Search results for 'Sunny Woan' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Meera Mary Sunny & Adrian von Muhlenen (2013). Attention Capture by Abrupt Onsets: Re-Visiting the Priority Tag Model. Frontiers in Psychology 4:958.score: 30.0
    Abrupt onsets have been shown to strongly attract attention in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up manner. However, the precise mechanism that drives capture by onsets is still debated. According to the new object account, abrupt onsets capture attention because they signal the appearance of a new object. Yantis and Johnson (1990) used a visual search task and showed that up to four onsets can be automatically prioritized. However, in their study the number of onsets co-varied with the total number of items in (...)
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  2. Claude Pasquini (2006). A (Mostly) Sunny and Sober Anniversary. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (6):79-100.score: 15.0
    Diary of the ASSC10 Conference at St Anne's College, Oxford, June 2006.
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  3. M. Janion (2000). A Romantic Artist: Sunny Jerusalem and the Magic Circle. Dialogue and Universalism 10:53-60.score: 15.0
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  4. David L. Share (2012). Frost and Fogs, or Sunny Skies? Orthography, Reading, and Misplaced Optimalism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):45-46.score: 15.0
    I argue that the study of variability rather than invariance should head the reading research agenda, and that strong claims of orthographic are unwarranted. I also expand briefly on Frost's assertion that an efficient orthography must represent sound and meaning, by considering writing systems as dual-purpose devices that must provide decipherability for novice readers and automatizability for the expert.
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  5. Scott C. Lucas (2011). “Perhaps You Only Kissed Her?”: A Contrapuntal Reading of the Penalties for Illicit Sex in the Sunni Hadith Literature. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (3):399-415.score: 6.0
    The goal of this essay is to illustrate how Ebrahim Moosa's method of “contrapuntal reading” can be applied fruitfully to the Sunni hadith literature. My case study is the set of penalties (hudud) for illicit sex, which include flogging, stoning, and banishment. I propose a fresh reading of these sacred texts that brings to the fore the ethical dimension of Prophet Muhammad's conduct, especially his strong reluctance to apply these measures. I conclude by identifying four ethical problems that the stoning (...)
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  6. Stefden Branden & Bert Broeckaert (forthcoming). The Ongoing Charity of Organ Donation. Contemporary English Sunni Fatwas on Organ Donation and Blood Transfusion. Bioethics.score: 6.0
    Background: Empirical studies in Muslim communities on organ donation and blood transfusion show that Muslim counsellors play an important role in the decision process. Despite the emerging importance of online English Sunni fatwas, these fatwas on organ donation and blood transfusion have hardly been studied, thus creating a gap in our knowledge of contemporary Islamic views on the subject. Method: We analysed 70 English Sunni e-fatwas and subjected them to an in-depth text analysis in order to reveal the key concepts (...)
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  7. Stef van den Branden & Bert Broeckaert (2011). The Ongoing Charity of Organ Donation. Contemporary English Sunni Fatwas on Organ Donation and Blood Transfusion. Bioethics 25 (3):167 - 175.score: 6.0
    Background: Empirical studies in Muslim communities on organ donation and blood transfusion show that Muslim counsellors play an important role in the decision process. Despite the emerging importance of online English Sunni fatwas, these fatwas on organ donation and blood transfusion have hardly been studied, thus creating a gap in our knowledge of contemporary Islamic views on the subject.Method: We analysed 70 English Sunni e-fatwas and subjected them to an in-depth text analysis in order to reveal the key concepts in (...)
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  8. Ahsan M. Arozullah & Mohammed Amin Kholwadia (2013). Wilāyah (Authority and Governance) and its Implications for Islamic Bioethics: A Sunni Māturīdi Perspective. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (2):95-104.score: 6.0
    Juridical councils that render rulings on bioethical issues for Muslims living in non-Muslim lands may have limited familiarity with the foundational concept of wilāyah (authority and governance) and its implications for their authority and functioning. This paper delineates a Sunni Māturīdi perspective on the concept of wilāyah, describes how levels of wilāyah correlate to levels of responsibility and enforceability, and describes the implications of wilāyah when applied to Islamic bioethical decision making. Muslim health practitioners and patients living in the absence (...)
