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Stephen Read [104]Stephen J. Read [4]Stephen L. Read [1]
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Profile: Stephen Read (University of St. Andrews)
  1.  19
    Stephen Read, Harmonic Inferentialism and the Logic of Identity.
    Inferentialism claims that the rules for the use of an expression express its meaning without any need to invoke meanings or denotations for them. Logical inferentialism endorses inferentialism specically for the logical constants. Harmonic inferentialism, as the term is introduced here, usually but not necessarily a subbranch of logical inferentialism, follows Gentzen in proposing that it is the introduction-rules whch give expressions their meaning and the elimination-rules should accord harmoniously with the meaning so given. It is proposed here that the (...)
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  2.  31
    Stephen Read (1988). Relevant Logic: A Philosophical Examination of Inference. B. Blackwell.
  3. Stephen Read (2000). Truthmakers and the Disjunction Thesis. Mind 109 (432):67-80.
    The correspondence theory of truth has experienced something of a revival recently in the form of the Truthmaker Axiom: whatever is true, something makes it true. We consider various postulates which have been proposed to characterize truthmaking, in particular, the Disjunction Thesis (DT), that whatever makes a disjunction true must make one or other disjunct true. In conjunction with certain other assumptions, DT leads to triviality. We show that there are elaborations of truthmaking on which DT holds (which must therefore (...)
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  4. Stephen Read (2010). General-Elimination Harmony and the Meaning of the Logical Constants. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (5):557-76.
    Inferentialism claims that expressions are meaningful by virtue of rules governing their use. In particular, logical expressions are autonomous if given meaning by their introduction-rules, rules specifying the grounds for assertion of propositions containing them. If the elimination-rules do no more, and no less, than is justified by the introduction-rules, the rules satisfy what Prawitz, following Lorenzen, called an inversion principle. This connection between rules leads to a general form of elimination-rule, and when the rules have this form, they may (...)
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  5.  61
    Stephen Read (2000). Harmony and Autonomy in Classical Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (2):123-154.
    Michael Dummett and Dag Prawitz have argued that a constructivist theory of meaning depends on explicating the meaning of logical constants in terms of the theory of valid inference, imposing a constraint of harmony on acceptable connectives. They argue further that classical logic, in particular, classical negation, breaks these constraints, so that classical negation, if a cogent notion at all, has a meaning going beyond what can be exhibited in its inferential use. I argue that Dummett gives a mistaken elaboration (...)
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  6.  11
    Stephen Read (forthcoming). Inferentialism: Why Rules Matter, by Jaroslav Peregrin. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-1.
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  7.  18
    Stephen Read (forthcoming). Aristotle and Lukasiewicz on Existential Import. Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    Jan Lukasiewicz's treatise on Aristotle's Syllogistic, published in the 1950s, has been very influential in framing contemporary understanding of Aristotle's logical systems. However, Lukasiewicz's interpretation is based on a number of tendentious claims, not least, the claim that the syllogistic was intended to apply only to non-empty terms. I show that this interpretation is not true to Aristotle's text and that a more coherent and faithful interpretation admits empty terms while maintaining all the relations of the traditional square of opposition.
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  8.  72
    Stephen Read (2002). The Liar Paradox From John Buridan Back to Thomas Bradwardine. Vivarium 40 (2):189-218.
  9. Stephen Read (1994). Thinking About Logic: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic. Oxford University Press.
    In this book, Stephen Read sets out to rescue logic from its undeserved reputation as an inflexible, dogmatic discipline by demonstrating that its technicalities and processes are founded on assumptions which are themselves amenable to philosophical investigation. He examines the fundamental principles of consequence, logical truth and correct inference within the context of logic, and shows that the principles by which we delineate consequences are themselves not guaranteed free from error. Central to the notion of truth is the beguiling issue (...)
     
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  10.  10
    Stephen Read, Signification, Closure and Indirect Speech Reports.
    Bradwardine’s solution to the the logical paradoxes depends on the idea that every sentence signifies many things, and its truth depends on things’ being wholly as it signifies. This idea is underpinned by his claim that a sentence signifies everything that follows from what it signifies. But the idea that signification is closed under entailment appears too strong, just as logical omniscience is unacceptable in the logic of knowledge. What is needed is a more restricted closure principle. A clue can (...)
