This paper attempts to give a critical appraisal of Professor SureshChandra’s views on Historiography of Civilization with reference to Dravidian Civilization. “Historiography of Indian Civilization: Harappans, Dravidians, Aryans and Gandhi’s freedom struggle” (published in JICPR June 1996) and “Demythologizing History: Dravidians in Relation to Harappans and the Aryans” (presented in the seminar on Dravidian Philosophy organized by Dravidian University, Kuppam) are the two significant works which are devoted to Historiography of civilization by Prof. SureshChandra. (...) This paper mainly confines to the first article since the second one, as the author himself stated, is an offshoot of the first. (shrink)
Pharmaceutical advertising is one of the most important kinds of advertising that can have a direct impact on the health of a consumer. Hence, this necessitates the fact that it is essential for advertisers of such products to take special care and additional responsibility when devising the promotional strategies of these products. In reality, it has been observed that pharmaceutical product advertisers often promoted their products to achieve their own goals at the potential risk of having an adverse effect on (...) the consumerÕs health. This type of advertising is most often seen in over-the-counter drug product advertisements, and not as often in the case of prescription drug advertisements, which is relatively new. This article analyzes various purposes of advertising pharmaceutical products and also the potential problems that arise from the way pharmaceutical products have quite frequently been promoted. (shrink)
The transformation mechanism of hexagonal delta phase from the disordered bcc gamma phase has not been reported before in the Zr-rich U?Zr alloy system. With the help of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM analyses it was shown that the gamma to delta conversion takes place by the lattice collapse mechanism of omega transformation. It was also ascertained that a higher aging temperature or time promotes the growth of all four variants of the delta phase within a (...) parent gamma grain. In addition, ab initio electronic structure calculations showed that the bcc to hexagonal transformation, involving partial ordering of the parent bcc phase followed by (111) plane collapse, is energetically favorable. (shrink)
We report the results of magnetization measurements on the unconventional superconductor PrPt4Ge12 in its superconducting state. A distinct positive curvature is observed in the temperature dependence of the lower critical field H C1(T) and the upper critical field H C2(T) around 5.5?K. The zero field critical current density J C(T, H?=?0) is found to vary nearly linearly with temperature. We argue that these observed features are due to the existence of two superconducting gaps in the material. The normalized superfluid density (...) is estimated from the temperature dependence of H C1. Our detailed analysis of the normalized superfluid density using a two-gap model indicates the presence of line nodes in the larger gap. The H C2(T) line can be fitted with the Usadel equations, and the positive curvature in H C2(T) is shown to be consistent with the two-gap picture of superconductivity. (shrink)
The account of meaning has remained unsatisfactory within the western philosophical tradition. Thus, a radically new approach that spotlights the semantic transaction has now become imperative to broaden our understanding of the issue. Drawing on leads from contemporary thinkers, but essentially guided by the insights of Indian savants of yore, this paper attempts to crack the riddle of meaning by offering a language metaphysics which extends the scope of self in thisprocess. At the core lies the interplay of the transcendental (...) and the empirical which constitutes the total speech complex. There exists a linguistic self which is also the stratum of thought. Meaning is the experience of this linguistic self. (shrink)
The world of the Hindi heroes of the 1970s, while decked in battle gear, largely belonged to the official state apparatus, either as members of vigilante self-defence squads – of which Bahadur was a pioneer – or bonafide members of the police force, like Inspector Vikram. The costumed superhero only emerged at the end of the Nehruvian period, gradually coming to defy its signature science and rationality. My article seeks to explore questions of the political economy of the superhero genre (...) and the affective valences of the supernatural in imaging/negotiating the national and transnational, through this conjunctural moment of the late 1970s and early 1980s. (shrink)
An ultrasonic interferometric technique was used to measure the longitudinal and transverse sound velocities in untempered carbon-nickel martensites. An increase of about 0·11 ? 105 cm/sec per atomic per cent carbon was observed for both velocities (in the presence of decreasing nickel contents). The mass densities of the martensites were also measured to allow calculation of the elastic moduli. Even with corrections applied for decreasing nickel contents both the shear and bulk moduli were found to increase with the carbon content, (...) especially the shear modulus. This provides evidence that carbon increases the atomic cohesion within martensite. (shrink)
We performed plane wave-based first principles calculations using the projector augmented wave (PAW) potential under the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within the density functional theory to study the formation of ordered omega (B82-structured) Zr2Al phase in ?-Zr3Al alloy. The transformation involves both replacive and displacive processes. We investigated two possible paths for the transformation where steps involving replacive (diffusive) and displacive processes occur in succession with their sequence of occurrence being different in the two paths. From this study, it was (...) possible to show that the initial chemical ordering facilitates the displacive process leading to the transformation. It was also possible to correlate instability with respect to omega-type displacements in Zr2Al alloy with the number of Zr?Al bonds present in the unit cell. Electronic structure analysis indicated that stronger Zr?Al bonding plays an important role in the formation of chemically ordered omega phase. (shrink)
The present paper considers the formation of crystalline phases during solidification and crystallisation of the Zr53Cu21Al10Ni8Ti8 alloy. Solidification was carried out by a copper mould casting technique, which yielded a partially crystalline microstructure comprising a ?big cube phase? in a dendritic morphology and a bct Zr2Ni phase. Detailed high-resolution microscopy was carried out to determine possible mechanisms for the formation of the crystalline phases. Based on microstructural examinations, it was established that the dendrites grew by the attachment of atomistic ledges. (...) The bct Zr2Ni phase, formed during solidification and crystallisation, showed various types of faults depending on the crystallite size, and its crystallography was examined in detail. It has been shown that the presence of these faults could be explained by anti-site occupancy in the bct lattice of the Zr2Ni phase. (shrink)
The metastable transformational behavior (both martensitic and omega) along with compositional and morphological evolution of bcc ? precipitates, dispersed in the hcp α matrix of a Zr?1 wt% Nb alloy, were studied as a function of temperature and time. The evolution of the chemical composition of the ? phase suggested preference towards metastable compositions having Nb content higher than the equilibrium value. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the metastable chemical compositions are the driving force for the nucleation of such ? precipitates. (...) The ? to martensite transformation was observed to be possible only if ? precipitate size exceeded a critical value of 160?nm. Micromechanical modeling was performed to estimate the critical size of ? precipitate required to induce martensite transformation and the model predictions were in close agreement with the experimental observations. The omega transformation, on the other hand, showed less size dependence. (shrink)
Joan Scott's poststructuralist critique of experience demonstrates the dangers of empiricist narratives of experience but leaves feminists without a meaningful way to engage nonempiricist, experience-oriented texts, texts that constitute many women's primary means of taking control over their own representation. Using Chandra Mohanty's analysis of the role of writing in Third World feminisms, I articulate a concept of experience that incorporates poststructuralist insights while enabling a more responsible reading of Third World women's narratives.
Farmer participatory approaches were used to identify problems and needs as perceived by local people and to develop strategies to achieve fodder security in south Indian villages. Indigenous knowledge systems as they relate to agroforestry were explored. The farmer participatory approaches have laid the foundations for selecting appropriate agroforestry technologies and developing suitable fodder security policy options. Potential benefits and risks as a result of implementing agroforestry projects were also discussed.
Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate (...) in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937), in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today. (shrink)