Search results for 'Survival enhancing propensity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael Bertrand (2013). Proper Environment and the SEP Account of Biological Function. Synthese 190 (9):1503-1517.score: 90.0
    The survival enhancing propensity (SEP) account has a crucial role to play in the analysis of proper function. However, a central feature of the account, its specification of the proper environment to which functions are relativized, is seriously underdeveloped. In this paper, I argue that existent accounts of proper environment fail because they either allow too many or too few characters to count as proper functions. While SEP accounts retain their promise, they are unworkable because of their (...)
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  2. C. Kenneth Waters (1986). Natural Selection Without Survival of the Fittest. Biology and Philosophy 1 (2):207-225.score: 27.0
    Susan Mills and John Beatty proposed a propensity interpretation of fitness (1979) to show that Darwinian explanations are not circular, but they did not address the critics' chief complaint that the principle of the survival of the fittest is either tautological or untestable. I show that the propensity interpretation cannot rescue the principle from the critics' charges. The critics, however, incorrectly assume that there is nothing more to Darwin's theory than the survival of the fittest. While (...)
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  3. Ryuta Kawashima Rui Nouchi (2012). Effect of the Survival Judgment Task on Memory Performance in Subclinically Depressed People. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 21.0
    Many reports have described that a survival judgment task that requires participants to judge words according to their relevance to a survival situation can engender better recall than that obtained in other judgment tasks such as semantic or self-judgment tasks. We investigated whether memory enhancement related to the survival judgment task is elicited or not in subclinically depressed participants. Based on the BDI Score, participants were classified as either depressed or non-depressed participants. Then 20 depressed participants and (...)
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  4. Michael D. Schulman & Barbara A. Newman (1991). The Survival of the Black Tobacco Farmer: Empirical Results and Policy Dilemmas. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 8 (3):46-52.score: 21.0
    Panel data from a survey of small-scale farmers in the North Carolina Piedmont are used to investigate the survival of black smallholders. Results of a multivariate analysis show that owning tobacco quota and having high gross farm income, high amounts of on-farm household labor and small household size increase the propensity to survive in agriculture. Over the five-year period studied, approximately 50 percent of the original respondents were no longer actively operating farms. These results point to the complex (...)
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  5. Heidi Savage, What Matters in Survival: Life Trajectories and the Possibility of Virtual Immersion.score: 18.0
    The immediate goal of this paper is to establish that one can both agree with Parfit that identity is not what matters in survival and yet still maintain that the concept of a persisting person requires singularity over time. That is, fission cannot preserve what matters in survival. This can be maintained once one recognizes an externalist constraint on preserving what matters. Specifically, I claim that what matters in the survival of persons is something Parfit might call (...)
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  6. Andrew A. Brennan (1982). Personal Identity and Personal Survival. Analysis 42 (January):44-50.score: 18.0
    Parfit argues that survival, Not identity, Is the important thing in cases of personal resurrection, Fission, Etc. I argue that parfit's and dennett's well known cases--And fantasies about cloning and telecloning--Suggest a distinction between type and token persons, Memories, Intentions, Etc. Parfit is wrong, I suggest, To think survival more determinate than identity; with quine I hold that there is no objective matter to be right or wrong about.
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  7. Charles H. Pence & Grant Ramsey (2013). A New Foundation for the Propensity Interpretation of Fitness. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):851-881.score: 18.0
    The propensity interpretation of fitness (PIF) is commonly taken to be subject to a set of simple counterexamples. We argue that three of the most important of these are not counterexamples to the PIF itself, but only to the traditional mathematical model of this propensity: fitness as expected number of offspring. They fail to demonstrate that a new mathematical model of the PIF could not succeed where this older model fails. We then propose a new formalization of the (...)
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  8. Barry F. Dainton (1996). Survival and Experience. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 96:17 - 36.score: 18.0
    (Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 1996: 17-36) I If I am to survive until some later date, what must happen, and what must not happen, over the intervening period? I am talking here about survival in the strict sense. Take an earlier and a later person, if they are one and the same, what is it about them that makes this so? In addressing this question the preferred tool has long been the exploitation of imaginary or science fiction cases. (...)