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  11. Graham Priest & Stephen Read (1980). Merely Confused Supposition. Franciscan Studies 40 (1):265-97.
    In this article, we discuss the notion of merely confused supposition as it arose in the medieval theory of suppositio personalis. The context of our analysis is our formalization of William of Ockham's theory of supposition sketched in Mind 86 (1977), 109-13. The present paper is, however, self-contained, although we assume a basic acquaintance with supposition theory. The detailed aims of the paper are: to look at the tasks that supposition theory took on itself and to use our formalization to (...)
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  12. Stephen Read (1994). Formal and Material Consequence. Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (3):247 - 265.
  13.  91
    Stephen Read (2004). Identity and Harmony. Analysis 64 (2):113–119.
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  14.  17
    Stephen Read (2012). The Medieval Theory of Consequence. Synthese 187 (3):899-912.
    The recovery of Aristotle’s logic during the twelfth century was a great stimulus to medieval thinkers. Among their own theories developed to explain Aristotle’s theories of valid and invalid reasoning was a theory of consequence, of what arguments were valid, and why. By the fourteenth century, two main lines of thought had developed, one at Oxford, the other at Paris. Both schools distinguished formal from material consequence, but in very different ways. In Buridan and his followers in Paris, formal consequence (...)
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  15.  19
    Stephen Read (2006). Symmetry and Paradox. History and Philosophy of Logic 27 (4):307-318.
    The ?no???no? paradox (so-called by Sorensen) consists of a pair of propositions each of which says of the other that it is false. It is not immediately paradoxical, since it has a solution in which one proposition is true, the other false. However, that is itself paradoxical, since there is no clear ground for determining which is which. The two propositions should have the same truth-value. The paper shows how a proposal by the medieval thinker Thomas Bradwardine solves not only (...)
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  16.  12
    Stephen Read, Richard Kilvington and the Theory of Obligations.
    Kretzmann and Spade were led by Richard Kilvington’s proposed revisions to the rules of obligations in his discussion of the 47th sophism in his Sophismata to claim that the purpose of obligational disputations was the same as that of counterfactual reasoning. Angel d’Ors challenged this interpretation, realising that the reason for Kilvington’s revision was precisely that he found the art of obligation unsuited to the kind of reasoning which lay at the heart of the sophismatic argument. In his criticism, Kilvington (...)
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  17. Andrew Aberdein & Stephen Read (2009). The Philosophy of Alternative Logics. In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press 613-723.
    This chapter focuses on alternative logics. It discusses a hierarchy of logical reform. It presents case studies that illustrate particular aspects of the logical revisionism discussed in the chapter. The first case study is of intuitionistic logic. The second case study turns to quantum logic, a system proposed on empirical grounds as a resolution of the antinomies of quantum mechanics. The third case study is concerned with systems of relevance logic, which have been the subject of an especially detailed reform (...)
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  18.  15
    Stephen Read (2015). Semantic Pollution and Syntactic Purity. Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (4):649-661.
    Logical inferentialism claims that the meaning of the logical constants should be given, not model-theoretically, but by the rules of inference of a suitable calculus. It has been claimed that certain proof-theoretical systems, most particularly, labelled deductive systems for modal logic, are unsuitable, on the grounds that they are semantically polluted and suffer from an untoward intrusion of semantics into syntax. The charge is shown to be mistaken. It is argued on inferentialist grounds that labelled deductive systems are as syntactically (...)
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  19. Stephen Read (forthcoming). Medieval Theories: Properties of Terms. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  20. Stephen Read (1978). Identity and Reference. Mind 87 (348):533-552.
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  21.  61
    Stephen Read (2005). The Unity of the Fact. Philosophy 80 (3):317-342.
    What binds the constituents of a state of affairs together and provides unity to the fact they constitute? I argue that the fact that they are related is basic and fundamental. This is the thesis of Factualism: the world is a world of facts. I draw three corollaries: first, that the Identity of truth is mistaken, in conflating what represents (the proposition) with what is represented (the fact). Secondly, a popular interpretation of Wittgenstein's Tractatus, due to Steinus, whereby false propositions (...)
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  22.  17
    Stephen Read (2013). Technology as In-Between. Foundations of Science 18 (1):195-200.
