Search results for 'Syllogism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Moti Mizrahi (2013). Why Hypothetical Syllogism is Invalid for Indicative Conditionals. Thought 1 (4):40-43.score: 18.0
    In this article, I present a schema for generating counterexamples to the argument form known as Hypothetical Syllogism (HS) with indicative conditionals. If my schema for generating counterexamples to HS works as I think it does, then HS is invalid for indicative conditionals.
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  2. Christopher J. Martin (2007). Denying Conditionals: Abaelard and the Failure of Boethius' Account of the Hypothetical Syllogism. Vivarium 45 (s 2-3):153-168.score: 18.0
    Boethius' treatise De Hypotheticis Syllogismis provided twelfth-century philosophers with an introduction to the logic of conditional and disjunctive sentences but this work is the only part of the logica vetus which is no longer studied in the twelfth century. In this paper I investigate why interest in Boethius acount of hypothetical syllogisms fell off so quickly. I argue that Boethius' account of compound sentences is not an account of propositions and once a proper notion of propositionality is available the argument (...)
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  3. Lee Walters (2014). Conditionals, Modals, and Hypothetical Syllogism. Thought 3 (1):90-97.score: 18.0
    Moti Mizrahi (2013) presents some novel counterexamples to Hypothetical Syllogism (HS) for indicative conditionals. I show that they are not compelling as they neglect the complicated ways in which conditionals and modals interact. I then briefly outline why HS should nevertheless be rejected.
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  4. Gemma Robles & José M. Méndez (2010). A Routley-Meyer Type Semantics for Relevant Logics Including B R Plus the Disjunctive Syllogism. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (2):139 - 158.score: 18.0
    Routley-Meyer type ternary relational semantics are defined for relevant logics including Routley and Meyer’s basic logic B plus the reductio rule and the disjunctive syllogism. Standard relevant logics such as E and R (plus γ ) and Ackermann’s logics of ‘strenge Implikation’ Π and Π ′ are among the logics considered.
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  5. Linton Wang & Wei-Fen Ma (2014). Comparative Syllogism and Counterfactual Knowledge. Synthese 191 (6):1327-1348.score: 18.0
    Comparative syllogism is a type of scientific reasoning widely used, explicitly or implicitly, for inferences from observations to conclusions about effectiveness, but its philosophical significance has not been fully elaborated or appreciated. In its simplest form, the comparative syllogism derives a conclusion about the effectiveness of a factor (e.g. a treatment or an exposure) on a certain property via an experiment design using a test (experimental) group and a comparison (control) group. Our objective is to show that the (...)
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  6. Nicholas Rescher (1966). Galen and the Syllogism. [Pittsburgh]University of Pittsburgh Press.score: 15.0
    Nicholas Rescher, by examining and reproducing sources in Arabic philosophy, seeks to definitively settle the debate over whether Galen originated the fourth ...
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  7. Günther Patzig (1969). Aristotle's Theory of the Syllogism. Dordrecht, D. Reidel.score: 15.0
  8. Augustus De Morgan (1966). On the Syllogism. New Haven, Yale University Press.score: 15.0
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  9. G. B. Keene (1969). The Relational Syllogism: A Systematic Approach to Relational Logic. Exeter, University of Exeter.score: 15.0
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  10. Wallace A. Murphree (1991). Numerically Exceptive Logic: A Reduction of the Classical Syllogism. P. Lang.score: 15.0
  11. Paul Thom (1981). The Syllogism. Philosophia.score: 15.0
  12. Stanley Wilcox (1939). The Destructive Hypothetical Syllogism in Greek Logic and in Attic Oratory. [New Haven.score: 15.0
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  13. Michael Morreau (2009). The Hypothetical Syllogism. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (4):447 - 464.score: 12.0
    The hypothetical syllogism is invalid in standard interpretations of conditional sentences. Many arguments of this sort are quite compelling, though, and you can wonder what makes them so. I shall argue that it is our parsimony in regard to connections among events and states of affairs. All manner of things just might, for all we know, be bound up with one another in all sorts of ways. But ordinarily it is better, being simpler, to assume they are unconnected. In (...)
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  14. Lee Walters (2013). Against Hypothetical Syllogism. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-19.score: 12.0
    The debate over Hypothetical Syllogism is locked in stalemate. Although putative natural language counterexamples to Hypothetical Syllogism abound, many philosophers defend Hypothetical Syllogism, arguing that the alleged counterexamples involve an illicit shift in context. The proper lesson to draw from the putative counterexamples, they argue, is that natural language conditionals are context-sensitive conditionals which obey Hypothetical Syllogism. In order to make progress on the issue, I consider and improve upon Morreau’s proof of the invalidity of Hypothetical (...)
