Search results for 'Subliminal' (try it on Scholar)

210 found
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  1. Stanislas Dehaene, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Lionel Naccache, Jérôme Sackur & Claire Sergent (2006). Conscious, Preconscious, and Subliminal Processing: A Testable Taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (5):204-211.
  2.  66
    Thomas Zoega Ramsøy & Morten Overgaard (2004). Introspection and Subliminal Perception. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 3 (1):1-23.
    Subliminal perception (SP) is today considered a well-supported theory stating that perception can occur without conscious awareness and have a significant impact on later behaviour and thought. In this article, we first present and discuss different approaches to the study of SP. In doing this, we claim that most approaches are based on a dichotomic measure of awareness. Drawing upon recent advances and discussions in the study of introspection and phenomenological psychology, we argue for both the possibility and necessity (...)
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  3.  56
    Matthew H. Erdelyi (2004). Subliminal Perception and its Cognates: Theory, Indeterminacy, and Time. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):73-91.
    Unconscious processes, by whatever name they may be known , are invariably operationalized by the dissociation paradigm, any situation involving the dissociation between two indicators , one of availability and the other, of accessibility , such that, ε>α. Subliminal perception has been traditionally defined by a special case of the dissociation paradigm in which availability exceeds accessibility when accessibility is null . Construct validity issues bedevil all dissociation paradigms since it is not clear what might constitute appropriate (...)
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  4.  27
    Sid Kouider & Emmanuel Dupoux (2004). Partial Awareness Creates the "Illusion" of Subliminal Semantic Priming. Psychological Science 15 (2):75-81.
  5.  72
    Ap Dijksterhuis, Henk Aarts & Pamela K. Smith (2005). The Power of the Subliminal: On Subliminal Persuasion and Other Potential Applications. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford University Press 77-106.
  6.  6
    Laurence J. Severance & Frederick N. Dyer (1973). Failure of Subliminal Word Presentations to Generate Interference to Color Naming. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (1):186.
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  7.  43
    John F. Kihlstrom (2004). Availability, Accessibility, and Subliminal Perception. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):92-100.
  8. Michela Balconi & Claudio Lucchiari (2007). Consciousness and Emotional Facial Expression Recognition: Subliminal/Supraliminal Stimulation Effect on N200 and P300 ERPs. [REVIEW] Journal of Psychophysiology 21 (2):100-108.
  9.  24
    Antoine Del Cul, Stanislas Dehaene & Marion Leboyer (2006). Preserved Subliminal Processing and Impaired Conscious Access in Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 63 (12):1313-1323.
  10.  15
    Ravi K. Kurup & Parameswara A. Kurup (2003). A Hypothalamic Digoxin-Mediated Model for Conscious and Subliminal Perception. International Journal of Neuroscience 113 (6):815-820.
  11.  1
    L. E. Baker (1937). The Influence of Subliminal Stimuli Upon Verbal Behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (1):84.
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  12.  2
    H. Cason & N. Katcher (1933). An Attempt to Condition Breathing and Eyelid Responses to a Subliminal Electric Stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (6):831.
  13.  2
    H. E. King, C. Landis & J. Zubin (1944). Visual Subliminal Perception Where a Figure is Obscured by the Illumination of the Ground. Journal of Experimental Psychology 34 (1):60.
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  14. William Bevan & Joan Faye Pritchard (1963). Effect of "Subliminal" Tones Upon the Judgment of Loudness. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):23.
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  15. J. W. Coyne, H. E. King, J. Zubin & C. Landis (1943). Accuracy of Recognition of Subliminal Auditory Stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (6):508.
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  16. Juan P. Núñez & Francisco de Vicente (2004). Unconscious Learning. Conditioning to Subliminal Visual Stimuli. Spanish Journal of Psychology 7 (1):13-28.
     
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  17. A. Silverman & L. E. Baker (1935). An Attempt to Condition Various Responses to Subliminal Electrical Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (2):246.
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  18. Jean-Pierre Changeux, Stanislas Dehaene, Lionel Naccache, Jérôme Sackura & Claire Sergenta (2006). Conscious, Preconscious, and Subliminal Processing: A Testable Taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (5):204-211.
