Search results for 'Substitution' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Bodily Action and Distal Attribution in Sensory Substitution. In Fiona Macpherson (ed.), Sensory Substitution and Augmentation. Proceedings of the British Academy.score: 27.0
    According to proponents of the sensorimotor contingency theory of perception (Hurley & Noë 2003, Noë 2004, O’Regan 2011), active control of camera movement is necessary for the emergence of distal attribution in tactile-visual sensory substitution (TVSS) because it enables the subject to acquire knowledge of the way stimulation in the substituting modality varies as a function of self-initiated, bodily action. This chapter, by contrast, approaches distal attribution as a solution to a causal inference problem faced by the subject’s perceptual (...)
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  2. David Suarez, Diana Acosta Navas, Umut Baysan & Kevin Connolly (forthcoming). Sensory Substitution and Non-Sensory Feelings. In Fiona Macpherson (ed.), Sensory Substitution and Augmentation. Oxford University Press.score: 27.0
    One of the central limitations of sensory substitution devices (SSDs) is their inability to reproduce the non-sensory feelings that are normally associated with visual experiences, especially hedonic and aesthetic responses. This limitation is sometimes reported to cause SSD users frustration. To make matters worse, it is unclear that improvements in acuity, bandwidth, or training will resolve the issue. Yet, if SSDs are to actually reproduce visual experience in its fullness, it seems that the reproduction of non-sensory feelings will be (...)
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  3. Kevin Connolly (forthcoming). Sensory Substitution and Perceptual Learning. In Fiona Macpherson (ed.), Sensory Substitution and Augmentation. Oxford University Press.score: 27.0
    When a user integrates a sensory substitution device into her life, the process involves perceptual learning, that is, ‘relatively long-lasting changes to an organism’s perceptual system that improve its ability to respond to its environment’ (Goldstone 1998: 585). In this paper, I explore ways in which the extensive literature on perceptual learning can be applied to help improve sensory substitution devices. I then use these findings to answer a philosophical question. Much of the philosophical debate surrounding sensory (...) devices concerns what happens after perceptual learning occurs. In particular, should the resultant perceptual experience be classified in the substituted modality (as vision), in the substituting modality (as auditory or tactile), or in a new sense modality? I propose a novel empirical test to help resolve this philosophical debate. (shrink)
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  4. Kevin Connolly, Diana Acosta Navas, Umut Baysan, Janiv Paulsberg & David Suarez, Sensory Substitution Conference Full Report.score: 24.0
    This report highlights and explores five questions that arose from the workshop on sensory substitution and augmentation at the British Academy, March 26th through 28th, 2013.
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  5. Julian Kiverstein & Mirko Farina (forthcoming). Do Sensory Substitution Extend the Conscious Mind? In Fabio Paglieri (ed.), Consciousness in interaction: the role of the natural and social context in shaping consciousness". Amsterdam: John Benjamins. John Benjamins.score: 24.0
    Is the brain the biological substrate of consciousness? Most naturalistic philosophers of mind have supposed that the answer must obviously be «yes » to this question. However, a growing number of philosophers working in 4e (embodied, embedded, extended, enactive) cognitive science have begun to challenge this assumption, arguing instead that consciousness supervenes on the whole embodied animal in dynamic interaction with the environment. We call views that share this claim dynamic sensorimotor theories of consciousness (DSM). Clark (2009) a founder and (...)
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  6. Ophelia Deroy & Malika Auvray (forthcoming). Beyond Vision: The Vertical Integration of Sensory Substitution Devices. In M. Matthen & D. Stokes (eds.), Perception and Its Modalities.score: 24.0
    What if a blind person could 'see' with her ears? Thanks to Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs), blind people now have access to out-of-reach objects, a privilege reserved so far for the sighted. In this paper, we show that the philosophical debates have fundamentally been mislead to think that SSDs should be fitted among the existing senses or that they constitute a new sense. Contrary to the existing assumption that they get integrated at the sensory level, we present a new (...)
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  7. Kevin Connolly, Diana Acosta Navas, Umut Baysan, Janiv Paulsberg & David Suarez, Sensory Substitution Conference Question Three.score: 24.0
    This is an excerpt from a report on the Sensory Substitution and Augmentation Conference at the British Academy in March of 2013. This portion of the report explores the question: How does sensory substitution interact with the brain’s architecture?