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  9. Scott Campbell (2005). Is Causation Necessary for What Matters in Survival? Philosophical Studies 126 (3):375-396.score: 18.0
    In this paper I shall argue that if the Parfitian psychological criterion or theory of personal identity is true, then a good case can be made out to show that the psychological theorist should accept the view I call “psychological sequentialism”. This is the view that a causal connection is not necessary for what matters in survival, as long as certain other conditions are met. I argue this by way of Parfit’s own principle that what matters in survival (...)
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  10. Torin Alter & Stuart Rachels (2005). Nothing Matters in Survival. Journal of Ethics 9 (3-4):311-330.score: 18.0
    Do I have a special reason to care about my future, as opposed to yours? We reject the common belief that I do. Putting our thesis paradoxically, we say that nothing matters in survival: nothing in our continued existence justifies any special self-concern. Such an "extreme" view is standardly tied to ideas about the metaphysics of persons, but not by us. After rejecting various arguments against our thesis, we conclude that simplicity decides in its favor. Throughout the essay we (...)
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  11. Benjamin Capps (2011). Libertarianism, Legitimation, and the Problems of Regulating Cognition-Enhancing Drugs. Neuroethics 4 (2):119-128.score: 18.0
    Some libertarians tend to advocate the wide availability of cognition-enhancing drugs beyond their current prescription-only status. They suggest that certain kinds of drugs can be a component of a prudential conception of the ‘good life’—they enhance our opportunities and preferences; and therefore, if a person freely chooses to use them, then there is no justification for the kind of prejudicial, authoritative restrictions that are currently deployed in public policy. In particular, this libertarian idea signifies that if enhancements are a (...)
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  12. James Baillie (1993). What Matters in Survival. Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):255-61.score: 18.0
    I examine Derek Parfit’s claim that it doesn’t matter whether he survives in the future, if someone survives who is psychologically connected to him by “Relation R.” Thus, were his body to perish and be replaced by an exact duplicate, both physically and psychologically identical to him, this would be just as good as “ordinary” survival. Parfit takes the corollary view that replacement of loved ones by exact duplicates is no loss. In contrast, Peter Unger argues that we place (...)
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  13. M. Albert (2007). The Propensity Theory: A Decision-Theoretic Restatement. Synthese 156 (3):587 - 603.score: 18.0
    Probability theory is important because of its relevance for decision making, which also means: its relevance for the single case. The propensity theory of objective probability, which addresses the single case, is subject to two problems: Humphreys’ problem of inverse probabilities and the problem of the reference class. The paper solves both problems by restating the propensity theory using (an objectivist version of) Pearl’s approach to causality and probability, and by applying a decision-theoretic perspective. Contrary to a widely (...)
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  14. Bouchard Frédéric (2011). Darwinism Without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):106-114.score: 18.0
    Following Wallace’s suggestion, Darwin framed his theory using Spencer’s expression “survival of the fittest”. Since then, fitness occupies a significant place in the conventional understanding of Darwinism, even though the explicit meaning of the term ‘fitness’ is rarely stated. In this paper I examine some of the different roles that fitness has played in the development of the theory. Whereas the meaning of fitness was originally understood in ecological terms, it took a statistical turn in terms of reproductive success (...)