    Amidst the many brain events evoked by a visual stimulus, which are specifically associated with conscious perception, and which merely reflect non-conscious processing? Several recent neuroimaging studies have contrasted conscious and non-conscious visual processing, but their results appear inconsistent. Some support a correlation of conscious perception with early occipital events, others with late parieto-frontal activity. Here we attempt to make sense of those dissenting results. On the basis of a minimal neuro-computational model, the global neuronal workspace hypothesis, we propose a (...)
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  19.  10
    K. Klauer, A. Eder, A. GreenwAld & R. AbRams (2007). Priming of Semantic Classifications by Novel Subliminal Prime Words☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):63-83.
    Four experiments demonstrate category congruency priming by subliminal prime words that were never seen as targets in a valence-classification task and a gender-classification task . In Experiment 1, overlap in terms of word fragments of one or more letters between primes and targets of different valences was larger than between primes and targets of the same valence. In Experiments 2 and 3, the sets of prime words and target words were completely disjoint in terms of used letters. In Experiment (...)
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  20.  2
    Bronson Harry, Chris Davis & Jeesun Kim (2012). Subliminal Access to Abstract Face Representations Does Not Rely on Attention. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):573-583.
    The present study used masked repetition priming to examine whether face representations can be accessed without attention. Two experiments using a face recognition task presented masked repetition and control primes in spatially unattended locations prior to target onset. Experiment 1 used the same images as primes and as targets and Experiment 2 used different images of the same individual as primes and targets. Repetition priming was observed across both experiments regardless of whether spatial attention was cued to the location of (...)
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  21.  6
    Anna-Marie Armstrong & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Subliminal Understanding of Negation: Unconscious Control by Subliminal Processing of Word Pairs. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1022-1040.
    A series of five experiments investigated the extent of subliminal processing of negation. Participants were presented with a subliminal instruction to either pick or not pick an accompanying noun, followed by a choice of two nouns. By employing subjective measures to determine individual thresholds of subliminal priming, the results of these studies indicated that participants were able to identify the correct noun of the pair – even when the correct noun was specified by negation. Furthermore, using a (...)
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  22.  6
    Timothy D. Sweeny, Marcia Grabowecky, Satoru Suzuki & Ken A. Paller (2009). Long-Lasting Effects of Subliminal Affective Priming From Facial Expressions. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):929-938.
    Unconscious processing of stimuli with emotional content can bias affective judgments. Is this subliminal affective priming merely a transient phenomenon manifested in fleeting perceptual changes, or are long-lasting effects also induced? To address this question, we investigated memory for surprise faces 24 h after they had been shown with 30-ms fearful, happy, or neutral faces. Surprise faces subliminally primed by happy faces were initially rated as more positive, and were later remembered better, than those primed by fearful or neutral (...)
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  23.  26
    Robert Bornstein (1989). Subliminal Techniques as Propaganda Tools: Review and Critique. Journal of Mind and Behavior 10 (3):231-262.
    Research on perception without awareness has provoked strong emotional responses from individuals within and outside the scientific community, due in part to the perceived potential for abuse of subliminal techniques. In this paper, four basic issues regarding the use of subliminal techniques for propaganda purposes are discussed: whether exposure to subliminal stimuli can produce significant, predictable changes in affect, cognition and behavior; whether these effects are robust and powerful enough to make the use of subliminal techniques (...)
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  24.  4
    Patrick A. O’Connor & W. Trammell Neill (2011). Does Subliminal Priming of Free Response Choices Depend on Task Set or Automatic Response Activation? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):280-287.
    In a task requiring speeded bidirectional responses to arrow symbols , “free choice” responses to interspersed bidirectional stimuli are influenced by masked directional primes . By varying stimulus–response compatibility, we tested whether this priming effect is mediated by the conscious instructional set, or instead by pre-existing directional associations to the symbols. In two experiments, one group of participants was instructed to respond with the hand consistent with the implied direction of the arrow symbols, while another group was instructed to make (...)
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  25.  12
    Maxim Milyavsky, Ran R. Hassin & Yaacov Schul (2012). Guess What? Implicit Motivation Boosts the Influence of Subliminal Information on Choice. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1232-1241.
