Search results for 'Structural Universals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Thomas Mormann (2010). Structural Universals as Structural Parts: Toward a General Theory of Parthood and Composition. Axiomathes 20 (2 -3):229 - 253.
    David Lewis famously argued against structural universals since they allegedly required what he called a composition “sui generis” that differed from standard mereological com¬position. In this paper it is shown that, although traditional Boolean mereology does not describe parthood and composition in its full generality, a better and more comprehensive theory is provided by the foundational theory of categories. In this category-theoretical framework a theory of structural universals can be formulated that overcomes the conceptual difficulties that (...)
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  2.  76
    J. Robert G. Williams (2007). The Possibility of Onion Worlds: Rebutting an Argument for Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (2):193 – 203.
    Some argue that theories of universals should incorporate structural universals, in order to allow for the metaphysical possibility of worlds of 'infinite descending complexity' ('onion worlds'). I argue that the possibility of such worlds does not establish the need for structural universals. So long as we admit the metaphysical possibility of emergent universals, there is an attractive alternative description of such cases.
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  3.  94
    Javier Kalhat (2008). Structural Universals and the Principle of Uniqueness of Composition. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76 (1):57-77.
    Lewis has objected to Armstrong's notion of a structural universal on the grounds that it violates the Principle of Uniqueness of Composition (PUC), which says that given some parts, there is only one whole that they compose. This paper reviews Armstrong's case for structural universals, and then attempts to reconcile structural universals with PUC by arguing for the existence of arrangement universals. The latter are not only a key to defending structural universals (...)
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  4.  57
    Joan Pagès (2002). Structural Universals and Formal Relations. Synthese 131 (2):215 - 221.
    I will consider Armstrong's problems in trying to account for structural universals, i.e., a kind of complex universal whose instantiation by particulars involves different parts of those particulars instantiating several basic properties and relations, such as the property of being a molecule of methane. I present and criticise Armstrong's most recent attempt to explain structural properties by means of the identification of universals with types of states of affairs and I state my own solution to the (...)
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  5. David Lewis (1986). Against Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):25 – 46.
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  6. D. M. Armstrong (1986). In Defence of Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):85 – 88.
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  7.  11
    Peter Forrest (forthcoming). The Mereology of Structural Universals. Logic and Logical Philosophy.
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  8.  68
    John Bigelow & Robert Pargetter (1989). A Theory of Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67 (1):1 – 11.
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  9.  34
    John Bigelow (1986). Towards Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):94 – 96.
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  10. Bojan Borstner (1991). On Structural Universals. Filozofski Vestnik 12 (1):205-214.
     
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  11. Gnuxr Philosophisch E. Studien (2008). Structural Universals and the Principle of Uniqueness of Composition Javier Kalhat University of Zurich. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76:57.
     
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  12. Leszek Pacholski (1972). Review: S. R. Kogalovskij, Structural Characteristics of Universal Classes. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):401-402.
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  13. Katherine Hawley (2010). Mereology, Modality and Magic. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):117 – 133.
    If the property _being a methane molecule_ is a universal, then it is a structural universal: objects instantiate _being a methane molecule_ just in case they have the right sorts of proper parts arranged in the right sort of way. Lewis argued that there can be no satisfactory account of structural universals; in this paper I provide a satisfactory account.
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  14. Thomas Mormann, Structural Mereology: A Formal Elucidation and Some Metaphysical Applications.
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  15. Javier Kalhat (2011). Is There A Quasi-Mereological Account of Property Incompatibility? Acta Analytica 26 (2):115-133.
    Armstrong’s combinatorial theory of possibility faces the obvious difficulty that not all universals are compatible. In this paper I develop three objections against Armstrong’s attempt to account for property incompatibilities. First, Armstrong’s account cannot handle incompatibilities holding among properties that are either simple, or that are complex but stand to one another in the relation of overlap rather than in the part/ whole relation. Secondly, at the heart of Armstrong’s account lies a notion of structural universals (...)
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  16. John Bolender (2006). Nomic Universals and Particular Causal Relations: Which Are Basic and Which Are Derived? Philosophia 34 (4):405-410.
    Armstrong holds that a law of nature is a certain sort of structural universal which, in turn, fixes causal relations between particular states of affairs. His claim that these nomic structural universals explain causal relations commits him to saying that such universals are irreducible, not supervenient upon the particular causal relations they fix. However, Armstrong also wants to avoid Plato’s view that a universal can exist without being instantiated, a view which he regards as incompatible with (...)