    This commentary on Søren Riis’s paper “Dwelling in-between walls” starts from a position of solidarity with its attempt to build a postphenomenological perspective on architecture and the built environment. It proposes however that a clearer view of a technological structure of experience may be obtained by finding technological-perceptual wholes that incorporate perceiver and perceived as well as the mediating apparatus. Parts and wholes may be formed as nested human-technological interiorities that have structured relations with what is outside—so that the outside (...)
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  23.  3
    Stephen Read (2015). Questiones Libri Porphirii. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 69 (2):400-401.
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  24.  61
    Stephen Read & Crispin Wright (1985). Hairier Than Putnam Thought. Analysis 45 (1):56 - 58.
  25.  12
    Stephen Read (2012). John Buridan's Theory of Consequence and His Octagons of Opposition. In J.-Y. Beziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Birkhäuser 93--110.
    One of the manuscripts of Buridan’s Summulae contains three figures, each in the form of an octagon. At each node of each octagon there are nine propositions. Buridan uses the figures to illustrate his doctrine of the syllogism, revising Aristotle's theory of the modal syllogism and adding theories of syllogisms with propositions containing oblique terms (such as ‘man’s donkey’) and with ‘propositions of non-normal construction’ (where the predicate precedes the copula). O-propositions of non-normal construction (i.e., ‘Some S (some) P is (...)
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  26.  42
    Catarina Dutilh Novaes & Stephen Read (2008). Insolubilia and the Fallacy Secundum Quid Et Simpliciter. Vivarium 46 (2):175-191.
    Thomas Bradwardine makes much of the fact that his solution to the insolubles is in accordance with Aristotle's diagnosis of the fallacy in the Liar paradox as that of secundum quid et simpliciter. Paul Spade, however, claims that this invocation of Aristotle by Bradwardine is purely "honorary" in order to confer specious respectability on his analysis and give it a spurious weight of authority. Our answer to Spade follows Bradwardine's response to the problem of revenge: any proposition saying of itself (...)
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  27.  68
    Stephen Read (1992). Conditionals Are Not Truth-Functional: An Argument From Peirce. Analysis 52 (1):5 - 12.
  28.  41
    Stephen Read (1997). Completeness and Categoricity: Frege, Gödel and Model Theory. History and Philosophy of Logic 18 (2):79-93.
    Frege?s project has been characterized as an attempt to formulate a complete system of logic adequate to characterize mathematical theories such as arithmetic and set theory. As such, it was seen to fail by Gödel?s incompleteness theorem of 1931. It is argued, however, that this is to impose a later interpretation on the word ?complete? it is clear from Dedekind?s writings that at least as good as interpretation of completeness is categoricity. Whereas few interesting first-order mathematical theories are categorical or (...)
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  29. Stephen Read (2006). Monism: The One True Logic. In D. de Vidi & T. Kenyon (eds.), A Logical Approach to Philosophy: Essays in Memory of Graham Solomon. Springer
    Logical pluralism is the claim that different accounts of validity can be equally correct. Beall and Restall have recently defended this position. Validity is a matter of truth-preservation over cases, they say: the conclusion should be true in every case in which the premises are true. Each logic specifies a class of cases, but differs over which cases should be considered. I show that this account of logic is incoherent. Validity indeed is truth-preservation, provided this is properly understood. Once understood, (...)
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  30. Stephen Read (2007). Bradwardine's Revenge. In J. C. Beall (ed.), Revenge of the Liar: New Essays on the Paradox. Oxford University Press
  31. John Haldane & Stephen Read (2003). The Philosophy of Thomas Reid: A Collection of Essays. Blackwell.
     
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  32.  64
    Stephen Read (1981). What Is Wrong with Disjunctive Syllogism? Analysis 41 (2):66 - 70.
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  33. Stephen Read (1993). The Slingshot Argument. Logique Et Analyse 36:195-218.
     
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  34.  36
    Stephen Read (2010). Field's Paradox and Its Medieval Solution. History and Philosophy of Logic 31 (2):161-176.
    Hartry Field's revised logic for the theory of truth in his new book, Saving Truth from Paradox , seeking to preserve Tarski's T-scheme, does not admit a full theory of negation. In response, Crispin Wright proposed that the negation of a proposition is the proposition saying that some proposition inconsistent with the first is true. For this to work, we have to show that this proposition is entailed by any proposition incompatible with the first, that is, that it is the (...)