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  9. Theresa Weynand Tobin (2007). On Their Own Ground: Strategies of Resistance for Sunni Muslim Women. Hypatia 22 (3):152-174.score: 6.0
    : Drawing from work in feminist moral philosophy, Tobin argues that the most common methodology used in practical ethics is a questionable methodology for addressing practical problems across diverse cultural contexts because the kind of impartiality it requires is neither feasible nor desirable. She then defends an alternative methodology for practical ethics in a global context and uses her proposed methodology to evaluate a problem that confronts many Sunni Muslim women around the world.
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  10. Stef Van den Branden & Bert Broeckaert (2011). Living in the Hands of God. English Sunni E-Fatwas on (Non-)Voluntary Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):29-41.score: 6.0
    Ever since the start of the twentieth century, a growing interest and importance of studying fatwas can be noted, with a focus on Arabic printed fatwas (Wokoeck 2009). The scholarly study of end-of-life ethics in these fatwas is a very recent feature, taking a first start in the 1980s (Anees 1984; Rispler-Chaim 1993). Since the past two decades, we have witnessed the emergence of a multitude of English fatwas that can easily be consulted through the Internet (‘e-fatwas’), providing Muslims worldwide (...)
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  11. Abul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim (1995). Organ Transplantation: Contemporary Sunni Muslim Legal and Ethical Perspectives. Bioethics 9 (3):291–302.score: 5.0
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  12. Robert Wisnovsky (2004). One Aspect of the Avicennian Turn in Sunni Theology. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 14 (1):65-100.score: 5.0
  13. Y. Seddik (2011). Mists and Turbulence in the 'Sunni' Ocean. Diogenes 57 (2):84-91.score: 5.0
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  14. Stef Van den Branden & Bert Broeckaert (2010). Necessary Interventions: Muslim Views on Pain and Symptom Control in English Sunni E-Fatwas. Ethical Perspectives 17 (4):626-651.score: 5.0
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  15. Corinne Fortier (2007). Blood, Sperm and the Embryo in Sunni Islam and in Mauritania: Milk Kinship, Descent and Medically Assisted Procreation. Body and Society 13 (3):15-36.score: 5.0
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  16. Marion Holmes Katz (2003). The Problem of Abortion in Classical Sunni Fiqh. In Jonathan E. Brockopp (ed.), Islamic Ethics of Life: Abortion, War, and Euthanasia. University of South Carolina Press.score: 5.0
     
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  17. Joshua Landis (2007). Syria : Secularism, Arabism, and Sunni Orthodoxy. In Eleanor Abdella Doumato & Gregory Starrett (eds.), Teaching Islam: Textbooks and Religion in the Middle East. Lynne Rienner Publishers.score: 5.0
     
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  18. Richard Penaskovic (2014). The Dynamics of Sunni‐Shia Relationships: Doctrine, Transnationalism, Intellectuals and the Media. Edited by Brigitte Maréchal and Sami Zemni . Pp. Vi, 355, London, Hurst, 2013, £39.99. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 55 (3):517-517.score: 5.0
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  19. Maria Eva Subtelny & Anas B. Khalidov (1995). The Curriculum of Islamic Higher Learning in Timurid Iran in the Light of the Sunni Revival Under Shāh-Rukh. Journal of the American Oriental Society 115 (2):210-236.score: 5.0
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  20. Nurit Tsafrir (2005). The Attitude of Sunni Islam Toward Jews and Christians as Reflected in Some Legal Issues. Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 26 (2):317-336.score: 5.0
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  21. Franz Huber (2009). Belief and Degrees of Belief. In F. Huber & C. Schmidt-Petri (eds.), Degrees of Belief. Springer.score: 3.0
    Degrees of belief are familiar to all of us. Our confidence in the truth of some propositions is higher than our confidence in the truth of other propositions. We are pretty confident that our computers will boot when we push their power button, but we are much more confident that the sun will rise tomorrow. Degrees of belief formally represent the strength with which we believe the truth of various propositions. The higher an agent’s degree of belief for a particular (...)
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  22. Ernest Sosa (2000). For the Love of Truth. In Linda Zagzebski (ed.), Virtue Epistemology: Essays on Epistemic Virtue and Responsibility. Oxford University Press,. 49--62.score: 3.0
    “Rational beings pursue and value truth (the true, along with the good and the beautiful). Intellectual conduct is to be judged, accordingly, by how well it aids our pursuit of that ideal.” What does this mean, and is it true? Even if intelligent life had never evolved or otherwise existed, Venus would still have orbited the Sun, so it would still have been true that Venus orbited the Sun. It is not the being thus true of what is true that (...)
