Search results for 'Stoic syllogistic' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Susanne Bobzien (1996). Stoic Syllogistic. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:133-92.score: 84.0
    ABSTRACT: For the Stoics, a syllogism is a formally valid argument; the primary function of their syllogistic is to establish such formal validity. Stoic syllogistic is a system of formal logic that relies on two types of argumental rules: (i) 5 rules (the accounts of the indemonstrables) which determine whether any given argument is an indemonstrable argument, i.e. an elementary syllogism the validity of which is not in need of further demonstration; (ii) one unary and three binary (...)
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  2. Susanne Bobzien (2002). Pre-Stoic Hypothetical Syllogistic in Galen. The Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies:57-72.score: 72.0
    ABSTRACT: This paper traces the evidence in Galen's Introduction to Logic (Institutio Logica) for a hypothetical syllogistic which predates Stoic propositional logic. It emerges that Galen is one of our main witnesses for such a theory, whose authors are most likely Theophrastus and Eudemus. A reconstruction of this theory is offered which - among other things - allows to solve some apparent textual difficulties in the Institutio Logica.
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  3. Susanne Bobzien (2003). Stoic Logic. In Brad Inwood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Stoic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.score: 57.0
    ABSTRACT: An introduction to Stoic logic. Stoic logic can in many respects be regarded as a fore-runner of modern propositional logic. I discuss: 1. the Stoic notion of sayables or meanings (lekta); the Stoic assertibles (axiomata) and their similarities and differences to modern propositions; the time-dependency of their truth; 2.-3. assertibles with demonstratives and quantified assertibles and their truth-conditions; truth-functionality of negations and conjunctions; non-truth-functionality of disjunctions and conditionals; language regimentation and ‘bracketing’ devices; Stoic basic (...)
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  4. Anthony Speca (2001). Hypothetical Syllogistic and Stoic Logic. Brill.score: 56.0
    This book uncovers and examines the confusion in antiquity between Aristotle's hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic logic, and offers a fresh perspective on the ...
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  5. Susanne Bobzien (1999). Logic: The Stoics (Part Two). In Keimpe Algra, Jonathan Barnes & et al (eds.), The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. CUP.score: 48.0
    ABSTRACT: A detailed presentation of Stoic theory of arguments, including truth-value changes of arguments, Stoic syllogistic, Stoic indemonstrable arguments, Stoic inference rules (themata), including cut rules and antilogism, argumental deduction, elements of relevance logic in Stoic syllogistic, the question of completeness of Stoic logic, Stoic arguments valid in the specific sense, e.g. "Dio says it is day. But Dio speaks truly. Therefore it is day." A more formal and more detailed account (...)
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  6. Mauro Nasti De Vincentis (2004). From Aristotle's Syllogistic to Stoic Conditionals: Holzwege or Detectable Paths? Topoi 23 (1):113-137.score: 48.0
    This paper is chiefly aimed at individuating some deep, but as yet almost unnoticed, similarities between Aristotle's syllogistic and the Stoic doctrine of conditionals, notably between Aristotle's metasyllogistic equimodality condition (as stated at APr. I 24, 41b27–31) and truth-conditions for third type (Chrysippean) conditionals (as they can be inferred from, say, S.E. P. II 111 and 189). In fact, as is shown in §1, Aristotle's condition amounts to introducing in his (propositional) metasyllogistic a non-truthfunctional implicational arrow '', the (...)
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  7. Susanne Bobzien (2014). Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotle's Theory of the Stoic Indemonstrables. In M. Lee (ed.), Strategies of Argument: Essays in Ancient Ethics, Epistemology, and Logic. OUP. 199-227.score: 45.0
    ABSTRACT: Alexander of Aphrodisias’ commentaries on Aristotle’s Organon are valuable sources for both Stoic and early Peripatetic logic, and have often been used as such – in particular for early Peripatetic hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic propositional logic. By contrast, this paper explores the role Alexander himself played in the development and transmission of those theories. There are three areas in particular where he seems to have made a difference: First, he drew a connection between certain passages from (...)