    When is choice affected by subliminal messages? This question has fascinated scientists and lay people alike, but it is only recently that reliable empirical data began to emerge. In the current paper we bridge the literature on implicit motivation and that on subliminal persuasion. We suggest that motivation in general, and implicit motivation more specifically, plays an important role in subliminal persuasion: It sensitizes us to subliminal cues. To examine this hypothesis we developed a new paradigm (...)
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  26.  18
    P. Bob (2008). Pain, Dissociation and Subliminal Self-Representations. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):355-369.
    According to recent evidence, neurophysiological processes coupled to pain are closely related to the mechanisms of consciousness. This evidence is in accordance with findings that changes in states of consciousness during hypnosis or traumatic dissociation strongly affect conscious perception and experience of pain, and markedly influence brain functions. Past research indicates that painful experience may induce dissociated state and information about the experience may be stored or processed unconsciously. Reported findings suggest common neurophysiological mechanisms of pain and dissociation and point (...)
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  27.  1
    Samantha J. Brooks, Owen G. O'Daly, Rudolf Uher, Helgi B. Schiöth, Janet Treasure & Iain C. Campbell (2012). Subliminal Food Images Compromise Superior Working Memory Performance in Women with Restricting Anorexia Nervosa. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):751-763.
    Prefrontal cortex is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa . It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls completed a dorsolateral PFC working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when (...) food stimuli were presented: errors positively correlated with self-reported trait anxiety in the RAN group. These effects were not observed in the ACC task. Appetitive activation is intact and anxiogenic in women with RAN, and non-consciously interacts with working memory processes associated with the DLPFC. This interaction mechanism may underlie cognitive inhibition of appetitive processes that are anxiety inducing, in people with AN. (shrink)
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  28. Wei-Lun Chou & Su-Ling Yeh (2011). Subliminal Spatial Cues Capture Attention and Strengthen Between-Object Link. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1265-1271.
    According to the spreading hypothesis of object-based attention, a subliminal cue that can successfully capture attention to a location within an object should also cause attention to spread throughout the whole cued object and lead to the same-object advantage. Instead, we propose that a subliminal cue favors shifts of attention between objects and strengthens the between-object link, which is coded primarily within the dorsal pathway that governs the visual guidance of action. By adopting the two-rectangle method and using (...)
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  29.  11
    Henning Gibbons (2009). Evaluative Priming From Subliminal Emotional Words: Insights From Event-Related Potentials and Individual Differences Related to Anxiety. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):383-400.
    The present ERP study investigated effects of subliminal emotional words on preference judgments about subsequent visual target stimuli . Each target was preceded by a masked 17-ms emotional adjective. Four classes of prime words were distinguished according to the combinations of positive/negative valence and high/low arousal. Targets were liked significantly more after positive-arousing primes , relative to negative-arousing , positive-nonarousing , and negative-nonarousing primes . In the target ERP, amplitude of right-hemisphere positive slow wave was increased after positive-arousing compared (...)
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  30.  9
    A. Dufour, P. Touzalin, M. Moessinger, R. BRochard & O. Despres (2008). Visual Motion Disambiguation by a Subliminal Sound. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):790-797.
    There is growing interest in the effect of sound on visual motion perception. One model involves the illusion created when two identical objects moving towards each other on a two-dimensional visual display can be seen to either bounce off or stream through each other. Previous studies show that the large bias normally seen toward the streaming percept can be modulated by the presentation of an auditory event at the moment of coincidence. However, no reports to date provide sufficient evidence to (...)
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  31.  4
    P. Jaskowski (2008). Conscious Contributions to Subliminal Priming. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):72-83.
    Choice reaction times to visual stimuli may be influenced by preceding subliminal stimuli . Some authors reported a straight priming effect i.e., responses were faster when primes and targets called for the same response than when they called for different responses. Others found the reversed pattern of results. Eimer and Schlaghecken [Eimer, M. & Schlaghecken, F. . Links between conscious awareness and response inhibition: evidence from masked priming. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 514–520.] showed recently that straight priming occurs (...)