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  17. Scott Atran (1998). Folk Biology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):547-569.
    This essay in the is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based, species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, nor as (...)
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  18.  75
    Katherine Hawley & Alexander Bird (2011). What Are Natural Kinds? Philosophical Perspectives 25 (1):205-221.
    We articulate a view of natural kinds as complex universals. We do not attempt to argue for the existence of universals. Instead, we argue that, given the existence of universals, and of natural kinds, the latter can be understood in terms of the former, and that this provides a rich, flexible framework within which to discuss issues of indeterminacy, essentialism, induction, and reduction. Along the way, we develop a 'problem of the many' for universals.
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  19. Wei Wang (2008). A Critical Analysis of Structural Realism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (2):294-306.
    The epistemological version of structural realism, proposed by Cao Tianyu, has great influence in the philosophy of science. Syntheses has published a special volume discussing the topic. Cao criticizes anti-realism, as well as the epistemic and ontic versions of structural realism. From the concepts of structure, ontology, and construction, he analyzes the objectivity of scientific theories as having five aspects: construction, historicity, holism, revision, and revolution. This paper systematically analyzes and comments on (...)
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  20.  20
    Alexej P. Pynko (2009). Distributive-Lattice Semantics of Sequent Calculi with Structural Rules. Logica Universalis 3 (1):59-94.
    The goal of the paper is to develop a universal semantic approach to derivable rules of propositional multiple-conclusion sequent calculi with structural rules, which explicitly involve not only atomic formulas, treated as metavariables for formulas, but also formula set variables (viz., metavariables for finite sets of formulas), upon the basis of the conception of model introduced in (Fuzzy Sets Syst 121(3):27–37, 2001). One of the main results of the paper is that any regular sequent calculus with (...) rules has such class of sequent models (called its semantics ) that a rule is derivable in the calculus iff it is sound with respect to each model of the semantics. We then show how semantics of admissible rules of such calculi can be found with using a method of free models. Next, our universal approach is applied to sequent calculi for many-valued logics with equality determinant . Finally, we exemplify this application by studying sequent calculi for some of such logics. (shrink)
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  21. Filippo Barbano (1968). Social Structures and Social Functions: The Emancipation of Structural Analysis in Sociology. Inquiry 11 (1-4):40 – 84.
    Starting from R. K. Merton's now classic criticism of 'holistic' functionalism, i.e. of a functionalism which postulates social unity, universality and functional in-dispensability, the author stresses certain implications of this criticism more than they have been stressed hitherto. Classical and holistic functionalism) from H. Spencer, B. Malinowski, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, etc to T. Parsons, postulates certain total unities (a global culture, an integrated system, etc.) in which each item (existence, actions, structures, etc.) is considered and defined on the grounds of (...)
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  22.  14
    Tom Brislin (2004). Empowerment as a Universal Ethic in Global Journalism. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 19 (2):130 – 137.
    Globalization has churned up in its wake a reevaluation of standards in numerous enterprises, including journalism. The search for a universal journalism ethic, however, has often ended with the attempt to import traditional and underlying Western "free press" values, such as objectivity and an adversarial platform, forged in Enlightenment philosophy. This belief of the universal portability of Western values is reflected in the mixed results of several professional initiatives in the early and mid-1990s designed to both install and instill a (...)
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  23.  21
    Arnold Koslow (forthcoming). The Modality and Non-Extensionality of the Quantifiers. Synthese:1-10.
    We shall try to defend two non-standard views that run counter to two well-entrenched familiar views. The standard views are (1) the universal and existential quantifiers of first-order logic are not modal operators, and (2) the quantifiers are extensional. If that is correct then the counterclaims create genuine problems for some traditional philosophical doctrines.
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  24.  30
    L. S. Schulman (1991). “Special” States in Quantum Measurement Apparatus: Structural Requirements for the Recovery of Standard Probabilities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 21 (8):931-945.
    In a recently proposed quantum measurement theory the definiteness of quantum measurements is achieved by means of “special” states. The recovery of the usual quantum probabilities is related to the relative abundance of particular classes of “special” states. In the present article we consider two-state discrimination, and model the apparatus modes that could provide the “special” states. We find that there are structural features which, if generally present in apparatus, will provide universal recovery of standard probabilities. These structural (...)
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  25.  15
    Don Locke (1979). Cognitive Stages or Developmental Phases? A Critique of Kohlberg's Stage‐Structural Theory of Moral Reasoning. Journal of Moral Education 8 (3):168-181.