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  8. Susanne Bobzien (2006). Ancient Logic. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 45.0
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive introduction to ancient (western) logic from earliest times to the 6th century CE, with an emphasis on topics which may be of interest to contemporary logicians. Content: 1. Pre-Aristotelian Logic 1.1 Syntax and Semantics 1.2 Argument Patterns and Valid Inference 2. Aristotle 2.1 Dialectics 2.2 Sub-sentential Classifications 2.3 Syntax and Semantics of Sentences 2.4 Non-modal Syllogistic 2.5 Modal Logic 3. The early Peripatetics: Theophrastus and Eudemus 3.1 Improvements and Modifications of Aristotle's Logic 3.2 Prosleptic Syllogisms 3.3 (...)
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  9. Susanne Bobzien (2006). Logic, History Of: Ancient Logic. In Donald M. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Thomson Gale.score: 36.0
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive introduction to ancient (western) logic from earliest times to the 6th century CE, with a focus on issues that may be of interest to contemporary logicians and covering important topics in Post-Aristotelian logic that are frequently neglected (such as Peripatetic hypothetical syllogistic, the Stoic axiomatic system of propositional logic and various later ancient developments).
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  10. Michael Frede (1974). Stoic Vs. Aristotelian Syllogistic. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 56 (1):1-32.score: 36.0
  11. Susanne Bobzien (1997). The Stoics on Hypotheses and Hypothetical Arguments. Phronesis 42 (3):299-312.score: 30.0
    ABSTRACT: In this paper I argue (i) that the hypothetical arguments about which the Stoic Chrysippus wrote numerous books (DL 7.196) are not to be confused with the so-called "hypothetical syllogisms", but are the same hypothetical arguments as those mentioned five times in Epictetus (e.g. Diss. 1.25.11-12); and (ii) that these hypothetical arguments are formed by replacing in a non-hypothetical argument one (or more) of the premisses by a Stoic "hypothesis" or supposition. Such "hypotheses" or suppositions differ from (...)
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  12. Susanne Bobzien (2002). A Greek Parallel to Boethius' de Hypotheticis Syllogismis. Mnemosyne 55 (3):285-300.score: 24.0
    In this paper I present the text, a translation, and a commentary of a long anonymous scholium to Aristotle’s Analytics which is a Greek parallel to Boethius’ De Hypotheticis Syllogismis, but has so far not been recognized as such. The scholium discusses hypothetical syllogisms of the types modus ponens and modus tollens and hypothetical syllogisms constructed from three conditionals (‘wholly hypothetical syllogisms’). It is Peripatetic, and not Stoic, in its theoretical approach as well as its terminology. There are several (...)
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  13. Susanne Bobzien (2011). The Combinatorics of Stoic Conjunction. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 40 (1):157-188.score: 18.0
    ABSTRACT: The 3rd BCE Stoic logician "Chrysippus says that the number of conjunctions constructible from ten propositions exceeds one million. Hipparchus refuted this, demonstrating that the affirmative encompasses 103,049 conjunctions and the negative 310,952." After laying dormant for over 2000 years, the numbers in this Plutarch passage were recently identified as the 10th (and a derivative of the 11th) Schröder number, and F. Acerbi showed how the 2nd BCE astronomer Hipparchus could have calculated them. What remained unexplained is why (...)
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  14. Piotr Kulicki (2002). Remarks on Axiomatic Rejection in Aristotle’s Syllogistic. Studies in Logic and Theory of Knowledge 5:231-236.score: 18.0
    In the paper we examine the method of axiomatic rejection used to describe the set of nonvalid formulae of Aristotle's syllogistic. First we show that the condition which the system of syllogistic has to fulfil to be ompletely axiomatised, is identical to the condition for any first order theory to be used as a logic program. Than we study the connection between models used or refutation in a first order theory and rejected axioms for that theory. We show (...)
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  15. Rachel Barney (2003). A Puzzle in Stoic Ethics. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 24:303-40.score: 18.0
    It is very difficult to get a clear picture of how the Stoic is supposed to deliberate. This paper considers a number of possible pictures, which cover such a wide range of options that some look Kantian and others utilitarian. Each has some textual support but is also unworkable in certain ways: there seem to be genuine and unresolved conflicts at the heart of Stoic ethics. And these are apparently due not to developmental changes within the school, but (...)
