Search results for 'Structural Universals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Thomas Mormann (2010). Structural Universals as Structural Parts: Toward a General Theory of Parthood and Composition. Axiomathes 20 (2 -3):229 - 253.score: 240.0
    David Lewis famously argued against structural universals since they allegedly required what he called a composition “sui generis” that differed from standard mereological com¬position. In this paper it is shown that, although traditional Boolean mereology does not describe parthood and composition in its full generality, a better and more comprehensive theory is provided by the foundational theory of categories. In this category-theoretical framework a theory of structural universals can be formulated that overcomes the conceptual difficulties that (...)
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  2. Javier Kalhat (2008). Structural Universals and the Principle of Uniqueness of Composition. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76 (1):57-77.score: 180.0
    Lewis has objected to Armstrong's notion of a structural universal on the grounds that it violates the Principle of Uniqueness of Composition (PUC), which says that given some parts, there is only one whole that they compose. This paper reviews Armstrong's case for structural universals, and then attempts to reconcile structural universals with PUC by arguing for the existence of arrangement universals. The latter are not only a key to defending structural universals (...)
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  3. J. Robert G. Williams (2007). The Possibility of Onion Worlds: Rebutting an Argument for Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (2):193 – 203.score: 180.0
    Some argue that theories of universals should incorporate structural universals, in order to allow for the metaphysical possibility of worlds of 'infinite descending complexity' ('onion worlds'). I argue that the possibility of such worlds does not establish the need for structural universals. So long as we admit the metaphysical possibility of emergent universals, there is an attractive alternative description of such cases.
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  4. Joan Pagès (2002). Structural Universals and Formal Relations. Synthese 131 (2):215 - 221.score: 180.0
    I will consider Armstrong's problems in trying to account for structural universals, i.e., a kind of complex universal whose instantiation by particulars involves different parts of those particulars instantiating several basic properties and relations, such as the property of being a molecule of methane. I present and criticise Armstrong's most recent attempt to explain structural properties by means of the identification of universals with types of states of affairs and I state my own solution to the (...)
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  5. David Lewis (1986). Against Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):25 – 46.score: 150.0
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  6. D. M. Armstrong (1986). In Defence of Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):85 – 88.score: 150.0
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  7. John Bigelow & Robert Pargetter (1989). A Theory of Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67 (1):1 – 11.score: 150.0
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  8. John Bigelow (1986). Towards Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):94 – 96.score: 150.0
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  9. Bojan Borstner (1991). On Structural Universals. Filozofski Vestnik 12 (1):205-214.score: 150.0
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  10. Gnuxr Philosophisch E. Studien (2008). Structural Universals and the Principle of Uniqueness of Composition Javier Kalhat University of Zurich. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76:57.score: 150.0
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  11. Thomas Mormann, Structural Mereology: A Formal Elucidation and Some Metaphysical Applications.score: 90.0
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  12. Javier Kalhat (2011). Is There A Quasi-Mereological Account of Property Incompatibility? Acta Analytica 26 (2):115-133.score: 90.0
    Armstrong’s combinatorial theory of possibility faces the obvious difficulty that not all universals are compatible. In this paper I develop three objections against Armstrong’s attempt to account for property incompatibilities. First, Armstrong’s account cannot handle incompatibilities holding among properties that are either simple, or that are complex but stand to one another in the relation of overlap rather than in the part/ whole relation. Secondly, at the heart of Armstrong’s account lies a notion of structural universals which, (...)
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  13. Leszek Pacholski (1972). Review: S. R. Kogalovskij, Structural Characteristics of Universal Classes. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):401-402.score: 80.0
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  14. John Bolender (2006). Nomic Universals and Particular Causal Relations: Which Are Basic and Which Are Derived? Philosophia 34 (4):405-410.score: 72.0
    Armstrong holds that a law of nature is a certain sort of structural universal which, in turn, fixes causal relations between particular states of affairs. His claim that these nomic structural universals explain causal relations commits him to saying that such universals are irreducible, not supervenient upon the particular causal relations they fix. However, Armstrong also wants to avoid Plato’s view that a universal can exist without being instantiated, a view which he regards as incompatible with (...)
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  15. Scott Atran (1998). Folk Biology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):547-569.score: 66.0
    This essay in the is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based, species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, nor as (...)
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  16. Thomas Mormann (2012). On the Mereological Structure of Complex States of Affairs. Synthese 187 (2):403-418.score: 52.0
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the mereological structure of complex states of affairs without relying on the problematic notion of structural universals. For this task tools from graph theory, lattice theory, and the theory of relational systems are employed. Our starting point is the mereology of similarity structures. Since similarity structures are structured sets, their mereology can be considered as a generalization of the mereology of sets ...