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  15. Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2006). Attitude Toward and Propensity to Engage in Unethical Behavior: Measurement Invariance Across Major Among University Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):77 - 93.score: 18.0
    This research examines business and psychology students’ attitude toward unethical behavior (measured at Time 1) and their propensity to engage in unethical behavior (measured at Time 1 and at Time 2, 4 weeks later) using a 15-item Unethical Behavior measure with five Factors: Abuse Resources, Not Whistle Blowing, Theft, Corruption, and Deception. Results suggested that male students had stronger unethical attitudes and had higher propensity to engage in unethical behavior than female students. Attitude at Time 1 predicted (...) at Time 1 accurately for all five factors (concurrent validity): If students consider it to be unethical, then, they are less likely to engage in that unethical behavior. Attitude at Time 1 predicted only Factor Abuse Resources for Propensity at Time 2. Propensity at Time 1 was significantly related to Propensity at Time 2. Attitude at Time 1, Propensity at Time 1, and Propensity at Time 2 had achieved configural and metric measurement invariance across major (business vs. psychology). Thus, researchers may have confidence in using these measures in future research. (shrink)
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  16. L. Dennis, R. W. Gray, L. H. Kauffman, J. Brender McNair & N. J. Woolf (2009). A Framework Linking Non-Living and Living Systems: Classification of Persistence, Survival and Evolution Transitions. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 14 (3):217-238.score: 18.0
    We propose a framework for analyzing the development, operation and failure to survive of all things, living, non-living or organized groupings. This framework is a sequence of developments that improve survival capability. Framework processes range from origination of any entity/system, to the development of increased survival capability and development of life-forms and organizations that use intelligence. This work deals with a series of developmental changes that arise from the uncovering of emergent properties. The framework is intended to be (...)
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  17. Cynthia D. Rittenhouse (1996). Survival Skills and Ethics Training for Graduate Students: A Graduate Student Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (3):367-380.score: 18.0
    Graduate students in the sciences must develop practical skills geared toward scientific survival and success. This is particularly true now, given the paucity of research funds and jobs. Along with more elementary skills, research ethics should be an integral part of students’ scientific training. Survival skills include research skills, communication skills, general efficiency, and preparation for post-graduate work. Ethics training covers guidelines for use of animal and human subjects, data treatment, disclosure, credit issues, conflicts of interest, and response (...)
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  18. Stuart Rachels & Torin Alter (2005). Nothing Matters in Survival. Journal of Ethics 9 (3/4):311 - 330.score: 18.0
    Do I have a special reason to care about my future, as opposed to yours? We reject the common belief that I do. Putting our thesis paradoxically, we say that nothing matters in survival: nothing in our continued existence justifies any special self-concern. Such an "extreme" view is standardly tied to ideas about the metaphysics of persons, but not by us. After rejecting various arguments against our thesis, we conclude that simplicity decides in its favor. Throughout the essay we (...)
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  19. Amit Saini & Kelly D. Martin (2009). Strategic Risk-Taking Propensity: The Role of Ethical Climate and Marketing Output Control. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):593 - 606.score: 18.0
    In the wake of the current financial crises triggered by risky mortgage-backed securities, the question of ethics and risk-taking is once again at the front and center for both practitioners and academics. Although risk-taking is considered an integral part of strategic decision-making, sometimes firms could be propelled to take risks driven by reasons other than calculated strategic choices. The authors argue that a firm's risk-taking propensity is impacted by its ethical climate (egoistic or benevolent) and its emphasis on output (...)
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  20. W. Ford Doolittle (forthcoming). Natural Selection Through Survival Alone, and the Possibility of Gaia. Biology and Philosophy:1-9.score: 18.0
    Here I advance two related evolutionary propositions. (1) Natural selection is most often considered to require competition between reproducing “individuals”, sometimes quite broadly conceived, as in cases of clonal, species or multispecies-community selection. But differential survival of non-competing and non-reproducing individuals will also result in increasing frequencies of survival-promoting “adaptations” among survivors, and thus is also a kind of natural selection. (2) Darwinists have challenged the view that the Earth’s biosphere is an evolved global homeostatic system. Since there (...)
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  21. David B. Resnik (1988). Survival of the Fittest: Law of Evolution or Law of Probability? [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 3 (3):349-362.score: 18.0
    In a recent issue of Biology and Philosophy, Kenneth Waters argues that the principle of survival of the fittest should be eliminated from the theory of natural selection, because it is an untestable law of probability, and as such, has no place in evolutionary theory. His argument is impressive, but it does not do justice to the practice of biology. The principle of survival of the fittest should not be eliminated from the theory of natural selection because it (...)