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  16. Susanne Bobzien (1997). Stoic Conceptions of Freedom and Their Relation to Ethics. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 41 (S68):71-89.score: 18.0
    ABSTRACT: In contemporary discussions of freedom in Stoic philosophy we often encounter the following assumptions: (i) the Stoics discussed the problem of free will and determinis; (ii) since in Stoic philosophy freedom of the will is in the end just an illusion, the Stoics took the freedom of the sage as a substitute for it and as the only true freedom; (iii) in the c. 500 years of live Stoic philosophical debate, the Stoics were largely concerned with (...)
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  17. Phil Corkum (forthcoming). Is Aristotle's Syllogistic a Logic? History and Philosophy of Logic.score: 18.0
    Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle’s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning, only if it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the world. In this paper, I will argue that this a misleading interpretative framework. The syllogistic is something sui generis: by our lights, it is neither clearly a logic, nor clearly a theory, but (...)
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  18. Edgar Andrade-Lotero & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Validity, the Squeezing Argument and Alternative Semantic Systems: The Case of Aristotelian Syllogistic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):387-418.score: 18.0
    We investigate the philosophical significance of the existence of different semantic systems with respect to which a given deductive system is sound and complete. Our case study will be Corcoran’s deductive system D for Aristotelian syllogistic and some of the different semantic systems for syllogistic that have been proposed in the literature. We shall prove that they are not equivalent, in spite of D being sound and complete with respect to each of them. Beyond the specific case of (...)
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  19. Stephen H. Daniel (2008). Berkeley's Stoic Notion of Spiritual Substance. In , New Interpretations of Berkeley's Thought. Humanity Books.score: 18.0
    For Berkeley, minds are not Cartesian spiritual substances because they cannot be said to exist (even if only conceptually) abstracted from their activities. Similarly, Berkeley's notion of mind differs from Locke's in that, for Berkeley, minds are not abstract substrata in which ideas inhere. Instead, Berkeley redefines what it means for the mind to be a substance in a way consistent with the Stoic logic of 17th century Ramists on which Leibniz and Jonathan Edwards draw. This view of mind, (...)
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  20. William O. Stephens, Stoic Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 18.0
    The tremendous influence Stoicism has exerted on ethical thought from early Christianity through Immanuel Kant and into the twentieth century is rarely understood and even more rarely appreciated. Throughout history, Stoic ethical doctrines have both provoked harsh criticisms and inspired enthusiastic defenders. The Stoics defined the goal in life as living in agreement with nature. Humans, unlike all other animals, are constituted by nature to develop reason as adults, which transforms their understanding of themselves and their own true good. (...)
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  21. Anna Eunyoung Ju (2009). The Stoic Ontology of Geometrical Limits. Phronesis 54 (4):371-389.score: 18.0
    Scholars have long recognised the interest of the Stoics' thought on geometrical limits, both as a specific topic in their physics and within the context of the school's ontological taxonomy. Unfortunately, insufficient textual evidence remains for us to reconstruct their discussion fully. The sources we do have on Stoic geometrical themes are highly polemical, tending to reveal a disagreement as to whether limit is to be understood as a mere concept, as a body or as an incorporeal. In my (...)
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  22. Harold B. Jones (2010). Marcus Aurelius, the Stoic Ethic, and Adam Smith. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):89 - 96.score: 18.0
    In The Theory of Moral Sentiments (TMS) Adam Smith draws on the Stoic idea of a Providence that uses everything for the good of the whole. The process is often painful, so the Stoic ethic insisted on conscious cooperation. Stoic ideas contributed to the rise of science and enjoyed wide popularity in Smith's England. Smith was more influenced by the Stoicism of his professors than by the Epicureanism of Hume. In TMS, Marcus Aurelius's "helmsman" becomes the "impartial (...)