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  32.  30
    J. E. Gratz (1984). The Ethics of Subliminal Communication. Journal of Business Ethics 3 (3):181-184.
    Assume that we communicate for the purpose of trying to change a person's behavior either overtly or covertly. As long as this is done in an honest manner, no concern with ethics is involved. But suppose a communication pattern — subliminals — is developed that covertly tries to change our behavior without our consent. Then, concern with ethics is involved.Very little evidence exists to support a definitive quantitative impact of subliminal communication. There is a suggestion, however, that subliminals do (...)
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  33.  7
    Doris Eckstein, Matthias Kubat & Walter J. Perrig (2011). Visible Homonyms Are Ambiguous, Subliminal Homonyms Are Not: A Close Look at Priming. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1327-1343.
    Homonyms, i.e. ambiguous words like ‘score’, have different meanings in different contexts. Previous research indicates that all potential meanings of a homonym are first accessed in parallel before one of the meanings is selected in a competitive race. If these processes are automatic, these processes of selection should even be observed when homonyms are shown subliminally. This study measured the time course of subliminal and supraliminal priming by homonyms with a frequent and a rare meaning in a neutral context, (...)
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  34.  21
    Christopher French (2009). From the Subliminal to the Ridiculous. The Philosophers' Magazine 45 (45):87-91.
    Virtually all experimental psychologists now accept that our behaviour can be affected by stimuli of which we have no conscious awareness. Such effects are typically not very dramatic even though they are reasonably reliable. However, such results do not on the surface appear to offer much support to claims of profound and lasting behavioural changes brought about by subliminal advertising or subliminal self-help tapes.
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  35.  27
    Tao Jiang (2005). Accessibility of the Subliminal Mind: Transcendence Vs. Immanence. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 38 (3-4):143-164.
    It has long been taken for granted in modern psychology that access to the unconscious is indirectly gained through the interpretation of a trained psychoanalyst, evident in theories of Freud, Jung and others. However, my essay problematizes this very indirectness of access by bringing in a Yogācāra Buddhist formulation of the subliminal mind that offers a direct access. By probing into the philosophical significance of the subliminal mind along the bias of its access, I will argue that the (...)
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  36.  25
    G. Backhaus (2001). Tymieniecka’s Phenomenology of Life: The “Imaginatio Creatrix,” Subliminal Passions, and the Moral Sense. Consciousness and Emotion 2 (1):103-134.
    Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka expands the phenomenological study of meanings (sense-bestowal) into an onto-genetic inquiry by grounding it in a phenomenology of life, including the emotional dimension. This phenomenology of life is informed by the empirical sciences and its doctrines parallel the new scientific paradigm of open dynamic systems. Embedded in the dynamics of the real individuation of life forms, human consciousness emerges at a unique station in the evolutionary process. Tymieniecka treats the constitution of sense as a function of life, and (...)
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  37.  13
    K. Schutz, I. SchendzIelarz, P. Zwitserlood & D. Vorberg (2007). Nice Wor If You Can Get the Wor: Subliminal Semantic and Form Priming in Fragment Completion. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):520-532.
    Two experiments investigated subliminal semantic and form priming in a word-completion task. Visual gap-words with a dominant and a subordinate solution were preceded by form-related or by semantically related words, which were briefly presented and sandwich-masked. Priming of the subordinate solution was assessed in Experiment 1, relative to a neutral condition. Both solutions were primed in Experiment 2. In the absence of conscious prime recognition, both semantic and form primes reliably increased the probability with which the primed solution was (...)
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  38.  16
    Robert F. Bornstein (2002). Consciousness Organizes More Than Itself: Findings From Subliminal Mere Exposure Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):332-333.
    Contrary to Perruchet & Vinter's self-organizing consciousness (SOC) model, subliminal mere exposure (SME) research indicates that stimuli perceived without awareness produce robust effects. Moreover, SME effects are significantly stronger than mere exposure effects produced by clearly recognized stimuli. The SOC model must be revised to accommodate findings from studies that use affect-based outcome measures.
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  39.  10
    Katharina Henke, Theodor Landis & Hans J. Markowitsch (1993). Subliminal Perception of Pictures in the Right Hemisphere. Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):225-236.