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  23. Aaron Sloman, Virtual Machine Functionalism: The Only Form of Functionalism Worth Taking Seriously in Philosophy of Mind.score: 3.0
    Most philosophers appear to have ignored the distinction between the broad concept of Virtual Machine Functionalism (VMF) described in Sloman&Chrisley (2003) and the better known version of functionalism referred to there as Atomic State Functionalism (ASF), which is often given as an explanation of what Functionalism is, e.g. in Block (1995). -/- One of the main differences is that ASF encourages talk of supervenience of states and properties, whereas VMF requires supervenience of machines that are arbitrarily complex networks of causally (...)
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  24. Tim Crane (2000). Introspection, Intentionality, and the Transparency of Experience. Philosophical Topics 28 (2):49-67.score: 3.0
    Some philosophers have argued recently that introspective evidence provides direct support for an intentionalist theory of visual experience. An intentionalist theory of visual experience treats experience as an intentional state, a state with an intentional content. (I shall use the word ’state’ in a general way, for any kind of mental phenomenon, and here I shall not distinguish states proper from events, though the distinction is important.) Intentionalist theories characteristically say that the phenomenal character of an experience, what it is (...)
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  25. Sunny Y. Auyang (2001). Spacetime as a Fundamental and Inalienable Structure of Fields. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (2):205-215.score: 3.0
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  26. Sunny Y. Auyang (2000). Mathematics and Reality: Two Notions of Spacetime in the Analytic and Constructionist Views of Gauge Field Theories. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):494.score: 3.0
    This paper presents two interpretations of the fiber bundle formalism that is applicable to all gauge field theories. The constructionist interpretation yields a substantival spacetime. The analytic interpretation yields a structural spacetime, a third option besides the familiar substantivalism and relationalism. That the same mathematical formalism can be derived in two different ways leading to two different ontological interpretations reveals the inadequacy of pure formal arguments.
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  27. Sunny Auyang, Are You Nothing but Genes or Neurons?score: 3.0
    All complex systems are complex, but some are more complex than others are. Biological systems are generally more complex than physical systems. How do biologists tackle complex systems? In this talk, we will consider two biological systems, the genome and the brain. Scientists know much about them, but much more remains unknown. Ignorance breeds philosophical speculation. Reductionism makes a strong showing here, as it does in other frontier sciences where large gaps remain in our understanding. I will show that reductionism (...)
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  28. Sunny Y. Auyang (1995). How is Quantum Field Theory Possible? Oxford University Press.score: 3.0
    Quantum field theory (QFT) combines quantum mechanics with Einstein's special theory of relativity and underlies elementary particle physics. This book presents a philosophical analysis of QFT. It is the first treatise in which the philosophies of space-time, quantum phenomena, and particle interactions are encompassed in a unified framework. Describing the physics in nontechnical terms, and schematically illustrating complex ideas, the book also serves as an introduction to fundamental physical theories. The philosophical interpretation both upholds the reality of the quantum world (...)
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  29. Sunny Auyang, Nonlinear Dynamics: How Science Comprehends Chaos.score: 3.0
    Behaviors of chaotic systems are unpredictable. Chaotic systems are deterministic, their evolutions being governed by dynamical equations. Are the two statements contradictory? They are not, because the theory of chaos encompasses two levels of description. On a higher level, unpredictability appears as an emergent property of systems that are predictable on a lower level. In this talk, we examine the structure of dynamical theories to see how they employ multiple descriptive levels to explain chaos, bifurcation, and other complexities of nonlinear (...)
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  30. Eric Schwitzgebel (2012). Self-Ignorance. In JeeLoo Liu & John Perry (eds.), Consciousness and the Self. Cambridge University Press.score: 3.0
    Philosophers tend to be pretty impressed by human self-knowledge. Descartes (1641/1984) thought our knowledge of our own stream of experience was the secure and indubitable foundation upon which to build our knowledge of the rest of the world. Hume – who was capable of being skeptical about almost anything – said that the only existences we can be certain of are our own sensory and imagistic experiences (1739/1978, p. 212). Perhaps the most prominent writer on self-knowledge in contemporary philosophy is (...)
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  31. Sunny Yang (2009). The Appropriateness of Moral Emotion and Humean Sentimentalism. Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (1):67-81.score: 3.0
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  32. Curtis Brown (1992). Direct and Indirect Belief. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (2):289-316.score: 3.0
    The word 'belief' is ambiguous, referring sometimes to what is believed, sometimes to the act or state of believing it. I believe that as I write this it is sunny outside. This belief is true. What is true is what I believe, namely that it is sunny, not my believing it. On the other hand, my belief that it is sunny is rational and unshakeable, and it played a causal role in my deciding not to wear a (...)