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  8. Kevin Connolly, Diana Acosta Navas, Umut Baysan, Janiv Paulsberg & David Suarez, Sensory Substitution Conference Question Two.score: 24.0
    This is an excerpt from a report on the Sensory Substitution and Augmentation Conference at the British Academy in March of 2013. This portion of the report explores the question: What can sensory substitution tell us about perceptual learning?
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  9. Steven E. Boër (2009). Propositions and the Substitution Anomaly. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):549 - 586.score: 24.0
    The Substitution Anomaly is the failure of intuitively coreferential expressions of the corresponding forms “that S” and “the proposition that S” to be intersubstitutable salva veritate under certain ‘selective’ attitudinal verbs that grammatically accept both sorts of terms as complements. The Substitution Anomaly poses a direct threat to the basic assumptions of Millianism, which predict the interchangeability of “that S” and “the proposition that S”. Jeffrey King has argued persuasively that the most plausible Millian solution is to treat (...)
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  10. Kevin Connolly, Diana Acosta Navas, Umut Baysan, Janiv Paulsberg & David Suarez, Sensory Substitution Conference Report Question One.score: 24.0
    This is an excerpt from a report on the Sensory Substitution and Augmentation Conference at the British Academy in March of 2013. This portion of the report explores the question: Does sensory substitution generate perceptual or cognitive states?
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  11. Malika Auvray & Erik Myin (2009). Perception With Compensatory Devices: From Sensory Substitution to Sensorimotor Extension. Cognitive Science 33 (6):1036–1058.score: 24.0
    Sensory substitution devices provide through an unusual sensory modality (the substituting modality, e.g., audition) access to features of the world that are normally accessed through another sensory modality (the substituted modality, e.g., vision). In this article, we address the question of which sensory modality the acquired perception belongs to. We have recourse to the four traditional criteria that have been used to define sensory modalities: sensory organ, stimuli, properties, and qualitative experience (Grice, 1962), to which we have added the (...)
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  12. Kevin Connolly, Diana Acosta Navas, Umut Baysan, Janiv Paulsberg & David Suarez, Sensory Substitution Conference Question Four.score: 24.0
    This is an excerpt from a report on the Sensory Substitution and Augmentation Conference at the British Academy in March of 2013. This portion of the report explores the question: Can normal non-sensory feelings be generated through sensory substitution?
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  13. Brent G. Kyle (2013). Punishing and Atoning: A New Critique of Penal Substitution. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (2):201-218.score: 24.0
    The doctrine of penal substitution claims that it was good (or required) for God to punish in response to human sin, and that Christ received this punishment in our stead. I argue that this doctrine’s central factual claim—that Christ was punished by God—is mistaken. In order to punish someone, one must at least believe the recipient is responsible for an offense. But God surely did not believe the innocent Christ was responsible for an offense, let alone the offense of (...)
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  14. Kevin Connolly, Diana Acosta Navas, Umut Baysan, Janiv Paulsberg & David Suarez, Sensory Substitution Conference Question Five.score: 24.0
    This is an excerpt from a report on the Sensory Substitution and Augmentation Conference at the British Academy in March of 2013. This portion of the report explores the question: What are the limitations of sensory substitution.
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  15. Alan Marshall (2007). Questioning Nuclear Waste Substitution: A Case Study. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (1):83-98.score: 24.0
    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly (...)
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  16. Gerry Hough (2013). Anti-Substitution Intuitions and the Content of Belief Reports. Acta Analytica 29 (3):1-13.score: 24.0
    Philosophers of language traditionally take it that anti-substitution intuitions teach us about the content of belief reports. Jennifer Saul [1997, 2002 (with David Braun), 2007] challenges this lesson. Here I offer a response to Saul’s challenge. In the first two sections of the article, I present a common sense justification for drawing conclusions about content from anti-substitution intuitions. Then, in Sect. 3, I outline Saul’s challenge—what she calls ‘the Enlightenment Problem’. Finally, in Sect. 4, I argue that Saul’s (...)