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  22. C. Verharen, J. Tharakan, G. Middendorf, M. Castro-Sitiriche & G. Kadoda (2013). Introducing Survival Ethics Into Engineering Education and Practice. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):599-623.score: 18.0
    Given the possibilities of synthetic biology, weapons of mass destruction and global climate change, humans may achieve the capacity globally to alter life. This crisis calls for an ethics that furnishes effective motives to take global action necessary for survival. We propose a research program for understanding why ethical principles change across time and culture. We also propose provisional motives and methods for reaching global consensus on engineering field ethics. Current interdisciplinary research in ethics, psychology, neuroscience and evolutionary theory (...)
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  23. Mauricio Suárez (forthcoming). A Critique of Empiricist Propensity Theories. European Journal for Philosophy of Science:1-17.score: 18.0
    I analyse critically what I regard as the most accomplished empiricist account of propensities, namely the long run propensity theory developed by Donald Gillies (2000). Empiricist accounts are distinguished by their commitment to the ‘identity thesis’: the identification of propensities and objective probabilities. These theories are intended, in the tradition of Karl Popper’s influential proposal, to provide an interpretation of probability (under a suitable version of Kolmogorov’s axioms) that renders probability statements directly testable by experiment. I argue that the (...)
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  24. V. Raki (2014). Voluntary Moral Enhancement and the Survival-at-Any-Cost Bias. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (4):246-250.score: 18.0
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  25. Kevin J. Corcoran (2001). Physical Persons and Postmortem Survival Without Temporal Gaps. In , Soul, Body, and Survival. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.score: 18.0
     
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  26. Wim Dekkers & Marcel Olde Rikkert (2007). Memory Enhancing Drugs and Alzheimer's Disease: Enhancing the Self or Preventing the Loss of It? [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (2):141-151.score: 18.0
    In this paper we analyse some ethical and philosophical questions related to the development of memory enhancing drugs (MEDs) and anti-dementia drugs. The world of memory enhancement is coloured by utopian thinking and by the desire for quicker, sharper, and more reliable memories. Dementia is characterized by decline, fragility, vulnerability, a loss of the most important cognitive functions and even a loss of self. While MEDs are being developed for self-improvement, in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) the self is being lost. (...)
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  27. Joshua Ginsberg (2004). Enhancement of Survival or Abandonment of the Endangered Species Act? Bioscience 54 (3):180.score: 18.0
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  28. Marvin D. Krank, Jackie Jacob, Susan O'Neill & Gordon Finley (1992). Pavlovian Conditioning with Cyclosporin Enhances Survival From Infectious Peritonitis. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (1):71-73.score: 18.0
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  29. J. Seibt (2002). Fission, Sameness, and Survival: Parfit's Branch Line Argument Revisited. Metaphysica 1 (2):95-134.score: 18.0
    Parfit’s Branch Line argument is intended to show that the relation of survival is possibly a one-many relation and thus different from numerical identity. I offer a detailed reconstruction of Parfit’s notions of survival and personal identity, and show the argument cannot be coherently formulated within Parfit’s own setting. More specifically, I argue that Parfit’s own specifications imply that the “R-relation”, i.e., the relation claimed to capture of “what matters in survival,” turns out to hold not only (...)
     
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  30. Charles Verharen, John Tharakan, Flordeliz Bugarin, Joseph Fortunak, Gada Kadoda & George Middendorf (2014). Survival Ethics in the Real World: The Research University and Sustainable Development. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):135-154.score: 18.0
    We discuss how academically-based interdisciplinary teams can address the extreme challenges of the world’s poorest by increasing access to the basic necessities of life. The essay’s first part illustrates the evolving commitment of research universities to develop ethical solutions for populations whose survival is at risk and whose quality of life is deeply impaired. The second part proposes a rationale for university responsibility to solve the problems of impoverished populations at a geographical remove. It also presents a framework for (...)
