...)
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  25.  32
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2012). To Tell the Truth on Kant and Christianity. Faith and Philosophy 29 (3):340-346.
    After reviewing the history of the “affirmative” approach to interpreting Kant’s Religion, I offer four responses to the symposium papers in the previous issue of Faith and Philosophy. First, incorrectly identifying Kant’s two “experiments” leads to misunderstandings of his affirmation of Christianity. Second, Kant’s Critical Religion expounds a thoroughgoing interpretation of these experiments, and was not primarily an attempt to confirm the architectonic introduced in Kant’s System of Perspectives. Third, the surprise positions defended by most symposium contributors render the “affirmative” (...)
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  26.  13
    Stephen Palmquist, Kant's System of Perspectives.
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  27.  18
    Stephen Palmquist (1998). Philosophers' Views on the Use of Non-Essay Assessment Methods. Teaching Philosophy 21 (4):373-391.
    This paper presents and discusses the results of an email survey which asked participants to share their views on the efficacy of multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, or matching questions as evaluation methods in philosophy courses. First, the structure of the survey and its contents are explained. Next, responses are broken down along the lines of student responses and teacher responses. In both cases, there was significant disagreement among respondents, though there were notable patterns emerged. Student arguments in favor of non-essay assessment (...)
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  28.  3
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2015). What is Kantian Gesinnung_? On the Priority of Volition Over Metaphysics and Psychology in _Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Kantian Review 20 (2):235-264.
    Kants theories of both general moral decision-making and specifically religious conversion. It is argued that Kantian Gesinnung is volitional, referring to a personconvictionberzeugung (). This is confirmed by a detailed analysis of the 169 occurrences of Gesinnung and cognate words in Religion. It contrasts with what is suggested by translating Gesinnung as, which reinforces a tendency to interpret the notion more metaphysically, and also with Pluharattitude’, which has too strongly psychological connotations.
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  29.  35
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2011). Introduction: Levels of Perspectives in Kant and Chinese Philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (4):505-508.
    This short essay introduces a set of articles I compiled for a special issue of the Journal of Chinese Philosophy in 2011. Most of the essays are revised versions of papers originally presented at the "Kant in Asia" international conference on "The Unity of Human Personhood", held in Hong Kong in May of 2009, and subsequently published in the collection entitled Cultivating Personhood: Kant and Asian Philosophy (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2010). After introducing the papers in the (...)
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  30.  38
    Stephen R. Palmquist, Philosophers in the Public Square: A Religious Resolution of Kant's Conflict of the Faculties.
    This paper is, in part, a report on the conclusions reached at a retreat on Part One of Kant's Conflict of the Faculties, held at the Center for Insight into Philosophic Health, Education, and Renewal, in Mendocino, California. It argues that Kant's distinction between the public and private spheres does not remove but intensifies the philosopher's duty to influence the general public. I conclude with some reflections on how a Kantian philosopher might have a positive influence on religious communities. Includes (...)
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  31.  34
    Stephen Palmquist, Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms By.
    The following Glossary lists Kant's most important technical terms, toÂgether with a simple definition of each. (The terms 'judicial', 'perspective' and 'standpoint' are the only ones Kant himself does not use as technical terms.) It was originally written as a study aide to help make the intricate web of Kant's termiÂnology comprehensible to students who had little or no faÂmilÂiarÂiÂty with Kant's writings. Where relevant, the opposite term is given in curved brackets at the end of the definition. When a (...)
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  32.  21
    Stephen R. Palmquist (1989). Kant's Critique of Mysticism. Philosophy and Theology 3 (4):355-383.
    This is a series of two articles examining Kant’s attitude toward mystical experiences and the relation between his interest in these and his interest in constructing a Critical system of metaphysics.“The Critical Dreams” begins by questioning the traditional division between “Critical” (1770 onwards) and “pre-Critical” periods in Kant’s development. After explaining Kant’s Critical method, his 1766 book, Dreams of a Spirit-Seer ... is examined and found to contain all the essential elements of that method. The onlykey element which is missing (...)
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  33.  5
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2012). Cross-Examination of In Defense of Kant's Religion. Faith and Philosophy 29 (2):170-180.