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  23. John N. Martin (2001). Proclus and the Neoplatonic Syllogistic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):187-240.score: 18.0
    An investigation of Proclus' logic of the syllogistic and of negations in the Elements of Theology, On the Parmenides, and Platonic Theology. It is shown that Proclus employs interpretations over a linear semantic structure with operators for scalar negations (hypemegationlalpha-intensivum and privative negation). A natural deduction system for scalar negations and the classical syllogistic (as reconstructed by Corcoran and Smiley) is shown to be sound and complete for the non-Boolean linear structures. It is explained how Proclus' syllogistic (...)
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  24. Lawrence S. Moss (2011). Syllogistic Logic with Comparative Adjectives. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (3):397-417.score: 18.0
    This paper adds comparative adjectives to two systems of syllogistic logic. The comparatives are interpreted by transitive and irreflexive relations on the underlying domain. The main point is to obtain sound and complete axiomatizations of the valid formulas in the logics.
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  25. Susanne Bobzien (2005). Early Stoic Determinism. Revue de Métaphysique Et de Morale 4 (4):489-516.score: 18.0
    ABSTRACT: Although from the 2nd century BC to the 3rd AD the problems of determinism were discussed almost exclusively under the heading of fate, early Stoic determinism, as introduced by Zeno and elaborated by Chrysippus, was developed largely in Stoic writings on physics, independently of any specific "theory of fate ". Stoic determinism was firmly grounded in Stoic cosmology, and the Stoic notions of causes, as corporeal and responsible for both sustenance and change, and of (...)
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  26. Susanne Bobzien (1986). Die Stoische Modallogik (Stoic Modal Logic). Königshausen & Neumann.score: 18.0
    ABSTRACT: Part 1 discusses the Stoic notion of propositions (assertibles, axiomata): their definition; their truth-criteria; the relation between sentence and proposition; propositions that perish; propositions that change their truth-value; the temporal dependency of propositions; the temporal dependency of the Stoic notion of truth; pseudo-dates in propositions. Part 2 discusses Stoic modal logic: the Stoic definitions of their modal notions (possibility, impossibility, necessity, non-necessity); the logical relations between the modalities; modalities as properties of propositions; contingent propositions; the (...)
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  27. Georg Theiner (2007). Where Syllogistic Reasoning Happens: An Argument for the Extended Mind Hypothesis. In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.score: 18.0
    Does cognition sometimes literally extend into the extra-organismic environment (Clark, 2003), or is it always “merely” environmentally embedded (Rupert, 2004)? Underlying this current border dispute is the question about how to individuate cognitive processes on principled grounds. Based on recent evidence about the active role of representation selection and construction in learning how to reason (Stenning, 2002), I raise the question: what makes two distinct, modality-specific pen-and-paper manipulations of external representations – diagrams versus sentences – cognitive processes of the same (...)
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  28. Edgar Andrade-Lotero & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Validity, the Squeezing Argument and Alternative Semantic Systems: The Case of Aristotelian Syllogistic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):387 - 418.score: 18.0
    We investigate the philosophical significance of the existence of different semantic systems with respect to which a given deductive system is sound and complete. Our case study will be Corcoran's deductive system D for Aristotelian syllogistic and some of the different semantic systems for syllogistic that have been proposed in the literature. We shall prove that they are not equivalent, in spite of D being sound and complete with respect to each of them. Beyond the specific case of (...)
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  29. Andrew Schumann (2006). A Lattice for the Language of Aristotle's Syllogistic and a Lattice for the Language of Vasiľév's Syllogistic. Logic and Logical Philosophy 15 (1):17-37.score: 18.0
    In this paper an algebraic system of the new type is proposed (namely, a vectorial lattice). This algebraic system is a lattice for the language of Aristotle’s syllogistic and as well as a lattice for the language of Vasiľév’s syllogistic. A lattice for the language of Aristotle’s syllogistic is called a vectorial lattice on cap-semilattice and a lattice for the language of Vasiľév’s syllogistic is called a vectorial lattice on closure cap-semilattice. These constructions are introduced for (...)