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  17. Wei Wang (2008). A Critical Analysis of Structural Realism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (2):294-306.score: 52.0
    The epistemological version of structural realism, proposed by Cao Tianyu, has great influence in the philosophy of science. Syntheses has published a special volume discussing the topic. Cao criticizes anti-realism, as well as the epistemic and ontic versions of structural realism. From the concepts of structure, ontology, and construction, he analyzes the objectivity of scientific theories as having five aspects: construction, historicity, holism, revision, and revolution. This paper systematically analyzes and comments on Cao's structural realism. The author (...)
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  18. Alexej P. Pynko (2009). Distributive-Lattice Semantics of Sequent Calculi with Structural Rules. Logica Universalis 3 (1):59-94.score: 52.0
    The goal of the paper is to develop a universal semantic approach to derivable rules of propositional multiple-conclusion sequent calculi with structural rules, which explicitly involve not only atomic formulas, treated as metavariables for formulas, but also formula set variables (viz., metavariables for finite sets of formulas), upon the basis of the conception of model introduced in (Fuzzy Sets Syst 121(3):27–37, 2001). One of the main results of the paper is that any regular sequent calculus with structural rules (...)
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  19. Sun Demirli (2010). Indiscernibility and Bundles in a Structure. Philosophical Studies 7 (1):1-18.score: 46.0
    The bundle theory is a theory about the internal constitution of individuals. It asserts that individuals are entirely composed of universals. Typically, bundle theorists augment their theory with a constitutional approach to individuation entailing the thesis ‘identity of constituents is a sufficient ground for numerical identity’ (CIT). But then the bundle theory runs afoul of Black’s duplication case—a world containing two indiscernible spheres. Here I propose and defend a new version of the bundle theory that denies ‘CIT’, and which (...)
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  20. Martin Henn (2002). What Kind of Universal is Being Qua Being in the Aristotelian Metaphysics? Journal of Philosophical Research 27:173-199.score: 44.0
    This essay attempts to redefine the role and functioning of Aristotle’s πρός έν universals in a way that reveals the structural and thematic unity of the Metaphysics. In particular, I argue five points: (1) that πρός έν universals are analogical, but not four-term analogical; (2) things are πρός έν analogous when they share a transgenic λόγος (3) that four-term analogies may foster discovery of πρός έν analogies; (4) that analogy reveals God as supremely One and Universal; and (...)
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  21. Matteo Morganti (2011). The Partial Identity Account of Partial Similarity Revisited. Philosophia 39 (3):527-546.score: 42.0
    This paper provides a defence of the account of partial resemblances between properties according to which such resemblances are due to partial identities of constituent properties. It is argued, first of all, that the account is not only required by realists about universals à la Armstrong, but also useful (of course, in an appropriately re-formulated form) for those who prefer a nominalistic ontology for material objects. For this reason, the paper only briefly considers the problem of how to conceive (...)
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  22. Richard Sternberg (1996). The Role of Constrained Self-Organization in Genome Structural Evolution. Acta Biotheoretica 44 (2).score: 42.0
    A hypothesis of genome structural evolution is explored. Rapid and cohesive alterations in genome organization are viewed as resulting from the dynamic and constrained interactions of chromosomal subsystem components. A combination of macromolecular boundary conditions and DNA element involvement in far-from-equilibrium reactions is proposed to increase the complexity of genomic subsystems via the channelling of genome turnover; interactions between subsystems create higher-order subsystems expanding the phase space for further genetic evolution. The operation of generic constraints on structuration in genome (...)
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  23. Arnolds Grava (1969). A Structural Inquiry Into the Symbolic Representation of Ideas. Paris, Mouton.score: 42.0
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  24. Kris McDaniel (2009). Structure-Making. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (2):251-274.score: 40.0
    Friends of states of affairs and structural universals appeal to a relation, structure-making, that is allegedly a kind of composition relation: structure-making ?builds? facts out of particulars and universals, and ?builds? structural universals out of unstructured universals. D. M. Armstrong, an eminent champion of structures, endorses two interesting theses concerning composition. First, that structure-making is a composition relation. Second, that it is not the only (fundamental) composition relation: Armstrong also believes in a mode of (...)
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  25. Davide Bondoni (2011). Structural Features in Ernst Schröder's Work. Part I. Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (4):327-359.score: 40.0
    In this paper articulated in two parts we propose a structural interpretation of Schröder’s work, pointing out his insistence on the priority of a whole in comparison with its parts. The examples are taken from the diverse areas in which Schröder was active, with a particular interest in his project of an absolute algebra. I am regretting for the bad quality of my English, hoping that notwithstanding the reader can grasp at least the fundamental tracts of my reasoning.