    This article extends the metaphorical trial posed by the authors of In Defense of Kant’s Religion by cross-examining them with two challenges. The first challenge is for the authors to clarify their claim that they are the first interpreters to present “a holistic and linear interpretation” of Kant’s Religion that portrays it as containing a “transcendental analysis” of religious concepts, given that several of the past interpreters whose works they survey in Part 1 conduct a similar type of analysis. The (...)
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  34.  15
    Stephen Palmquist (2000). The Tree of Philosophy. Philopsychy Press.
    Based on the author's Introduction to Philosophy lectures in Hong Kong, this book has been translated into Chinese and Indonesian and has sold over 10,000 copies. Unlike a typical textbook, the author punctuates his objective descriptions of the classical philosophical theories in metaphysics, logic, applied philosophy and ontology, with highly personal examples of how philosophical reflection can stimulate insights. Like a typical textbook, every chapter ends with a list of questions for further thought and a list of recommended further readings. (...)
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  35.  32
    Stephen Palmquist, The Radical Unknowability of the Thing in Itself.
    Few commentators (if any) would question Schrader's poignant obser­vation that 'the doctrine of the thing in itself presents the single greatest stumbling block in the Kantian philosophy' [S5:49]. Understanding what Kant meant by the doctrine i.e., the role it plays both in his overall System and in his transcendental idealism can help prevent it from being discarded 'as a per­versity' [49], inasmuch as it can be interpreted in such a way that it makes quite good sense [see VI.2]. Yet even (...)
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  36.  27
    Stephen R. Palmquist (1989). The Syntheticity of Time. Philosophia Mathematica (2):233-235.
    In a recent article in this journal Phil. Math., II, v.4 (1989), n.2, pp.? ?] J. Fang argues that we must not be fooled by A.J. Ayer (God rest his soul!) and his cohorts into believing that mathematical knowledge has an analytic a priori status. Even computers, he reminds us, take some amount of time to perform their calculations. The simplicity of Kant's infamous example of a mathematical proposition (7+5=12) is "partly to blame" for "mislead[ing] scholars in the direction of (...)
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  37.  32
    Stephen Palmquist, Kant’s Criticism of Swedenborg: Parapsychology and the Origin of the Copernican Hypothesis.
    Parapsychology, Philosophy and the Mind: A Festschrift in Honour of John Beloff’s 80th Birthday, ed. Fiona Steinkamp (McFarland Press, 2002).
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  38.  3
    Stephen Palmquist (1989). Immanuel Kant: A Christian Philosopher? Faith and Philosophy 6 (1):65-75.
    I begin with a few general suggestions about what it means to be a Christian. I then summarize the new interpretation of Kant as proposing a ‘System of Perspectives,’ which I have set out in greater detail elsewhere. After discussing the important notions of ‘criticism,’ ‘perspective’ and ‘system’ as they operate in Kant’s thought, the bulk of the essay is devoted to an assessment of the theological implications of Kant’s System, I conclude that, contrary to popular opinion, particularly among some (...)
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  39.  1
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2015). Chapter 16. Kant’s Lectures on Philosophical Theology – Training-Ground for the Moral Pedagogy of Religion? In Robert R. Clewis (ed.), Reading Kant's Lectures. De Gruyter 365-390.
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  40.  12
    Stephen Palmquist (1987). Knowledge and Experience. An Examination of the Four Reflective 'Perspectives' in Kant's Critical Philosophy. Kant-Studien 78 (1-4):170-200.
    Immediate (non-Reflective) experience must be distinguished from mediate experience (empirical knowledge). Kant's epistemology is based on the "a priori"--"a posteriori" and analytic-Synthetic distinctions. Four classes of knowledge arise out of combining these two distinctions; each corresponds to a 'reflective perspective'--A way of reflecting upon immediate experience. Reflection based on transcendental, Logical, Empirical or practical perspectives gives rise, Respectively, To knowledge which is synthetic "a priori", Analytic "a priori", Synthetic "a posteriori", Or analytic "a posteriori".
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  41.  19
    Stephen Palmquist, The Epistemological Underpinnings of Kant's System.
    Kant's Critical philosophy is notorious for its terminological ambiguity and apparent inconsistency. The interpretive confusion that often results is at least a contributing factor to the conclusion of many commentators, such as Strawson, that large chunks of Kant's System (e.g., his 'transcendental idealism') are 'unintelligible' and 'incoherent'. [1] Yet I believe, with Kant [Kt1: Axxi], that if his works are approached with 'the patience and impartiality of a judge' (and perhaps even with 'the benevolent assistance of a fellow worker '), (...)
