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  1. Stuart R. Hameroff, Time, Consciousness, and Quantum Events in Fundamental Space-Time Geometry.
    1. Introduction: The problems of time and consciousness What is time? St. Augustine remarked that when no one asked him, he knew what time was; however when someone asked him, he did not. Is time a process which flows? Is time a dimension in which processes occur? Does time actually exist? The notion that time is a process which "flows" directionally may be illusory (the "myth of passage") for if time did flow it would do so in some medium or (...)
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  2. Stuart R. Hameroff (2013). Quantum Mathematical Cognition Requires Quantum Brain Biology: The “Orch OR” Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):287-290.
    The theory suggests that quantum computations in brain neuronal dendritic-somatic microtubules regulate axonal firings to control conscious behavior. Within microtubule subunit proteins, collective dipoles in arrays of contiguous amino acid electron clouds enable suitable for topological dipole able to physically represent cognitive values, for example, those portrayed by Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B) as projections in abstract Hilbert space.
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  3. Stuart R. Hameroff (2007). The Brain Is Both Neurocomputer and Quantum Computer. Cognitive Science 31 (6):1035-1045.
    _Figure 1. Dendrites and cell bodies of schematic neurons connected by dendritic-dendritic gap junctions form a laterally connected input_ _layer (“dendritic web”) within a neurocomputational architecture. Dendritic web dynamics are temporally coupled to gamma synchrony_ _EEG, and correspond with integration phases of “integrate and fire” cycles. Axonal firings provide input to, and output from, integration_ _phases (only one input, and three output axons are shown). Cell bodies/soma contain nuclei shown as black circles; microtubule networks_ _pervade the cytoplasm. According to the (...)
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  4. Stuart R. Hameroff (2006). The Entwined Mysteries of Anesthesia and Consciousness. Anesthesiology 105 (2):400-412.
    feelings (brainstem, limbic system). The best scientific synchrony and consciousness.21,27 Anesthesiology, V 105, No 2, Aug 2006.
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  5. Stuart R. Hameroff, Consciousness, Whitehead and Quantum Computation in the Brain: Panprotopsychism Meets the Physics of Fundamental Spacetime Geometry.
    _dualism_ (consciousness lies outside knowable science), _emergence_ (consciousness arises as a novel property from complex computational dynamics in the brain), and some form of _panpsychism_, _pan-protopsychism, or pan-experientialism_ (essential features or precursors of consciousness are fundamental components of reality which are accessed by brain processes). In addition to 1) the problem of subjective experience, other related enigmatic features of consciousness persist, defying technological and philosophical inroads. These include 2) the “binding problem”—how disparate brain activities give rise to a unified sense (...)
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  6. Stuart R. Hameroff & Nancy I. Woolf (2003). Quantum Consciousness. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. 49--167.
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  7. Stuart R. Hameroff & Nancy J. Woolf (2003). Quantum Consciousness: A Cortical Neural Circuit. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins.
  8. Stuart R. Hameroff (2002). Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules. Physical Review E 65 (6):1869--1896.
    Proposals for quantum computation rely on superposed states implementing multiple computations simultaneously, in parallel, according to quantum linear superposition (e.g., Benioff, 1982; Feynman, 1986; Deutsch, 1985, Deutsch and Josza, 1992). In principle, quantum computation is capable of specific applications beyond the reach of classical computing (e.g., Shor, 1994). A number of technological systems aimed at realizing these proposals have been suggested and are being evaluated as possible substrates for quantum computers (e.g. trapped ions, electron spins, quantum dots, nuclear spins, etc., (...)
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  9. Stuart R. Hameroff (2001). Anesthesia: The "Other Side" of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):217-229.
  10. Stuart R. Hameroff (2001). Biological Feasibility of Quantum Approaches to Consciousness: The Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch Or' Model. In P. Loockvane (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins.
  11. Stuart R. Hameroff (2001). Consciousness, the Brain, and Space-Time Geometry. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 929:74-104.
    What is consciousness? Conventional approaches see it as an emergent property of complex interactions among individual neurons; however these approaches fail to address enigmatic features of consciousness. Accordingly, some philosophers have contended that "qualia," or an experiential medium from which consciousness is derived, exists as a fundamental component of reality. Whitehead, for example, described the universe as being composed of "occasions of experience." To examine this possibility scientifically, the very nature of physical reality must be re-examined. We must come to (...)