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  26. José Tomás Alvarado Marambio (2007). Mundos Posibles Como Universales Estructurales Máximos: Una Conjetura Ontológica. Análisis Filosófico 27 (2):119-145.score: 40.0
    El trabajo presenta la conjetura de que los mundos posibles son universales estructurales máximos. En primer lugar, se explican brevemente las diferentes concepciones actualistas existentes sobre los mundos posibles y los problemas sistemáticos que deben enfrentar. Se argumenta que la conjetura presentada muestra cómo todas esas concepciones pueden ser unificadas en una teoría única y simple. En segundo lugar, se explica por qué la mejor alternativa para la constitución del espacio modal son los universales trascendentes. Finalmente, se indican brevemente algunas (...)
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  27. Davide Bondoni (2012). Structural Features in Ernst Schröder's Work. Part II. Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (3):271-315.score: 40.0
    In this paper (the second of two parts) we propose a structural interpretation of Schröder’s work, pointing out his insistence on the priority of a whole in comparison with its parts. The examples are taken from the diverse areas in which Schröder was active, with a particular interest in his project of an absolute algebra.
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  28. Chad Carmichael (2010). Universals. Philosophical Studies 150 (3):373-89.score: 38.0
    In this paper, I argue that there are universals. I begin (Sect. 1) by proposing a sufficient condition for a thing’s being a universal. I then argue (Sect. 2) that some truths exist necessarily. Finally, I argue (Sects. 3 and 4) that these truths are structured entities having constituents that meet the proposed sufficient condition for being universals.
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  29. Georg Theiner (2006). Collectivism and the Emergence of Linguistic Universals. In Rocha Luis Mateus, Yaeger Larry S., Bedau Mark A., Floreanu Dario, Goldstone Robert L. & Vespignani Alessandro (eds.), Artificial Life X. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. MIT Press.score: 38.0
    My goal in this paper is to defend the plausibility of a particular version of collectivism – understood as the evolutionary claim that individual-level cognition is systematically biased in favor of aggregate-level regularities – in the domain of language. Chomsky's (1986) methodological promotion of I-language (speaker-internal knowledge) and the corresponding demotion of E-language (aggregate output of a population of speakers) has led mainstream cognitive science to view language essentially as a property of individual minds/brains whose evolution is best explained as (...)
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  30. Filippo Barbano (1968). Social Structures and Social Functions: The Emancipation of Structural Analysis in Sociology. Inquiry 11 (1-4):40 – 84.score: 36.0
    Starting from R. K. Merton's now classic criticism of 'holistic' functionalism, i.e. of a functionalism which postulates social unity, universality and functional in-dispensability, the author stresses certain implications of this criticism more than they have been stressed hitherto. Classical and holistic functionalism) from H. Spencer, B. Malinowski, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, etc to T. Parsons, postulates certain total unities (a global culture, an integrated system, etc.) in which each item (existence, actions, structures, etc.) is considered and defined on the grounds of (...)
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  31. Viki McCabe (1982). The Direct Perception of Universals: A Theory of Knowledge Acquisition. Synthese 52 (3):495 - 513.score: 36.0
    A theory is presented which proposes that knowledge acquisition involves direct perception of schematic information in the form of structural and transformational invariances. Individual components with salient verbal descriptions are considered conscious place-holders for non-conscious invariant schemes. It is speculated that theories positing mental construction have three related causes: The first is a lack of consciousness of the schema processing capacities of the right hemisphere; the second is the paucity of adequate words to express schematic relationships; and the last (...)
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  32. L. S. Schulman (1991). “Special” States in Quantum Measurement Apparatus: Structural Requirements for the Recovery of Standard Probabilities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 21 (8):931-945.score: 36.0
    In a recently proposed quantum measurement theory the definiteness of quantum measurements is achieved by means of “special” states. The recovery of the usual quantum probabilities is related to the relative abundance of particular classes of “special” states. In the present article we consider two-state discrimination, and model the apparatus modes that could provide the “special” states. We find that there are structural features which, if generally present in apparatus, will provide universal recovery of standard probabilities. These structural (...)