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  17. Wesley H. Holliday, Tomohiro Hoshi & Thomas F. Icard Iii (2013). Information Dynamics and Uniform Substitution. Synthese 190 (1):31-55.score: 24.0
    The picture of information acquisition as the elimination of possibilities has proven fruitful in many domains, serving as a foundation for formal models in philosophy, linguistics, computer science, and economics. While the picture appears simple, its formalization in dynamic epistemic logic reveals subtleties: given a valid principle of information dynamics in the language of dynamic epistemic logic, substituting complex epistemic sentences for its atomic sentences may result in an invalid principle. In this article, we explore such failures of uniform (...). First, we give epistemic examples inspired by Moore, Fitch, and Williamson. Second, we answer affirmatively a question posed by van Benthem: can we effectively decide when every substitution instance of a given dynamic epistemic principle is valid? In technical terms, we prove the decidability of this schematic validity problem for public announcement logic (PAL and PAL-RC) over models for finitely many fully introspective agents, as well as models for infinitely many arbitrary agents. The proof of this result illuminates the reasons for the failure of uniform substitution. (shrink)
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  18. Henry Towsner (2005). Epsilon Substitution for Transfinite Induction. Archive for Mathematical Logic 44 (4):397-412.score: 24.0
    We apply Mints’ technique for proving the termination of the epsilon substitution method via cut-elimination to the system of Peano Arithmetic with Transfinite Induction given by Arai.
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  19. T. Arai (2005). Epsilon Substitution Method for [Π0 1, Π0 1]-FIX. Archive for Mathematical Logic 44 (8):1009-1043.score: 24.0
    We formulate epsilon substitution method for a theory [Π0 1, Π0 1]-FIX for two steps non-monotonic Π0 1 inductive definitions. Then we give a termination proof of the H-processes based on Ackermann [1].
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  20. Anne C. Bellows & Michael W. Hamm (2001). Local Autonomy and Sustainable Development: Testing Import Substitution in More Localized Food Systems. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 18 (3):271-284.score: 24.0
    Community initiatives to create more localized food systems ofteninclude the strategy of import substitution, i.e., increasing local foodproduction for local consumption. The purpose of this policy iseffectively to supplant some level of imported food into the region. Weargue that such action can carry social and environmental risks as wellas benefits and we have developed research parameters to measure theimpact of such strategies. Harriet Friedmann's seminal work (1991) onthe employment of import substitution by transnational corporationsprovides a framework to identify (...)
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  21. Toshiyasu Arai (2006). Epsilon Substitution Method for [Image] -FIX. Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (4):1155 - 1188.score: 24.0
    In this paper we formulate epsilon substitution method for a theory $\Pi _{2}^{0}$-FIX for non-monotonic $\Pi _{2}^{0}$ inductive definitions. Then we give a termination proof of the H-processes based on Ackermann [1].
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  22. Thomas Eichner (2010). Slutzky Equations and Substitution Effects of Risks in Terms of Mean-Variance Preferences. Theory and Decision 69 (1):17-26.score: 24.0
    This paper uses duality to elaborate Slutzky equations of risks in quasi-linear decision models extended by independent background risks. Wealth, substitution and total effects are characterized in terms of mean-variance preferences. It is shown that both Pratt and Zeckhauser’s proper risk aversion and Kimball’s standard risk aversion are sufficient for negative substitution effects.
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  23. Malika Auvray Ophelia Deroy (2012). Reading the World Through the Skin and Ears: A New Perspective on Sensory Substitution. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Sensory substitution devices aim at replacing or assisting one or several functions of a deficient sensory modality by means of another sensory modality. Despite the numerous studies and research programs devoted to their development and integration, sensory substitution devices have failed to live up to their goal of allowing one to ‘see with the skin’ (White et al., 1970) or to “see with the brain” (Bach-y-Rita et al., 2003). These somewhat peremptory claims, as well as the research conducted (...)
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  24. Michael J. Proulx Alastair Haigh, David J. Brown, Peter Meijer (2013). How Well Do You See What You Hear? The Acuity of Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) aim to compensate for the loss of a sensory modality, typically vision, by converting information from the lost modality into stimuli in a remaining modality. “The vOICe” is a visual-to-auditory SSD which encodes images taken by a camera worn by the user into “soundscapes” such that an experienced user can extract information about their surroundings. Here we investigated how much detail was resolvable during the early induction stages by testing the acuity of blindfolded sighted, naïve (...)