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  42.  5
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2013). Kantian Causality and Quantum Quarks: The Compatibility Between Quantum Mechanics and Kant's Phenomenal World. Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (77):283-302.
    Quantum indeterminism seems incompatible with Kant’s defense of causality in his Second Analogy. The Copenhagen interpretation also takes quantum theory as evidence for anti-realism. This article argues that the law of causality, as transcendental, applies only to the world as observable, not to hypothetical objects such as quarks, detectable only by high energy accelerators. Taking Planck’s constant and the speed of light as the lower and upper bounds of observability provides a way of interpreting the observables of quantum mechanics as (...)
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  43.  17
    Stephen Palmquist (1992). Analysis and Synthesis in the Geometry of Logic. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 19 (1):1.
    The words "analysis" and "synthesis" are among the most widely used and misused terms in the history of philosophy. They were originally used in geometrical reasoning during the age of Euclid to describe two opposing, but complementary, methods of arguing (roughly equivalent to deduction and induction). Since then philosophers have used them not only in this way, but also to refer to distinctions of various sorts between types of judgment or classes of propositions. To some they are regarded as defining (...)
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  44.  17
    Stephen Palmquist, Kant's Theistic Solution to the Problem of Transcendental Theology.
    1. The Problem of Transcendental Theology Kant's transcendental philosophy begins with an attempt to solve the theoretical problem of the possibility of synthetic a priori judgments. In solving this epistemological problem Kant demonstrates how transcendental knowledge (i.e., knowledge of the synthetic a priori conditions for the possibility of experience) is possible only when its application is confined to the realm of empirical knowledge (i.e., to experience). He argues that space, time, and the twelve categories form the transcendental boundary line between (...)
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  45.  12
    Stephen Palmquist (2008). Where Money and Philosophy Mix. The Philosophers' Magazine 41 (41):26-28.
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  46.  20
    Stephen Palmquist & Adriano Palomo, Kant, Buddhism, and the Moral Metaphysics of Medicine.
    "This paper examines Kant's moral theory and compares it with certain key aspects of oriental (especially Buddhist) moral philosophy. In both cases, we focus on the suggestion that there may be a connection between a person's physical health and moral state. Special attention is paid to the nature of pain, illness, and personal happiness and to their mutual interrelationships. A frequently ignored feature of Kant's approach to morality is his preoccupation with health, and his attempt to interpret it in terms (...)
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  47.  4
    Stephen Palmquist (2008). Theocratic Friendship as the Key to Kantian Church Government. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:251-260.
    In Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason, Kant outlines a system of church government that strikes many as an unworkable ideal. The “invisible church” is to be structured according to four basic principles that correspond directly to the categories from the first Critique. Whereas ordinary political systems must involvecoercion, a church is to be a free association of persons governed by non-coercive, internally legislated moral laws. Is this a realistic blueprint for church government? Kant’s metaphor of a “household” as (...)
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  48.  4
    Stephen Palmquist (2001). Double Trouble. The Philosophers' Magazine 15:58-58.
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  49.  5
    Stephen R. Palmquist (2012). Mapping Kant's Architectonic Onto the Yijing Via the Geometry of Logic. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (S1):93-111.
    Both Kant's architectonic and the Yijing can be structured as four perspectival levels: 0 + 4 + 12 + = 64. The first, unknowable level is unrepresentable. The geometry of logic provides well‐structured maps for levels two to four. Level two consists of four basic gua , corresponding to Kant's category‐headings . Level three's twelve gua, derived logically from the initial four, correspond to Kant's twelve categories. Level four correlates the remaining 48 gua to Kant's theory of the four university (...)
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  50.  11
    Stephen Palmquist, Two Perspectives on the Object of Knowledge.
    Kant-s use of the word -object- (Objekt or Gegenstand) is a potential source of much confusion and ambiguity. Sometimes he uses it in a broad sense, either nontechnically to refer to an ordinary - thing- encountered in imÂmediate experience, or technically to refer to anything which stands in some potential, actual or necessary relation to the knowing subject. At other times he uses it in a narrower sense to refer to an object in general as it is viewed at one (...)
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