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  33. Don Locke (1979). Cognitive Stages or Developmental Phases? A Critique of Kohlberg's Stage‐Structural Theory of Moral Reasoning. Journal of Moral Education 8 (3):168-181.score: 36.0
    Abstract After some preliminary doubts about Kohlberg's method of assessing moral reasoning, his ?stage?structural? theory is criticized under six heads. (1) The claim that the stages constitute structural wholes, representing unified and differentiated patterns of thought: it is argued that the available evidence, and Kohlberg's own methodology, unambiguously implies a developmental continuum, not discrete stage structures. (2) Invariance, which, after counter?evidence led to a revision in the theory, has yet to be demonstrated. (3) Cultural Universality: it is argued (...)
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  34. Sarah Steenhaut & Patrick van Kenhove (2006). An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Among a Consumer's Personal Values, Ethical Ideology and Ethical Beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics 64 (2):137 - 155.score: 36.0
    This study provides an additional partial test of the Hunt–Vitell theory [1986, Journal of Macromarketing, 8, 5–16; 1993, ‘The General Theory of Marketing Ethics: A Retrospective and Revision’, in N. C. Smith and J. A. Quelch (eds.), Ethics in Marketing (Irwin Inc., Homewood), pp. 775–784], within the consumer ethics context. Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among an individual’s personal values (conceptualized by the typology of Schwartz [1992, ‘Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances (...)
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  35. Anna Papafragou, Lexical and Structural Biases in the Acquisition of Motion Verbs.score: 36.0
    It is well known that languages differ in how they encode motion. Languages such as English use verbs that communicate the manner of motion (e.g., climb, float), while languages such as Greek often encode the path of motion in verbs (e.g., advance, exit). In two studies with English- and Greek-speaking adults and 5-year-olds, we ask how such lexical constraints are used in combination with structural cues in hypothesizing meanings for novel motion verbs cross-linguistically. We show that lexicalization biases affect (...)
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  36. Tom Brislin (2004). Empowerment as a Universal Ethic in Global Journalism. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 19 (2):130 – 137.score: 36.0
    Globalization has churned up in its wake a reevaluation of standards in numerous enterprises, including journalism. The search for a universal journalism ethic, however, has often ended with the attempt to import traditional and underlying Western "free press" values, such as objectivity and an adversarial platform, forged in Enlightenment philosophy. This belief of the universal portability of Western values is reflected in the mixed results of several professional initiatives in the early and mid-1990s designed to both install and instill a (...)
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  37. Arnold Koslow (forthcoming). The Modality and Non-Extensionality of the Quantifiers. Synthese:1-10.score: 36.0
    We shall try to defend two non-standard views that run counter to two well-entrenched familiar views. The standard views are (1) the universal and existential quantifiers of first-order logic are not modal operators, and (2) the quantifiers are extensional. If that is correct then the counterclaims create genuine problems for some traditional philosophical doctrines.
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  38. Jiang Liu & Guohua Wu (2011). An Almost-Universal Cupping Degree. Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (4):1137-1152.score: 36.0
    Say that an incomplete d.r.e. degree has almost universal cupping property, if it cups all the r.e. degrees not below it to 0′. In this paper, we construct such a degree d, with all the r.e. degrees not cupping d to 0′ bounded by some r.e. degree strictly below d. The construction itself is an interesting 0″′ argument and this new structural property can be used to study final segments of various degree structures in the Ershov hierarchy.
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  39. Carmine Di Martino (2010). L'incontro e l'emergenza dell'umano (The meeting and the emergence of human) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n16p62. Horizonte 8 (16):62-79.score: 36.0
    Il multiculturalismo è un modello culturale e politico-istituzionale per la gestione della diversità in una società multietnica, la cui base teorica viene dal relativismo culturale. Come nessuna cultura può pretendere una validità universale, il processo di storicizzazione della razionalità occidentale segna la fine della pretesa metafisica di dire la verità dell’uomo e del mondo, nononstante si crede che il fare della scienza è l’accadere della verità. Nel gestire la diversità e nell’assicurare la tolleranza risiede la «necessità» del multiculturalismo. Sua debolezza (...)
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  40. Jeffrey S. Olson (2006). Subdirectly Irreducible Residuated Semilattices and Positive Universal Classes. Studia Logica 83 (1-3):393 - 406.score: 36.0
    CRS(fc) denotes the variety of commutative residuated semilattice-ordered monoids that satisfy (x ⋀ e)k ≤ (x ⋀ e)k+1. A structural characterization of the subdi-rectly irreducible members of CRS(k) is proved, and is then used to provide a constructive approach to the axiomatization of varieties generated by positive universal subclasses of CRS(k).
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  41. Todd Bates (2010/2012). Duns Scotus and the Problem of Universals. Continuum.score: 32.0
    Scotus recidivus? -- On the structure of material substance in Scotus' metaphysics -- Substantial natures : neither singular nor universal, but common -- On individuation by the haecceity -- Numerical singular created natures and supposita.