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  15. John R. Welch (1991). Reconstructing Aristotle: The Practical Syllogism. Philosophia 21 (1-2):69-88.score: 12.0
    This article tackles a number of puzzles related to Aristotle’s practical syllogism, notably the relationship between deliberation and the practical syllogism, the distinction between deliberative and reconstructive practical syllogisms, and the nature of the conclusion of the practical syllogism.
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  16. Jonardon Ganeri (1996). The Hindu Syllogism: Nineteenth-Century Perceptions of Indian Logical Thought. Philosophy East and West 46 (1):1-16.score: 12.0
    Following H. T. Colebrooke's 1824 'discovery' of the Hindu syllogism, his term for the five-step inference schema in the "Nyāya-sūtra," European logicians and historians of philosophy demonstrated considerable interest in Indian logical thought. This is in marked contrast with later historians of philosophy, and also with Indian nationalist and neo-Hindu thinkers like Vivekananda and Radhakrishnan, who downgraded Indian rationalist traditions in favor of 'spiritualist' or 'speculative' texts. This article traces the role of these later thinkers in the origins of (...)
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  17. Steve Awodey & A. W. Carus, The Turning Point and the Revolution: Philosophy of Mathematics in Logical Empiricism From Tractatus on Logical Syllogism.score: 12.0
    Steve Awodey and A. W. Carus. The Turning Point and the Revolution: Philosophy of Mathematics in Logical Empiricism from Tractatus on Logical Syllogism.
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  18. Maroun Aouad & Gregor Schoeler (2002). The Poetic Syllogism According to Al-Farabi: An Incorrect Syllogism of the Second Figure. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 12 (2):185-196.score: 12.0
    It is well-known that the Arab philosophers of the Aristotelian tradition, like some of their Alexandrian predecessors, attached rhetoric and poetics to logic, and supported this inclusion by the idea that the principal poetic procedure - that is, essentially, metaphor - is a kind of syllogism: the poetic syllogism. However, until now, no texts prior to those of Avicenna had been identified which render the structure of this syllogism explicit. In the present contribution, we present and translate (...)
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  19. James Van Evra (2000). The Development of Logic as Reflected in the Fate of the Syllogism 1600–1900. History and Philosophy of Logic 21 (2):115-134.score: 12.0
    One way to determine the quality and pace of change in a science as it undergoes a major transition is to follow some feature of it which remains relatively stable throughout the process. Following the chosen item as it goes through reinterpretation permits conclusions to be drawn about the nature and scope of the broader change in question. In what follows, this device is applied to the change which took place in logic in the mid-nineteenth century. The feature chosen as (...)
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  20. Gemma Robles & José M. Méndez (2011). A Routley-Meyer Semantics for Relevant Logics Including TWR Plus the Disjunctive Syllogism. Logic Journal of the IGPL 19 (1):18-32.score: 12.0
    We provide Routley-Meyer type semantics for relevant logics including Contractionless Ticket Entailment TW (without the truth constant t and o) plus reductio R and Ackermann’s rule γ (i.e., disjunctive syllogism). These logics have the following properties. (i) All have the variable sharing property; some of them have, in addition, the Ackermann Property. (ii) They are stable. (iii) Inconsistent theories built upon these logics are not necessarily trivial.
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  21. S. V. Bhave (1997). Situations in Which Disjunctive Syllogism Can Lead From True Premises to a False Conclusion. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 38 (3):398-405.score: 12.0
    Disjunctive Syllogism, that is, the inference from 'not-A or B' and 'A', to 'B' can lead from true premises to a false conclusion if each of the sentences 'A' and 'not-A' is a statement of a partial truth such that affirming one of them amounts to denying the other, without each being the contradictory of the other. Such sentences inevitably occur whenever a situation which for its proper precise description needs the use of expressions such as 'most probably true' (...)
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  22. Wallace A. Murphree (1994). The Irrelevance of Distribution for the Syllogism. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 35 (3):433-449.score: 12.0
    While accepting that distribution is a coherent notion, I argue that it is nevertheless irrelevant to the working of the syllogism. Instead, I propose: (i) that a term's being distributed or undistributed in a proposition is its capacity to be replaced in a truth-preserving substitution with a narrower or a wider term; (ii) that which capacity the term has is determined by whether it occurs as the predicate of a negative or of an affirmative statement of the proposition; and (...)
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  23. Wiland Eric (2013). In the Beginning Was the Doing: The Premises of the Practical Syllogism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (3):303-321.score: 12.0
    (2013). In the beginning was the doing: the premises of the practical syllogism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 303-321.
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  24. João Maurício Adeodato (1999). The Rhetorical Syllogism (Enthymeme) in Judicial Argumentation. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 12 (2):133-150.score: 12.0
    The thesis here expounded can be divided in three parts: in the first place, it is supposed that the syllogism is not the rhetorical way, and less still the logical way, indeed used to reach the decision in the legal proceedings monopolized by the modern State. At the most, it can be seen as a form of presenting a decision that has already been reached by other means. It sure constitutes a highly functional procedure, effective and legitimating. It is (...)