    Abstract After some preliminary doubts about Kohlberg's method of assessing moral reasoning, his ?stage?structural? theory is criticized under six heads. (1) The claim that the stages constitute structural wholes, representing unified and differentiated patterns of thought: it is argued that the available evidence, and Kohlberg's own methodology, unambiguously implies a developmental continuum, not discrete stage structures. (2) Invariance, which, after counter?evidence led to a revision in the theory, has yet to be demonstrated. (3) Cultural Universality: it is argued (...)
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  26. A. Baltag (1999). Sts: A Structural Theory Of Sets. Logic Journal of the Igpl 7 (4):481-515.
    We explore a non-classical, universal set theory, based on a purely 'structural' conception of sets. A set is a transfinite process of unfolding of an arbitrary binary structure, with identity of sets given by the observational equivalence between such processes. We formalize these notions using infinitary modal logic, which provides partial descriptions for set structures up to observational equivalence. We describe the comprehension and topological properties of the resulting set-theory, and we use it to give non-classical solutions to classical (...)
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  27.  4
    Jeffrey S. Olson (2006). Subdirectly Irreducible Residuated Semilattices and Positive Universal Classes. Studia Logica 83 (1-3):393 - 406.
    CRS(fc) denotes the variety of commutative residuated semilattice-ordered monoids that satisfy (x ⋀ e)k ≤ (x ⋀ e)k+1. A structural characterization of the subdi-rectly irreducible members of CRS(k) is proved, and is then used to provide a constructive approach to the axiomatization of varieties generated by positive universal subclasses of CRS(k).
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  28. Anne Donchin Mary C. Rawlinson (2005). Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):197–209.
    ABSTRACTThis essay focuses on two underlying presumptions that impinge on the effort of UNESCO to engender universal agreement on a set of bioethical norms: the conception of universality that pervades much of the document, and its disregard of structural inequalities that significantly impact health. Drawing on other UN system documents and recent feminist bioethics scholarship, we argue that the formulation of universal principles should not rely solely on shared ethical values, as the draft document affirms, but also on differences (...)
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  29.  20
    Anna Papafragou, Lexical and Structural Biases in the Acquisition of Motion Verbs.
    It is well known that languages differ in how they encode motion. Languages such as English use verbs that communicate the manner of motion (e.g., climb, float), while languages such as Greek often encode the path of motion in verbs (e.g., advance, exit). In two studies with English- and Greek-speaking adults and 5-year-olds, we ask how such lexical constraints are used in combination with structural cues in hypothesizing meanings for novel motion verbs cross-linguistically. We show that lexicalization biases affect (...)
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  30.  13
    Martin Henn (2002). What Kind of Universal is Being Qua Being in the Aristotelian Metaphysics? Journal of Philosophical Research 27:173-199.
    This essay attempts to redefine the role and functioning of Aristotle’s πρός έν universals in a way that reveals the structural and thematic unity of the Metaphysics. In particular, I argue five points: (1) that πρός έν universals are analogical, but not four-term analogical; (2) things are πρός έν analogous when they share a transgenic λόγος (3) that four-term analogies may foster discovery of πρός έν analogies; (4) that analogy reveals God as supremely One and Universal; and (...)
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  31.  12
    Richard Sternberg (1996). The Role of Constrained Self-Organization in Genome Structural Evolution. Acta Biotheoretica 44 (2).
    A hypothesis of genome structural evolution is explored. Rapid and cohesive alterations in genome organization are viewed as resulting from the dynamic and constrained interactions of chromosomal subsystem components. A combination of macromolecular boundary conditions and DNA element involvement in far-from-equilibrium reactions is proposed to increase the complexity of genomic subsystems via the channelling of genome turnover; interactions between subsystems create higher-order subsystems expanding the phase space for further genetic evolution. The operation of generic constraints on structuration in genome (...)
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  32.  6
    Jiang Liu & Guohua Wu (2011). An Almost-Universal Cupping Degree. Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (4):1137-1152.
    Say that an incomplete d.r.e. degree has almost universal cupping property, if it cups all the r.e. degrees not below it to 0′. In this paper, we construct such a degree d, with all the r.e. degrees not cupping d to 0′ bounded by some r.e. degree strictly below d. The construction itself is an interesting 0″′ argument and this new structural property can be used to study final segments of various degree structures in the Ershov hierarchy.
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  33.  1
    Christina Behme (2011). Disagreement About 'Universals' or Universal Disagreement? Gnosis 11 (2):1-10.