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  12. Nancy J. Woolf & Stuart R. Hameroff (2001). A Quantum Approach to Visual Consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (11):472-478.
  13. Stuart R. Hameroff (1999). A/T Evolution and Function of Consciousness—Va Introduction. In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak & David Chalmers (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness Iii: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates. Mit Press. 3--245.
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  14. Stuart R. Hameroff (1999). A/Tt Physical Reality and Consciousness—V Xx Introduction. In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak & David Chalmers (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness Iii: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates. Mit Press. 3--309.
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  15. Stuart R. Hameroff (1998). Did Consciousness Cause the Cambrian Evolutionary Explosion? In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press. 2--421.
    When and where did consciousness emerge in the course of evolution? Did it happen as recently as the past million years, for example concomitant with language or tool making in humans or primates? Or did consciousness arrive somewhat earlier, with the advent of mammalian neocortex 200 million years ago (Eccles, 1992)? At the other extreme, is primitive consciousness a property of even simple unicellular organisms of several billion years ago (e.g. as suggested by Margulis and Sagan, 1995)? Or did consciousness (...)
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  16. Stuart R. Hameroff (1998). "Funda-Mentality": Is the Conscious Mind Subtly Linked to a Basic Level of the Universe? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (4):119-124.
    Age-old battle lines over the puzzling nature of mental experience are shaping a modern resurgence in the study of consciousness. On one side are the long-dominant "physicalists" who view consciousness as an emergent property of the brain's neural networks. On the alternative, rebellious side are those who see a necessary added ingredient: proto-conscious experience intrinsic to reality, perhaps understandable through modern physics (panpsychists, pan-experientialists, "funda-mentalists"). It is argued here that the physicalist premise alone is unable to solve completely the difficult (...)
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  17. Stuart R. Hameroff (1998). More Neural Than Thou (Reply to Churchland). In S. Ameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness Ii: The 1996 Tucson Discussions and Debates. Mit Press.
    In "Brainshy: Non-neural theories of conscious experience," (this volume) Patricia Churchland considers three "non-neural" approaches to the puzzle of consciousness: 1) Chalmers' fundamental information, 2) Searle's "intrinsic" property of brain, and 3) Penrose-Hameroff quantum phenomena in microtubules. In rejecting these ideas, Churchland flies the flag of "neuralism." She claims that conscious experience will be totally and completely explained by the dynamical complexity of properties at the level of neurons and neural networks. As far as consciousness goes, neural network firing patterns (...)
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  18. Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.) (1998). Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.
    This volume presents a selection of invited papers from the second conference, held in April 1996.
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  19. Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.) (1998). Toward a Science of Consciousness 1996. MIT Press.
    Quantum aspects of brain activity and the role of consciousness. Proceedings of the National ... Casti, JL 1996. Confronting science's logical limits. ...
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  20. Stuart R. Hameroff & A. C. Scott (1998). A Sonoran Afternoon: A Dialogue on Quantum Mechanics and Consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.
    _Sonoran Desert, Stuart Hameroff and Alwyn Scott awoke from their_ _siestas to take margaritas in the shade of a ramada. On a nearby_ _table, a tape recorder had accidentally been left on and the following_ _is an unedited transcript of their conversation._.
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  21. Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.) (1996). Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. MIT Press.
    Toward a Science of Consciousnessmarks the first major gathering -- a landmark event -- devoted entirely to unlocking the mysteries of consciousness.
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  22. Stuart R. Hameroff & Roger Penrose (1996). Conscious Events as Orchestrated Space-Time Selections. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (1):36-53.
  23. Stuart R. Hameroff & Roger Penrose (1996). Orchestrated Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: A Model for Consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press.
  24. Roger Penrose & Stuart R. Hameroff (1995). What 'Gaps'? Reply to Grush and Churchland. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (2):98-111.
    Grush and Churchland (1995) attempt to address aspects of the proposal that we have been making concerning a possible physical mechanism underlying the phenomenon of consciousness. Unfortunately, they employ arguments that are highly misleading and, in some important respects, factually incorrect. Their article ‘Gaps in Penrose’s Toilings’ is addressed specifically at the writings of one of us (Penrose), but since the particular model they attack is one put forward by both of us (Hameroff and Penrose, 1995; 1996), it is appropriate (...)
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  25. Stuart R. Hameroff (1994). Quantum Coherence in Microtubules: A Neural Basis for Emergent Consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (1):91-118.