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  31. Eric Steinhart (2007). Survival as a Digital Ghost. Minds and Machines 17 (3):261 – 271.score: 16.0
    You can survive after death in various kinds of artifacts. You can survive in diaries, photographs, sound recordings, and movies. But these artifacts record only superficial features of yourself. We are already close to the construction of programs that partially and approximately replicate entire human lives (by storing their memories and duplicating their personalities). A digital ghost is an artificially intelligent program that knows all about your life. It is an animated auto-biography. It replicates your patterns of belief and desire. (...)
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  32. Rebecca Roache (2010). Fission, Cohabitation and the Concern for Future Survival. Analysis 70 (2):256-263.score: 15.0
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  33. Terence W. Penelhum (1959). Personal Identity, Memory, and Survival. Journal of Philosophy 56 (June):319-328.score: 15.0
  34. Jenefer M. Robinson (1988). Personal Identity and Survival. Journal of Philosophy 85 (June):319-28.score: 15.0
  35. Neil McKinnon & John C. Bigelow (2001). Parfit, Causation, and Survival. Philosophia 28 (1-4):467-476.score: 15.0
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  36. Scott Campbell (2001). Is Connectedess Necessary to What Matters in Survival? Ration 14 (3):193-202.score: 15.0
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  37. Nicholas Measor (1980). On What Matters in Survival. Mind 89 (3):406-11.score: 15.0
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  38. Marya Schechtman (2004). Personality and Persistence: The Many Faces of Personal Survival. American Philosophical Quarterly 41 (2):87-106.score: 15.0
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  39. L. Nathan Oaklander (1988). Shoemaker on the Duplication Argument, Survival, and What Matters. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66 (June):234-239.score: 15.0
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  40. Douglas E. Ehring (1987). Survival and Trivial Facts. Analysis 47 (January):50-54.score: 15.0
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  41. Steve Matthews (2000). Survival and Separation. Philosophical Studies 98 (3):279-303.score: 15.0
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  42. John E. Pogue (1993). Identity, Survival, and the Reasonableness of Replication. Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):45-70.score: 15.0
  43. R. Martin (1992). Self-Interest and Survival. American Philosophical Quarterly 29 (4):319-30.score: 15.0
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  44. Karen Bailie, Iain Dobie, Stephen Kirk & Michael Donnelly (2007). Survival After Breast Cancer Treatment: The Impact of Provider Volume. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (5):749-757.score: 15.0
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  45. Wei‐Chu Chie, Yi‐Hsin Chang & Hsiu‐Hsi Chen (2007). A Novel Method for Evaluation of Improved Survival Trend for Common Cancer: Early Detection or Improvement of Medical Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (1):79-85.score: 15.0
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  46. Li‐Sheng Chen, Ming‐Fang Yen, Hui‐Min Wu, Chao‐Sheng Liao, Der‐Ming Liou, Hsu‐Sung Kuo & Tony Hsiu‐Hsi Chen (2005). Predictive Survival Model with Time‐Dependent Prognostic Factors: Development of Computer‐Aided SAS Macro Program. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (2):181-193.score: 15.0
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  47. Peter Clark (2006). Problems of Determinism: Prediction, Propensity and Probability. In Wenceslao J. González & Jesus Alcolea (eds.), Contemporary Perspectives in Philosophy and Methodology of Science. Netbiblio.score: 15.0
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  48. Dhaval Ghelani, John L. Moran, Andy Sloggett, Richard J. Leeson & Sandra L. Peake (2009). Long‐Term Survival of Intensive Care and Hospital Patient Cohorts Compared with the General Australian Population: A Relative Survival Approach. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):425-435.score: 15.0
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  49. Ole Hagen (1992). Survival Through the Allais Paradox. Theory and Decision 32 (2):209-217.score: 15.0
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  50. Karla Hemming & Jane Luise Hutton (2012). Bayesian Sensitivity Models for Missing Covariates in the Analysis of Survival Data. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):238-246.score: 15.0
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