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  35.  37
    Stephen Read (2009). Plural Signification and the Liar Paradox. Philosophical Studies 145 (3):363 - 375.
    In recent years, speech-act theory has mooted the possibility that one utterance can signify a number of different things. This pluralist conception of signification lies at the heart of Thomas Bradwardine’s solution to the insolubles, logical puzzles such as the semantic paradoxes, presented in Oxford in the early 1320s. His leading assumption was that signification is closed under consequence, that is, that a proposition signifies everything which follows from what it signifies. Then any proposition signifying its own falsity, he showed, (...)
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  36.  23
    Stephen Read & Dorothy Edgington (1995). Conditionals and the Ramsey Test. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 69:47 - 86.
  37.  19
    Stephen Read (1979). Self-Reference and Validity. Synthese 42 (2):265 - 274.
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  38.  74
    Stephen Read (2007). Priest, Beall and Armour-Garb: The Law of Non-Contradiction: New Philosophical Essays. [REVIEW] Mind 116 (461):203-206.
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  39.  6
    Stephen Read (1976). Richard Montague: Formal Philosophy: Selected Papers. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 26 (103):182.
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  40.  3
    Stephen Read (2004). In Defence of the Dog: Response to Restall. In S. Rahman J. Symons (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Kluwer Academic Publisher 175--180.
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  41.  17
    Stephen Read (1999). Concepts and Meaning in Medieval Philosophy. Philosophy and Theology 8:1-20.
    In his recent study, Concepts, Fodor identifies five nonnegotiable constraints on any theory of concepts. These theses were all shared by the standard medieval theories of concepts. However, those theories were cognitivist, in contrast with Fodor’s: concepts are definitions, a form of natural knowledge. The medieval theories were formed under two influences, from Aristotle by way of Boethius, and from Augustine. The tension between them resulted in the Ockhamist notion of a natural language, concepts as signs. Thus conventional signs, spoken (...)
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  42.  13
    Stephen Read (2003). Logical Consequences as Truth-Preservation. Logique and Analyse 183 (4):479-493.
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  43.  22
    Graham Priest & Stephen Read (1977). The Formalization of Ockham's Theory of Supposition. Mind 86 (341):109-113.
  44.  19
    Jean-Yves Beziau & Stephen Read (2015). Square of Opposition: A Diagram and a Theory in Historical Perspective. History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (4):315-316.
  45. Stephen Read (2015). Truth, Signification and Paradox. In Kentaro Fujimoto, José Martínez Fernández, Henri Galinon & Theodora Achourioti (eds.), Unifying the Philosophy of Truth. Springer Netherlands 393-408.
    Thomas Bradwardine's solution to the semantic paradoxes, presented in his Insolubilia written in Oxford in the early 1320s, turns on two main principles: that a proposition is true only if things are wholly as it signifies; and that signification is closed under consequence. After exploring the background in Walter Burley's account of the signification of propositions, the question is considered of the extent to which Bradwardine's theory is compatible with the distribution of truth over conjunction, disjunction, negation and the conditional.
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  46.  14
    Stephen Read & Jane Bridge (1978). Beginning Model Theory: The Completeness Theorem and Some Consequences. Philosophical Quarterly 28 (110):85.
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  47.  10
    Stephen Read (1999). Sheffer's Stroke: A Study in Proof-Theoretic Harmony. Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 34:7-23.
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  48.  9
    Stephen Read (2015). Paradox, Closure and Indirect Speech Reports. Logica Universalis 9 (2):237-251.
    Bradwardine’s solution to the the logical paradoxes depends on the idea that every sentence signifies many things, and its truth depends on things’ being wholly as it signifies. This idea is underpinned by his claim that a sentence signifies everything that follows from what it signifies. But the idea that signification is closed under entailment appears too strong, just as logical omniscience is unacceptable in the logic of knowledge. What is needed is a more restricted closure principle. A clue can (...)
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  49.  65
    Stephen Read (2003). Freeing Assumptions From the Liar Paradox. Analysis 63 (2):162–166.
  50.  5
    Vita Droutman, Stephen J. Read & Antoine Bechara (2015). Revisiting the Role of the Insula in Addiction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (7):414-420.
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