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  33. Sunny Auyang, The Ontology of Quantum Fields: Entity and Quality.score: 3.0
    Speculations from God’s position are illusory; we have no access to that position. Ontology concerns not with what exist as God ordains but with what exist as intelligible within the bounds of human understanding. It calls for analyzing not only nature but also the characteristics of our own thinking that make possible analysis and knowledge of nature, so that we do not inadvertently attribute our conceptual contributions to what exist naturally.
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  34. Andreas Bartels (1999). Objects or Events?: Towards an Ontology for Quantum Field Theory. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):184.score: 3.0
    The recent work of Paul Teller and Sunny Auyang in the philosophy of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) has stimulated the search for the fundamental entities in this theory. In QFT, the classical notion of a particle collapses. The theory does not only exclude classical, i.e., spatiotemporally identifiable particles, but it makes particles of the same type conceptually indistinguishable. Teller and Auyang have proposed competing ersatz-ontologies to account for the 'loss of particles': field quanta vs. field events. Both ontologies, however, (...)
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  35. Sunny Y. Auyang (2009). Knowledge in Science and Engineering. Synthese 168 (3):319 - 331.score: 3.0
    It is now fashionable to say that science and technology are social constructions. This is true, or rather, a truism. Man is a social animal. Man is a linguistic animal, and language is social. Hence all products of human activities and everything that involves language are social constructions. But an assertion that covers everything becomes empty. The constructionist mantra that science or technology is “not a simple input from nature” attacks a straw man, for no one denies the necessity of (...)
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  36. Sunny Auyang, Synthetic Analysis: How Science Combats Complexity.score: 3.0
    In the past two or three decades, complexity not only has been a hot research topic but has caught the popular imagination. Terms such as chaos and bifurcation become so common they find their way into Hollywood movies. What is complexity? What is the theory of complexity or the science of complexity? I do not think there is such a thing as the theory of complexity. Not even a rigid definition of complexity exists in the natural sciences. There are many (...)
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  37. Sunny Y. Auyang, Cancer Causes and Cancer Research on Many Levels of Complexity.score: 3.0
    America has poured about 200 billion dollars into cancer research since President Nixon declared war on cancer in 1971. How is the war going after three decades? Why do assessments vary as widely as “beating cancer” and “loosing the war on cancer?”.
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  38. Franz Huber, Formal Representations of Belief. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 3.0
    Epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. Belief is thus central to epistemology. It comes in a qualitative form, as when Sophia believes that Vienna is the capital of Austria, and a quantitative form, as when Sophia's degree of belief that Vienna is the capital of Austria is at least twice her degree of belief that tomorrow it will be sunny in Vienna. Formal epistemology, as opposed to mainstream epistemology (Hendricks 2006), is epistemology done in a formal (...)
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  39. Roberto Loss (2012). Branching Time, Actuality and the Puzzle of Retrospective Determinacy. Thought 1 (1):16-25.score: 3.0
    The supervaluationist approach to branching time (‘SBT-theory’) appears to be threatened by the puzzle of retrospective determinacy: if yesterday I uttered the sentence ‘It will be sunny tomorrow’ and only in some worlds overlapping at the context of utterance it is sunny the next day, my utterance is to be assessed as neither true nor false even if today is indeed a sunny day. John MacFarlane (“Truth in the Garden of Forking Paths” 81) has recently criticized a (...)
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  40. Sunny Auyang, Who Am I? What is It? The Subject-Object Relation.score: 3.0
    Mind is not some mysterious mind stuff; no such stuff exists and the universe comprises only physical matter. It is an emergent property of certain complex material entities, not brains alone but whole human beings living and coping in the physical and social world. This thesis involves three ideas: materialism, emergent properties, and intentionality. The first two belong to the mind-body problem and the status of mental properties in the material universe. The third refers to the mind-world relation, the symbiotic (...)
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  41. Neil McKinnon, Persistence and a New Problem of the Many.score: 3.0
    One winter’s Saturday Clarence wakes up. He realises he has left his umbrella at work. The office is locked, and he can’t get in. Being one of those people who punish themselves for their mistakes, he can’t bring himself to buy a replacement. He has an engagement six kilometres down the road and starts wondering whether it will rain. Normally, this would not be a problem, but his motor vehicle has broken down because he forgot to have it serviced. And (...)