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  30. R. S. Woodworth & S. B. Sells (1935). An Atmosphere Effect in Formal Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (4):451.score: 15.0
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  31. Jean A. Pezzoli & Lawrence T. Frase (1968). Mediated Facilitation of Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):228.score: 15.0
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  32. T. G. Andrews (1940). The Effect of Benzedrine Sulfate on Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (4):423.score: 15.0
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  33. Ian Begg & J. Peter Denny (1969). Empirical Reconciliation of Atmosphere and Conversion Interpretations of Syllogistic Reasoning Errors. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):351.score: 15.0
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  34. Lawrence T. Frase (1968). Associative Factors in Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p1):407.score: 15.0
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  35. Marek Nasieniewski (2004). A Relational Syllogistic. Logic and Logical Philosophy 13:139-145.score: 15.0
    In [1] J. Perzanowski formulated, among others, an ontology expressed in the relational language. He presented some interesting connections which hold between these relations. In the present paper we focus on further analysis of these relations.
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  36. Miles E. Simpson & Donald M. Johnson (1966). Atmosphere and Conversion Errors in Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (2):197.score: 15.0
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  37. Tad Brennan (2005). The Stoic Life: Emotions, Duties, and Fate. Oxford University Press.score: 14.0
    Tad Brennan explains how to live the Stoic life--and why we might want to. Stoicism has been one of the main currents of thought in Western civilization for two thousand years: Brennan offers a fascinating guide through the ethical ideas of the original Stoic philosophers, and shows how valuable these ideas remain today, both intellectually and in practice. He writes in a lively informal style which will bring Stoicism to life for readers who are new to ancient philosophy. (...)
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  38. Susanne Bobzien (1998). Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 14.0
    Bobzien presents the definitive study of one of the most interesting intellectual legacies of the ancient Greeks: the Stoic theory of causal determinism. She explains what it was, how the Stoics justified it, and how it relates to their views on possibility, action, freedom, moral responsibility, moral character, fatalism, logical determinism and many other topics. She demonstrates the considerable philosophical richness and power that these ideas retain today.
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  39. Sandrine Berges (2005). Loneliness and Belonging: Is Stoic Cosmopolitanism Still Defensible ? [REVIEW] Res Publica 11 (1):3-25.score: 14.0
    In view of recent articles citing the Stoics as a defence or refutation of cosmopolitanism it is legitimate to ask whether the Stoics did in fact have an argument for cosmopolitanism which may be useful to contemporary political philosophers. I begin by discussing an interpretation of Stoic views on cosmopolitanism by Martha Nussbaum and A.A. Long and show that the arguments they attribute to the Stoics are not tenable in the light of present day philosophy. I then argue that (...)
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  40. Katerina Ierodiakonou (ed.) (1998). Topics in Stoic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 14.0
    This book collects a series of important new studies on one of the richest and most influential intellectual traditions of antiquity. Leading scholars combine careful analytical attention to the original texts with historical sensitivity and philosophical acuity to point the way to a better understanding of Stoic ethics, political theory, logic, and science.
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  41. Mark A. Holowchak (2009). Education as Training for Life: Stoic Teachers as Physicians of the Soul. Educational Philosophy and Theory 41 (2):166-184.score: 14.0
    This paper is an indirect critique of the practice of American liberal education. I show that the liberal, integrative model that American colleges and universities have adopted, with one key exception, is essentially an approach to education proposed some 2400 years ago by Stoic philosophers. To this end, I focus on a critical sketch of the Stoic model of education?chiefly through the works of Seneca, Epictetus, and Aurelius?that is distinguishable by these features: education as self?knowing, the need of (...)
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  42. Margaret J. Osler (ed.) (1991). Atoms, Pneuma, and Tranquillity: Epicurean and Stoic Themes in European Thought. Cambridge University Press.score: 14.0
    This volume examines the influence that Epicureanism and Stoicism, two philosophies of nature and human nature articulated during classical times, exerted on the development of European thought to the Enlightenment. Although the influence of these philosophies has often been noted in certain areas, such as the influence of Stoicism on the development of Christian thought and the influence of Epicureanism on modern materialism, the chapters in this volume forward a new awareness of the degree to which these philosophies and their (...)