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  42. Tyler Hildebrand (2013). Tooley's Account of the Necessary Connection Between Law and Regularity. Philosophical Studies 166 (1):33-43.score: 30.0
    Fred Dretske, Michael Tooley, and David Armstrong accept a theory of governing laws of nature according to which laws are atomic states of affairs that necessitate corresponding natural regularities. Some philosophers object to the Dretske/Tooley/Armstrong theory on the grounds that there is no illuminating account of the necessary connection between governing law and natural regularity. In response, Michael Tooley has provided a reductive account of this necessary connection in his book Causation (1987). In this essay, I discuss an improved version (...)
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  43. Karen Bennett, “Perfectly Understood, Unproblematic, and Certain”: Lewis on Mereology.score: 30.0
    David Lewis famously takes mereology “to be perfectly understood, unproblematic, and certain” (1991, 75). It is central to his thought, appearing in his discussions of set theory, modality, vagueness, structural universals, and elsewhere. He held views not only about how composition works and when it occurs, but also about the role of mereology in philosophy. In this essay, I will proceed by articulating four theses that Lewis holds about composition. (I would call them the four U’s, if only (...)
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  44. Karen Bennett (2013). Having a Part Twice Over. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):83 - 103.score: 30.0
    I argue that it is intuitive and useful to think about composition in the light of the familiar functionalist distinction between role and occupant. This involves factoring the standard notion of parthood into two related notions: being a parthood slot and occupying a parthood slot. One thing is part of another just in case it fills one of that thing's parthood slots. This move opens room to rethink mereology in various ways, and, in particular, to see the mereological structure of (...)
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  45. Katherine Hawley (2010). Mereology, Modality and Magic. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):117 – 133.score: 30.0
    If the property _being a methane molecule_ is a universal, then it is a structural universal: objects instantiate _being a methane molecule_ just in case they have the right sorts of proper parts arranged in the right sort of way. Lewis argued that there can be no satisfactory account of structural universals; in this paper I provide a satisfactory account.
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  46. Peter Forrest (2006). The Operator Theory of Instantiation. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (2):213 – 228.score: 30.0
    Armstrong holds the Supervenience Theory of instantiation, namely that the instantiation of universals by particulars supervenes upon what particulars and what universals there are, where supervenience is stipulated to be explanatory or dependent supervenience. I begin by rejecting the Supervenience Theory of instantiation. Having done so it is then tempting to take instantiation as primitive. This has, however, an awkward consequence, undermining one of the main advantages universals have over tropes. So I examine another account hinted at (...)
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  47. Peter Simons (1991). Ramsey, Particulars, and Universals. Theoria 57 (3):150-161.score: 30.0
    My subject is the arguments brought by Ramsey in his paper “Universals” (1925)’ against the generally held distinction between particulars and universals. This paper is provocative, suggestive, and radical, and it is humbling to reflect that its author was just 22 years old when it was published in Mind. As so often with Ramsey, the paper is superficially very easy to follow and hardly requires any introduction other than the imperative, “Read it through”, but underneath the surface are (...)
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  48. Peter Forrest (2005). Universals as Sense-Data. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):622-631.score: 30.0
    This paper concerns the structure of appearances. I argue that to be appeared to in a certain way is to be aware of one or more universals. Universals therefore function like the sense-data, once highly favoured but now out of fashion. For instance, to be appeared to treely, in a visual way, is to be aware of the complex relation, being treeshaped and tree-coloured and being in front of, a relation of a kind which could be instantiated by (...)
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  49. A. R. J. Fisher (2013). Bennett on Parts Twice Over. Philosophia 41 (3):757-761.score: 30.0
    In this paper I outline the main features of Karen Bennett’s (Australasian Journal of Philosophy 1–21, 2011) non-classical mereology, and identify its methodological costs. I argue that Bennett’s mereology cannot account for the composition of structural universals because it cannot explain the mereological difference between isomeric universals, such as being butane and being isobutane. I consider responses, which come at costs to the view.
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  50. Arnold Berleant (1982). Multinationals, Local Practice, and the Problem of Ethical Consistency. Journal of Business Ethics 1 (3):185 - 193.score: 30.0
    The business practices of multinational corporations raise many provocative moral issues and offer a touchstone for some fundamental ethical concepts. This essay identifies a wide range of problems but centers on the matter of consistency in corporate policy between foreign and domestic practices and the kind of generality of standards that is required to achieve consistency. Two considerations are singled out for illustrative discussion: wage scales and bribes. Proposals are offered for achieving consistency and generality in each case, the principle (...)
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