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  42. Sunny Auyang, How Science Comprehends Chaos.score: 3.0
    Behaviors of chaotic systems are unpredictable. Chaotic systems are deterministic, their evolutions being governed by dynamical equations. Are the two statements contradictory? They are not, because the theory of chaos encompasses two levels of description. On a higher level, unpredictability appears as an emergent property of systems that are predictable on a lower level. In this talk, we examine the structure of dynamical theories to see how they employ multiple descriptive levels to explain chaos, bifurcation, and other complexities of nonlinear (...)
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  43. Sunny Auyang, Chance and the Prepared Mind in Drug Discovery.score: 3.0
    Chance and accidents play important roles in scientific discoveries, but they are not blind luck. Serendipity is not merely stumbling on things unsought for, it is the ability to see significances and find values in the things stumbled upon. Without this ability, accidents do not lead to discoveries, as Pasteur observed: “Chance favors the prepared mind.” What are the characteristics of a prepared mind in science? How do chance and serendipity work in scientific research in general and drug discovery in (...)
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  44. Sunny Y. Auyang, From Experience to Design – The Science Behind Aspirin.score: 3.0
    How does aspirin reduce pain and inflammation? How does it prevent heart attacks? Why does it upset the stomach? How do scientists discover the answers? This article examines research and development in the history from willow bark to aspirin to “super aspirins” Celebrex and Vioxx. Scientists adopt various approaches: trial and error, laboratory experiment, clinical test, elucidation of underlying mechanisms, concept-directed research, and rational drug design. Each approach is limited, but they complement each other in unraveling the mystery of a (...)
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  45. Sunny Auyang, The Hedgehog and the Fox – Two Styles of Science.score: 3.0
    Perhaps Archilochus simply meant that the hedgehog’s single defense defeats the fox’s many tricks. Yet, the hedgehog and the fox were turned into metaphors for two types of thinkers and writers by the historian philosopher Isaiah Berlin. All the thinking and actions of the hedgehog revolve around a single vision and are structured by a single set of principles that the hedgehog holds to be universal. Foxes lack such central vision and universal principles; they seize many experiences and pursuit many (...)
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  46. Sunny Auyang, Concepts of System in Engineering.score: 3.0
    PDF version This talk explores three concepts of system in engineering: systems theory, systems approach, and systems engineering. They are exemplified in three dimensions of engineering: science, design, and management. Unifying the three system concepts is the idea of function: functional abstraction in theory, functional analysis in design, and functional requirements in management. Signifying what a system is for, function is a purposive notion absent in physical science, which aims to understand nature. It is prominent in engineering, which aims to (...)
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  47. Sunny Auyang, What is Wrong with “Technology as Applied Science?”.score: 3.0
    Scholars in science and technologies studies talk about a “pure science ideology” or “scientific ideology.” Stereotyping applied science as a dull and mindless practice that generates no new knowledge, the ideology grossly distorts both pure and applied science. What is its origin?
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  48. Sunny Auyang, Technology as a Scientific Capacity to Produce.score: 3.0
    What is technology, what does technology mean? One notion, which originated in the Greek téchnē, points to the rational ability to create and produce. This ability is primordial, for to produce the means of living and create meanings of life in work are vital to human existence. Modern technology grew out of ancient téchnē by developing its own reasoning and knowledge into science.
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  49. Kevin D. Hoover (2002). Symposium on Marshall's Tendencies: 5 Sutton's Critique of Econometrics. Economics and Philosophy 18 (1):45-54.score: 3.0
    Through most of the history of economics, the most influential commentators on methodology were also eminent practitioners of economics. And even not so long ago, it was so. Milton Friedman, Paul Samuelson, Trygve Haavelmo, and Tjalling Koopmans were awarded Nobel prizes for their substantive contributions to economics, and were each important contributors to methodological thought. But the fashion has changed. Specialization has increased. Not only has methodology become its own field, but many practitioners have come to agree with Frank Hahn's (...)
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  50. Sunny Auyang, Local and Global Knowledge in Science and Engineering.score: 3.0
    PDF version General principles and globally valid knowledge are essential to the progress of science and technology. However, globalization should not obscure the local origins of empirical knowledge and the necessity of particular factual information in practical applications of science.
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