    It has been widely assumed that all languages share some structural features; language universals. Evans and Levinson challenge this assumption and provide a wealth of empirical evidence supporting their claim that linguistic diversity is the most remarkable characteristic of human languages. The response to their paper reveals fundamental disagreements, indicating that different authors rely on substantially different definitions of key terms such as ‘language’ and ‘language universal’. In this paper I will not take sides but discuss the implications (...)
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  34.  3
    Davide Bondoni (2012). Structural Features in Ernst Schröder's Work. Part II. Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (3):271-315.
    In this paper (the second of two parts) we propose a structural interpretation of Schröder’s work, pointing out his insistence on the priority of a whole in comparison with its parts. The examples are taken from the diverse areas in which Schröder was active, with a particular interest in his project of an absolute algebra.
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  35.  2
    Davide Bondoni (2011). Structural Features in Ernst Schröder's Work. Part I. Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (4):327-359.
    In this paper articulated in two parts we propose a structural interpretation of Schröder’s work, pointing out his insistence on the priority of a whole in comparison with its parts. The examples are taken from the diverse areas in which Schröder was active, with a particular interest in his project of an absolute algebra. I am regretting for the bad quality of my English, hoping that notwithstanding the reader can grasp at least the fundamental tracts of my reasoning.
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  36. Thomas Mormann (2012). On the Mereological Structure of Complex States of Affairs. Synthese 187 (2):403-418.
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the mereological structure of complex states of affairs without relying on the problematic notion of structural universals. For this task tools from graph theory, lattice theory, and the theory of relational systems are employed. Our starting point is the mereology of similarity structures. Since similarity structures are structured sets, their mereology can be considered as a generalization of the mereology of sets..
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  37. Matteo Morganti (2011). The Partial Identity Account of Partial Similarity Revisited. Philosophia 39 (3):527-546.
    This paper provides a defence of the account of partial resemblances between properties according to which such resemblances are due to partial identities of constituent properties. It is argued, first of all, that the account is not only required by realists about universals à la Armstrong, but also useful (of course, in an appropriately re-formulated form) for those who prefer a nominalistic ontology for material objects. For this reason, the paper only briefly considers the problem of how to conceive (...)
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  38. Arnolds Grava (1969). A Structural Inquiry Into the Symbolic Representation of Ideas. Paris, Mouton.
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  39.  90
    Sun Demirli (2010). Indiscernibility and Bundles in a Structure. Philosophical Studies 7 (1):1-18.
    The bundle theory is a theory about the internal constitution of individuals. It asserts that individuals are entirely composed of universals. Typically, bundle theorists augment their theory with a constitutional approach to individuation entailing the thesis ‘identity of constituents is a sufficient ground for numerical identity’ (CIT). But then the bundle theory runs afoul of Black’s duplication case—a world containing two indiscernible spheres. Here I propose and defend a new version of the bundle theory that denies ‘CIT’, and which (...)
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  40.  9
    Rinat Nugayev (2011). Internal Realism and the Objectivity of Scientific Knowledge. Analytica 5:1-35.
    Arguments pro and contra convergent realism – underdetermination of theory by observational evidence and pessimistic meta-induction from past falsity – are considered. It is argued that, to meet the counter-arguments challenge, convergent realism should be considerably changed with a help of modification of the propositions from this meta-programme “hard core” or “protecting belt”. Two well-known convergent realism rivals – “entity realism” of Nancy Cartwright and Ian Hacking and John Worrall’s “structural realism” – are considered. Entity realism’s main drawback is (...)
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  41.  26
    Viki McCabe (1982). The Direct Perception of Universals: A Theory of Knowledge Acquisition. Synthese 52 (3):495 - 513.
    A theory is presented which proposes that knowledge acquisition involves direct perception of schematic information in the form of structural and transformational invariances. Individual components with salient verbal descriptions are considered conscious place-holders for non-conscious invariant schemes. It is speculated that theories positing mental construction have three related causes: The first is a lack of consciousness of the schema processing capacities of the right hemisphere; the second is the paucity of adequate words to express schematic relationships; and the last (...)
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  42.  38
    Alice H. Eagly & Wendy Wood (2005). Universal Sex Differences Across Patriarchal Cultures [Not Equal] Evolved Psychological Dispositions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):281-283.
    Schmitt's findings provide little evidence that sex differences in sociosexuality are explained by evolved dispositions. These sex differences are better explained by an evolutionary account that treats the psychological attributes of women and men as emergent, given the biological attributes of the sexes, especially female reproductive capacity, and the economic and social structural aspects of societies.