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  43. P. A. Meijer (2007). Stoic Theology: Proofs for the Existence of the Cosmic God and of the Traditional Gods: Including a Commentary on Cleanthes' Hymn on Zeus. Eburon.score: 14.0
    Zeno's so-called proofs of divine existence -- Zeno and the traditional gods: a serious problem -- Cleanthes' proofs -- Cleanthes and the traditional gods -- Chrysippus' contribution -- Chrysippus and the traditional gods -- Other Stoic proofs -- Other (Stoic?) arguments in Sextus -- Polemics against the arguments pro the existence of God(s) -- Abolishing the gods leads to odd consequence: the atopical arguments pro the existence of the gods -- The counter-arguments -- Carneades and the data of (...)
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  44. Malcolm Schofield (1991/1999). The Stoic Idea of the City. University of Chicago Press.score: 14.0
    The Stoic Idea of the City offers the first systematic analysis of the Stoic school, concentrating on Zeno's Republic . Renowned classical scholar Malcolm Schofield brings together scattered and underused textual evidence, examining the Stoic ideals that initiated the natural law tradition of Western political thought. A new foreword by Martha Nussbaum and a new epilogue written by the author further secure this text as the standard work on Presocratic Stoics. "The account emerges from a jigsaw-puzzle of (...)
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  45. Nikolay Ivanov & Dimiter Vakarelov (2012). A System of Relational Syllogistic Incorporating Full Boolean Reasoning. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):433-459.score: 14.0
    We present a system of relational syllogistic, based on classical propositional logic, having primitives of the following form: $$\begin{array}{ll}\mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are} \,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some} \,b;\\ \mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all} \,b.\end{array}$$ Such primitives formalize sentences from natural language like ‘ All students read some textbooks’. Here a, b denote arbitrary sets (of objects), and R denotes (...)
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  46. Elizabeth Agnew Cochran (2011). Consent, Conversion, and Moral Formation: Stoic Elements in Jonathan Edwards's Ethics. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):623-650.score: 14.0
    The contemporary revival of virtue ethics has focused primarily on retrieving central moral commitments of Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, and the Neoplatonist traditions. Christian virtue ethicists would do well to expand this retrieval further to include the writings of the Roman Stoics. This essay argues that the ethics of Jonathan Edwards exemplifies major Stoic themes and explores three noteworthy points of intersection between Stoic ethics and Edwards's thought: a conception of virtue as consent to a benevolent providence, the identification (...)
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  47. William Braxton Irvine (2009). A Guide to the Good Life: The Ancient Art of Stoic Joy. Oxford University Press.score: 14.0
    Irvine looks at various Stoic techniques for attaining tranquility and shows how to put these techniques to work in our own life.
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  48. Lois Peters Agnew (2008). Outward, Visible Propriety: Stoic Philosophy and Eighteenth-Century British Rhetorics. University of South Carolina Press.score: 14.0
    Introduction -- Stoic ethics and rhetoric -- Eighteenth-century common sense and sensus communis -- Taste and sensus communis -- Propriety, sympathy, and style fusing individual and social -- Victorian language theories and the decline of sensus communis.
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  49. John M. Rist (1969). Stoic Philosophy. London, Cambridge U.P..score: 14.0
    Literature on the Stoa has recently concentrated on historical accounts of the development of the school and on Stoicism as a social movement. Professor Rist’s approach is to examine in detail a series of philosophical problems discussed by leading members of the Stoic school. He is not concerned with social history or with the influence of Stoicism on popular beliefs in the Ancient world, but with such questions as the relation between Stoicism and the thought of Aristotle, the meaning (...)
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  50. Nancy Sherman (2005). Stoic Warriors: The Ancient Philosophy Behind the Military Mind. Oxford University Press.score: 14.0
    While few soldiers may have read the works of Epictetus or Marcus Aurelius, it is undoubtedly true that the ancient philosophy known as Stoicism guides the actions of many in the military. Soldiers and seamen learn early in their training "to suck it up," to endure, to put aside their feelings and to get on with the mission. Stoic Warriors is the first book to delve deeply into the ancient legacy of this relationship, exploring what the Stoic philosophy (...)
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