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  25. Mirko Farina (2013). Neither Touch nor Vision: Sensory Substitution as Artificial Synaesthesia? Biology and Philosophy 28 (4):639-655.score: 22.0
    Block (Trends Cogn Sci 7:285–286, 2003) and Prinz (PSYCHE 12:1–19, 2006) have defended the idea that SSD perception remains in the substituting modality (auditory or tactile). Hurley and Noë (Biol Philos 18:131–168, 2003) instead argued that after substantial training with the device, the perceptual experience that the SSD user enjoys undergoes a change, switching from tactile/auditory to visual. This debate has unfolded in something like a stalemate where, I will argue, it has become difficult to determine whether the perception acquired (...)
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  26. Rafal Urbaniak (2009). Bogus Singular Terms and Substitution Salva Denotatione. The Reasoner 3.score: 21.0
    This is the third installment of a paper which deals with comparison and evaluation of the standard slingshot argument (for the claim that all true sentences, if they refer, refer to the same object) with the doxastic formulation.
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  27. John Stewart & Olivier Gapenne (2004). Reciprocal Modelling of Active Perception of 2-D Forms in a Simple Tactile-Vision Substitution System. Minds and Machines 14 (3):309-330.score: 21.0
    The strategies of action employed by a human subject in order to perceive simple 2-D forms on the basis of tactile sensory feedback have been modelled by an explicit computer algorithm. The modelling process has been constrained and informed by the capacity of human subjects both to consciously describe their own strategies, and to apply explicit strategies; thus, the strategies effectively employed by the human subject have been influenced by the modelling process itself. On this basis, good qualitative and semi-quantitative (...)
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  28. Angelique T. M. Dierick‐van Daele, Cor Spreeuwenberg, Emmy W. C. C. Derckx, Job F. M. Metsemakers & Bert J. M. Vrijhoef (2008). Critical Appraisal of the Literature on Economic Evaluations of Substitution of Skills Between Professionals: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (4):481-492.score: 21.0
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  29. Stephanie C. Goodhew, Paul E. Dux, Ottmar V. Lipp & Troy A. W. Visser (2012). Understanding Recovery From Object Substitution Masking. Cognition 122 (3):405-415.score: 21.0
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  30. Stephanie C. Goodhew, Troy A. W. Visser, Ottmar V. Lipp & Paul E. Dux (2011). Implicit Semantic Perception in Object Substitution Masking. Cognition 118 (1):130-134.score: 21.0
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  31. W. N. Kellogg (1938). Evidence for Both Stimulus-Substitution and Original Anticipatory Responses in the Conditioning of Dogs. Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (2):186.score: 21.0
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  32. Fred L. Royer (1971). Information Processing of Visual Figures in the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (3):335-342.score: 21.0
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  33. Barry Smith (1986). The Substitution Theory of Art. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:533-557.score: 18.0
    In perceptual experience we are directed towards objects in a way which establishes a real relation between a mental act and its target. In reading works of fiction we enjoy experiences which manifest certain internal similarities to such relational acts, but which lack objects. The substitution theory of art attempts to provide a reason why we seek out such experiences and the artifacts which generate. Briefly, we seek out works of art because we enjoy the physiology and the phenomenology (...)
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  34. David Lewis (1997). Do We Believe in Penal Substitution? Philosophical Papers 26 (3):203 - 209.score: 18.0
    If a guilty offender is justly sentenced to be punished and an innocent volunteer agrees to be punished instead, is that any reason to leave the offender unpunished? In the context of mundane criminal justice, we mostly think not. But in a religious context, some Christians do believe in penal substitution as a theory of the atonement. However, it is not just these Christians, but most of us, who are of two minds. If the punishment is an imprisonment or (...)
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  35. Jennifer Mather Saul (2007). Simple Sentences, Substitution, and Intuitions. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Substitution and simple sentences -- Simple sentences and semantics -- Simple sentences and implicatures -- The enlightenment problem and a common assumption -- Abandoning (EOI) -- Beyond matching propositions -- App. A : extending the account -- App. B : belief reporting.