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  43.  2
    Marek Krótkiewicz & Krystian Wojtkiewicz (2014). Functional and Structural Integration Without Competence Overstepping in Structured Semantic Knowledge Base System. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (3):331-345.
    Logic, language and information integration is one of areas broadly explored nowadays and at the same time promising. Authors use that approach in their 8 years long research into Structured Semantic Knowledge Base System. The aim of this paper is to present authors idea of system capable of generating synergy effect while storing various type of information. The key assumption, which has been adopted, is the thesis that the attempt to find universal way of the reality description is very inefficient (...)
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  44.  2
    Carmine Di Martino (2010). L'incontro e l'emergenza dell'umano (The meeting and the emergence of human) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n16p62. Horizonte 8 (16):62-79.
    Il multiculturalismo è un modello culturale e politico-istituzionale per la gestione della diversità in una società multietnica, la cui base teorica viene dal relativismo culturale. Come nessuna cultura può pretendere una validità universale, il processo di storicizzazione della razionalità occidentale segna la fine della pretesa metafisica di dire la verità dell’uomo e del mondo, nononstante si crede che il fare della scienza è l’accadere della verità. Nel gestire la diversità e nell’assicurare la tolleranza risiede la «necessità» del multiculturalismo. Sua debolezza (...)
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  45.  1
    Julian Nida-rümelin (1998). Structural Rationality in Game Theory. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 5:81-93.
    When I began to think about normative questions of rationality and morality, I soon became a consequentialist. This is the natural result of questioning socially established institutional and moral rules and their metaphysical underpinnings. A critical mind cannot accept a duty to do this or that just because it is told that this duty is implied by some general principle. The immediate question is: Where does this principle come from and how is it justified? And if this question cannot be (...)
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  46. Tyler Hildebrand (2013). Tooley's Account of the Necessary Connection Between Law and Regularity. Philosophical Studies 166 (1):33-43.
    Fred Dretske, Michael Tooley, and David Armstrong accept a theory of governing laws of nature according to which laws are atomic states of affairs that necessitate corresponding natural regularities. Some philosophers object to the Dretske/Tooley/Armstrong theory on the grounds that there is no illuminating account of the necessary connection between governing law and natural regularity. In response, Michael Tooley has provided a reductive account of this necessary connection in his book Causation (1987). In this essay, I discuss an improved version (...)
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  47. Karen Bennett (2013). Having a Part Twice Over. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):83 - 103.
    I argue that it is intuitive and useful to think about composition in the light of the familiar functionalist distinction between role and occupant. This involves factoring the standard notion of parthood into two related notions: being a parthood slot and occupying a parthood slot. One thing is part of another just in case it fills one of that thing's parthood slots. This move opens room to rethink mereology in various ways, and, in particular, to see the mereological structure of (...)
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  48. Kris McDaniel (2009). Structure-Making. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (2):251-274.
    Friends of states of affairs and structural universals appeal to a relation, structure-making, that is allegedly a kind of composition relation: structure-making ?builds? facts out of particulars and universals, and ?builds? structural universals out of unstructured universals. D. M. Armstrong, an eminent champion of structures, endorses two interesting theses concerning composition. First, that structure-making is a composition relation. Second, that it is not the only (fundamental) composition relation: Armstrong also believes in a mode of (...)
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  49. Karen Bennett, “Perfectly Understood, Unproblematic, and Certain”: Lewis on Mereology.
    David Lewis famously takes mereology “to be perfectly understood, unproblematic, and certain” (1991, 75). It is central to his thought, appearing in his discussions of set theory, modality, vagueness, structural universals, and elsewhere. He held views not only about how composition works and when it occurs, but also about the role of mereology in philosophy. In this essay, I will proceed by articulating four theses that Lewis holds about composition. (I would call them the four U’s, (...)
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  50.  70
    Peter Forrest (2006). The Operator Theory of Instantiation. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (2):213 – 228.
    Armstrong holds the Supervenience Theory of instantiation, namely that the instantiation of universals by particulars supervenes upon what particulars and what universals there are, where supervenience is stipulated to be explanatory or dependent supervenience. I begin by rejecting the Supervenience Theory of instantiation. Having done so it is then tempting to take instantiation as primitive. This has, however, an awkward consequence, undermining one of the main advantages universals have over tropes. So I examine another account hinted at (...)
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