Much of the developing world, including Kenya, is rapidly urbanizing. Rising food and fuel prices in recent years have put the food security of the urban poor in a precarious position. In cities worldwide, urban agriculture helps some poor people gain access to food, but urban agriculture is less common in densely populated slums that lack space. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households have recently begun a new form of urban agriculture called sack gardening in which vegetables such (...) as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with topsoil. This paper examines relationships among sack gardening, social capital, and food security in Kibera. We used a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative interviews with a household survey, as well as focus group discussions with both farmers and non-farmers. We present evidence that sack gardening increases social capital, especially for those households that undertake sack gardening in groups. We also find that sack gardening in the Kibera slums has a positive impact on household food security by improving household dietary diversity and by reducing the need to resort to painful coping mechanisms that are used during food shortages. (shrink)
This paper reviews the technical and social problems concerned in donor insemination in the light of recent developments. The most important of these is the declining number of babies available for adoption by subfertile couples because modern methods and attitudes have reduced the number of unplanned births. At the same time the technique of donor insemination is being developed as public attitudes to it are changing.
Experiments in the laboratory and the natural marine environment examined the changes in the rate of the accumulation of bacterial biofouling for different surface roughness values. The range of surface roughness values examined was that suitable for use in optical sensors. The fouling build-up was found to be greater at around 10 nm rms roughness value than at either 5 or 15 nm. For most materials tested, the fouling build-up at 10 nm was not equalled for roughness values below 25 (...) nm. Different experimental exposure regimes were adopted: a purely static exposure, static exposure followed by dynamic removal of the bacterial layer and fully dynamic exposure where the bacterial suspension flowed across the surface of the samples. The results suggest that the effect of surface roughness on bacterial adhesion is almost instantaneous. The static fouling experiments were repeated with a range of materials and the results were the same, indicating that the response is physical in nature. As the surface imperfections are far smaller than the size of bacteria, it is suggested that the results are due to a similarity between the size and shape of the imperfections and the size and configuration of the adhesive molecules produced by marine bacteria. (shrink)
Family medicine has grown as a specialty from its early days of general practice. It was established as a Board Certified specialty in 1969. This growth and maturation can be traced in the philosophy of family medicine as articulated by Edmund D. Pellegrino, M.D. Long before it was popular to do so, Pellegrino supported the development of family medicine. In this essay I examine the development of Pellegrino's philosophical thought about family practice, and contrast it to other thinkers like Ian (...) McWhinney, Kerr White, Walter Spitzer, Donald Ransom, and Hebert Vandervoort. The arguments focus on whether the goals of family medicine and family practice (possibly two distinct entities) can be articulated, especially considering the definitional problems of family and community. I conclude by echoing Pellegrino's hope that family medicine can contribute a fresh alternative to isolated, individualistic and technological thinking in medicine. (shrink)
Calls for the expansion of ethics education in the business and accounting curricula have resulted in a variety of interventions including additional material on ethical cases, the code of conduct, and the development of new courses devoted to ethical development [Lampe, J.: 1996]. The issue of whether ethics should be taught has been addressed by many authors [see for example: Hanson, K. O.: 1987; Huss, H. F. and D. M. Patterson: 1993; Jones, T. M.: 1988–1989; Kerr, D. S. and (...) L. M. Smith: 1995; Loeb, S. E.: 1988; McDonald, G. M. and G. D. Donleavy: 1995]. The question addressed in this paper is not whether ethics should be taught but whether accounting students can reason more ethically after an intervention based on a discrete and dedicated course on accounting ethics. The findings in this paper indicate that a discrete intervention emphasising dilemma discussion has a positive and significant effect on students’ moral reasoning and development. The data collected from interviews suggest that the salient influences on moral judgement development include: learning theories of ethics particularly Kohlberg’s theory of cognitive moral reasoning and development; peer learning; and moral discourse. The implications from the findings in this study suggest that moral reasoning is responsive to particular types of ethics intervention and educators should carefully plan their attempts to foster moral judgement development. (shrink)
The individual and society: Meerloo, J. A. M. Freedom--our mental backbone. Allport, G. Freedom. Marcuse, H. The new forms of control. Kerr, W. A. Psychology of the free competition of ideas. Eysenck, H. J. The technology of consent. Dewey, J. Toward a new individualism. Emerson, R. W. Self-reliance. Fromm, E. Freedom and democracy.--Religion and the inner man: St. Augustine. The freedom and the will. Mercier, L. J. A. Freedom of the will and psychology. Dostoyevsky, F. The grand inquisitor. Berdyaev, (...) N. Master, slave and free man. Buber, M. I and thou. Govinda, A. Time and space and the problem of free will. Prabhavananda, S. Control of the subconscious mind.--Philosophy and philosophical psychology: Bergson, H. Psychological determinism. James, W. The dilemma of determinism. Mill, J. S. The freedom of the will. Sartre, J. P. Being and doing: freedom. Wyschogrod, M. Sartre, freedom and the unconscious. May, R. Will, decision and responsibility: summary remarks. Knight, R. P. Determinism, "freedom," and psychotherapy. Royce, J. Meaning, value, and personality.--Selected bibliography (p. 393-408). (shrink)
Recently, we reported that submonolayer deposits of Co onto the pentagonal surface of i-Al-Pd-Mn form a stable intermetallic compound of five CsCl-type AlCo domains rotated by 72° with respect to each other. For multilayer deposition, Co was found to grow epitaxially on the AlCo domains in a body-centred cubic structure. Here we discuss this conclusion in more detail and report the formation of atomic rows at the surface for deposits larger than three monolayers. The details of the growth resulting in (...) ordered nanostructures are extracted from low-energy electron diffraction investigations. Surface magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements confirm the decrease in the domain size for thicker films. (shrink)