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  36. Corey McGrath (2011). Can Substitution Inferences Explain the Knobe Effect? Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (4):667-679.score: 18.0
    The Knobe effect is the phenomenon demonstrated in the course of repeated studies showing that moral valence affects the way in which we apply concepts. Knobe explains the effect by appealing to the nature of the concepts themselves: whether they actually apply in some situation depends upon the moral valence of some element of that situation. In this paper, a different picture of the effect is presented and given motivation. It is suggested that subjects apply concepts on the basis of (...)
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  37. Robert Trueman (2012). Dolby Substitution (Where Available). Analysis 72 (1):98-102.score: 18.0
    Alex Oliver has offered a variety of counterexamples to Crispin Wright's Reference Principle. I suggest that these counterexamples rely on too simple a notion of substitution to be compelling. However, this is not a satisfactory place to leave the discussion: we need some alternative account of substitution in English. In his recent paper, Dolby has attempted to give just such an account. I argue that Dolby's account is viciously circular. I then draw some morals from the discussion.
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  38. Mark C. Murphy (2009). Not Penal Substitution but Vicarious Punishment. Faith and Philosophy 26 (3):253-273.score: 18.0
    The penal substitution account of the Atonement fails for conceptual reasons: punishment is expressive action, condemning the party punished, and so is not transferable from a guilty to an innocent party. But there is a relative to the penal substitution view, the vicarious punishment account, that is neither conceptually nor morally objectionable. On this view, the guilty person’s punishment consists in the suffering of an innocent to whom he or she bears a special relationship. Sinful humanity is punished (...)
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  39. Steven L. Porter (2004). Swinburnian Atonement and the Doctrine of Penal Substitution. Faith and Philosophy 21 (2):228-241.score: 18.0
    This paper is a philosophical defense of the doctrine of penal substitution. I begin with a delineation of Richard Swinburne’s satisfaction-type theory of the atonement, exposing a weakness of it which motivates a renewed look at the theory of penal substitution. In explicating a theory of penal substitution, I contend that: (i) the execution of retributive punishment is morally justified in certain cases of deliberate wrongdoing; (ii) deliberate human sin against God constitutes such a case; and (iii) (...)
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  40. Jamie Ward & Peter Meijer (2010). Visual Experiences in the Blind Induced by an Auditory Sensory Substitution Device. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):492-500.score: 18.0
    In this report, the phenomenology of two blind users of a sensory substitution device – “The vOICe” – that converts visual images to auditory signals is described. The users both report detailed visual phenomenology that developed within months of immersive use and has continued to evolve over a period of years. This visual phenomenology, although triggered through use of The vOICe, is likely to depend not only on online visualization of the auditory signal but also on the users’ previous (...)
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  41. Duncan McFarland (1999). Mark Johnston's Substitution Principle: A New Counterexample? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (3):683-689.score: 18.0
    According to a subjectivist view of some concept, C, there is an a priori implication of subjective responses in C's application or possession conditions. Subjectivists who intend their view to be descriptive of our practice with C will hold that it is possible for there to be true empirical claims which explain such responses in terms of certain things being C. Mark Johnston's "missing-explanation argument" employs a substitution principle with a view to establishing that these strands of subjectivism are (...)
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  42. Philip J. Maloney (1997). Levinas, Substitution and Transcendental Subjectivity. Man and World 30 (1):49-64.score: 18.0
    The task of this paper is to clarify the status and implications of Levinas's insistence on the necessity of subjectivity to the ethical relation. Focusing in particular on the discussion of substitution in Otherwise than Being, it is argued that the description of subjectivity as substitution enables Levinas to articulate the necessity of the subject to the approach of the other in a manner which avoids the transcendental character which such claims to necessity usually embody. This argument proceeds (...)