    We addressed the questions whether stimuli presented below the threshold of verbal awareness are nevertheless perceived and whether there are perceptual differences between the two cerebral hemispheres. Pictures of line drawn objects and animals were subliminally presented to each visual half-field for subsequent identification in a form as fragmented as possible. The performance of 40 healthy subjects was compared to that of 63 controls. Whereas identification performance after blank presentation in the experimental group did not differ from that of controls, (...)
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  40.  9
    A. Heinzel, H. Hautzel, T. Poeppel, F. Boers, M. Beu & H. Mueller (2008). Neural Correlates of Subliminal and Supraliminal Letter Processing—An Event-Related fMRI Study. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):699-713.
    One problem of interpreting research on subconscious processing is the possibility that participants are weakly conscious of the stimuli. Here, we compared the fMRI BOLD response in healthy adults to clearly visible single letters with the response to letters presented in the absence of any behavioural evidence of visibility . No letter catch trials served as a control condition. Forced-choice responses did not differ from chance when letter-to-background contrast was low, whereas they were almost 100% correct when contrast was high. (...)
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  41.  4
    Pedro R. Montoro, Dolores Luna & Juan J. Ortells (2014). Subliminal Gestalt Grouping: Evidence of Perceptual Grouping by Proximity and Similarity in Absence of Conscious Perception. Consciousness and Cognition 25 (1):1-8.
    Previous studies making use of indirect processing measures have shown that perceptual grouping can occur outside the focus of attention. However, no previous study has examined the possibility of subliminal processing of perceptual grouping. The present work steps forward in the study of perceptual organization, reporting direct evidence of subliminal processing of Gestalt patterns. In two masked priming experiments, Gestalt patterns grouped by proximity or similarity that induced either a horizontal or vertical global orientation of the stimuli were (...)
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  42.  2
    Igor Knez (2014). Affective and Cognitive Reactions to Subliminal Flicker From Fluorescent Lighting. Consciousness and Cognition 26:97-104.
    This study renews the classical concept of subliminal perception by investigating the impact of subliminal flicker from fluorescent lighting on affect and cognitive performance. It was predicted that low compared to high frequency lighting would evoke larger changes in affective states and also impair cognitive performance. Subjects reported high rather than low frequency lighting to be more pleasant, which, in turn, enhanced their problem solving performance. This suggests that sensory processing can take place outside of conscious awareness resulting (...)
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  43.  1
    An K. Raes & Rudi De Raedt (2011). Interoceptive Awareness and Unaware Fear Conditioning: Are Subliminal Conditioning Effects Influenced by the Manipulation of Visceral Self-Perception? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1393-1402.
    Research has shown repeatedly that attention influences implicit learning effects. In a similar vein, interoceptive awareness might be involved in unaware fear conditioning: The fact that the CS is repeatedly presented in the context of aversive bodily experiences might facilitate the development of conditioned responding. We investigated the role of interoceptive attention in a subliminal conditioning paradigm. Conditioning was embedded in a spatial cueing task with subliminally presented cues that were followed by a masking stimulus. Response times to the (...)
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  44. N. F. Dixon (1971). Subliminal Perception: The Nature of a Controversy. McGraw-Hill.
     
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  45.  2
    Matthew Hugh Erdelyi (1986). Experimental Indeterminacies in the Dissociation Paradigm of Subliminal Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):30.
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  46.  53
    Kevin Lynch (2015). Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior, by Leonard Mlodinow (Vintage Books, 2013). [REVIEW] Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (9-10):229-234.
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  47.  10
    Dorit Wenke, Stephen M. Fleming & Patrick Haggard (2010). Subliminal Priming of Actions Influences Sense of Control Over Effects of Action. Cognition 115 (1):26-38.
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  48.  32
    Anthony G. Greenwald, M. R. Klinger & E. S. Schuh (1995). Activation by Marginally Perceptible ("Subliminal") Stimuli: Dissociation of Unconscious From Conscious Cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 124 (1):22-42.
  49.  4
    Howard Shevrin (1986). Subliminal Perception and Dreaming. Journal of Mind and Behavior 7 (2-3).
  50. Simon van Rysewyk (2009). Comment On: Unconscious Affective Processing and Empathy: An Investigation of Subliminal Priming on the Detection of Painful Facial Expressions [Pain 2009; 1–2: 71–75]. PAIN 145:364-366.
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