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  43. Itamar Pitowsky (1982). Substitution and Truth in Quantum Logic. Philosophy of Science 49 (3):380-401.score: 18.0
    If p(x 1 ,...,x n ) and q(x 1 ,...,x n ) are two logically equivalent propositions then p(π (x 1 ),...,π (x n )) and q(π (x 1 ),...,π (x n )) are also logically equivalent where π is an arbitrary permutation of the elementary constituents x 1 ,...,x n . In Quantum Logic the invariance of logical equivalences breaks down. It is proved that the distribution rules of classical logic are in fact equivalent to the meta-linguistic rule of (...)
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  44. Grigori Mints (1996). Strong Termination for the Epsilon Substitution Method. Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (4):1193-1205.score: 18.0
    Ackermann proved termination for a special order of reductions in Hilbert's epsilon substitution method for the first order arithmetic. We establish termination for arbitrary order of reductions.
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  45. Joan Bryans (1992). Substitution and the Explanation of Action. Erkenntnis 37 (3):365 - 376.score: 18.0
    This paper examines a potential problem area for theories of direct reference: that of the substitution of co-referential names within the belief context of a belief attribution used to explain an action. Of particular interest are action explanations which involve cases of repetition — wherein beliefs are held which, though about one (other) individual, are mistakenly thought to concern two different people. It is argued that, despite the commonly held view to the contrary, no problem is posed by (...) in such circumstances to theories of direct reference. (shrink)
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  46. Abdessalem Chekhchoukh & Nicolas Glade (forthcoming). Influence of Sparkle and Saccades on Tongue Electro-Stimulation-Based Vision Substitution of 2D Vectors. Acta Biotheoretica.score: 18.0
    Abstract Vision substitution by electro-stimulation has been studied since the 60s beginning with P. Bach-y-Rita. Camera pictures or movies encoded in gray levels are displayed using an electro-stimulation display device on the surface of a body part, such as the skin or the tongue. Medical-technical devices have been developed on this principle to compensate for sensory-motor disabilities such as blindness or loss of balance, or to guide specific actions, such as surgery. However, the electrical signals of stationary or moving (...)
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  47. Peter Simons (2007). Abstraction, Structure, and Substitution. Polish Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):81-100.score: 18.0
    λ-calculi are of interest to logicians and computer scientists but have largely escaped philosophical commentary, perhaps because they appear narrowly technical or uncontroversial or both. I argue that even within logic λ-expressions need to be understood correctly, as functors signifying functions in intension within a categorical or typed language. λ-expressions are not names but pure viable binders generating functors, and as such they are of use in giving explicit definitions. But λ is applicable outside logic and computer science, anywhere where (...)
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  48. Wlodek Rabinowicz (2000). Preference Stability and Substitution of Indifferents: A Rejoinder to Seidenfeld. Theory and Decision 48 (4):311-318.score: 18.0
    Seidenfeld (Seidenfeld, T. [1988a], Decision theory without 'Independence' or without 'Ordering', Economics and Philosophy 4: 267-290) gave an argument for Independence based on a supposition that admissibility of a sequential option is preserved under substitution of indifferents at choice nodes (S). To avoid a natural complaint that (S) begs the question against a critic of Independence, he provided an independent proof of (S) in his (Seidenfeld, T. [1988b], Rejoinder [to Hammond and McClennen], Economics and Philosophy 4: 309-315). In reply (...)
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  49. Katsumi Sasaki (1993). The Simple Substitution Property of the Intermediate Propositional Logics on Finite Slices. Studia Logica 52 (1):41 - 62.score: 18.0
    The simple substitution property provides a systematic and easy method for proving a theorem by an axiomatic way. The notion of the property was introduced in Hosoi [4] but without a definite name and he showed three examples of the axioms with the property. Later, the property was given it's name as above in Sasaki [7].Our main result here is that the necessary and sufficient condition for a logicL on a finite slice to have the simple substitution property (...)
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  50. Eric Katz (1985). Organism, Community, and the "Substitution Problem". Environmental Ethics 7 (3):241-256.score: 18.0
    Holistic accounts of the natural environment in environmental ethics fail to stress the distinction between the concepts of comnlunity and organism. Aldo Leopold’s “Land Ethic” adds to this confusion, for it can be interpreted as promoting either a community or an organic model of nature. The difference between the two concepts lies in the degree of autonomy possessed by constituent entities within the holistic system. Members within a community are autonomous, while the parts of an organism are not. Different moral (...)
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