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  25. Anthony Speca (2001). Hypothetical Syllogistic and Stoic Logic. Brill.score: 10.0
    This book uncovers and examines the confusion in antiquity between Aristotle's hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic logic, and offers a fresh perspective on the ...
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  26. Henrik Lagerlund (2000). Modal Syllogistics in the Middle Ages. Brill.score: 10.0
    This book presents the first study of the development of the theory of modal syllogistic in the Middle Ages.
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  27. V. A. Bocharov (1986). Boolean Algebra and Syllogism. Synthese 66 (1):35 - 54.score: 10.0
    This article contains the proof of equivalence boolean algebra and syllogistics arc2. The system arc2 is obtained as a superstructure above the propositional calculus. Subjects and predicates of syllogistic functors a, E, J, O may be complex terms, Which are formed using operations of intersection, Union and complement. In contrast to negative sentences the interpretation of affirmative sentences suggests non-Empty terms. To prove the corresponding theorem we demonstrate that boolean algebra is included into syllogistics arc2 and vice versa.
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  28. Raul Corazzon, Selected Bibliography on Aristotle's Theory of Categorical Syllogism.score: 10.0
    "However that may be, Aristotelian syllogistic concerned itself exclusively with monadic predicates. Hence it could not begin to investigate multiple quantification. And that is why it never got very far. None the less, the underlying grammar of Aristotle's logic did not in itself..
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  29. Charles H. Manekin (1996). Some Aspects of the Assertoric Syllogism in Medieval Hebrew Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 17 (1-2):49-71.score: 10.0
    This paper introduces the reader to the medieval Hebrew tradition of logic by considering its treatment of Aristotelian syllogistic. Starting in the thirteenth century European Jews translated Arabic and Latin texts into Hebrew and produced commentaries and original compendia.Because they stood culturally and geographically at the cross-roads of two great traditions they were influenced by both.This is clearly seen in the development of syllogistic theory, where the Latin tradition ultimately replaces, though never entirely, its Arabic counterpart.Specific attention is devoted to (...)
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  30. Daniel Dohrn, Counterfactuals, Accessibility, and Comparative Similarity.score: 9.0
    Berit Brogaard and Joe Salerno (2008) have defended the validity of counterfactual hypothetical syllogism (CHS) within the Stalnaker-Lewis account. Whenever the premisses of an instance of CHS are non-vacuosly true, a shift in context has occurred. Hence the standard counterexamples to CHS suffer from context failure. Charles Cross (2011) rejects this argument as irreconcilable with the Stalnaker-Lewis account. I argue against Cross that the basic Stalnaker-Lewis truth condition may be supplemented in a way that makes (CHS) valid. Yet pace (...)
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  31. Phil Corkum, Aristotle on Logical Consequence.score: 9.0
    Compare two conceptions of validity: under an example of a modal conception, an argument is valid just in case it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false; under an example of a topic-neutral conception, an argument is valid just in case there are no arguments of the same logical form with true premises and a false conclusion. This taxonomy of positions suggests a project in the philosophy of logic: the reductive analysis of the modal conception (...)
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  32. T. J. Smiley (1973). What is a Syllogism? Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1):136 - 154.score: 9.0
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  33. Anthony Kenny (1966). The Practical Syllogism and Incontinence. Phronesis 11 (2):163 - 184.score: 9.0
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  34. Allan Bäck (2009). Mistakes of Reason: Practical Reasoning and the Fallacy of Accident. Phronesis 54 (2):101-135.score: 9.0
    For Aristotle the fallacy of accident arises from mistakes about being per accidens and not from accidental predication. Mistakes in perceiving per accidens come from our judgements about being per accidens and so commit that fallacy. Practical syllogisms have the same formal structure as being and perceiving per accidens . Moreover perceiving per accidens typically provides the minor premise for the practical syllogism as it makes it possible for us to know singular propositions, especially those about substances. Thus these (...)
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  35. R. P. Anschutz (1942). Aristotle and Syllogism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):228 – 231.score: 9.0
  36. Jesús A. Díaz (1988). Cartesian Analyticity. Southern Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):47-55.score: 9.0
    The syllogism and the predicate calculus cannot account for an ontological argument in Descartes' Fifth Meditation and related texts. Descartes' notion of god relies on the analytic-synthetic distinction, which Descartes had identified before Leibniz and Kant did. I describe how the syllogism and the predicate calculus cannot explain Descartes' ontological argument; then I apply the analytic-synthetic distinction to Descartes’ idea of god.
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  37. Timothy Smiley (1962). Syllogism and Quantification. Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (1):58-72.score: 9.0
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  38. Ruggero Pagnan (2012). A Diagrammatic Calculus of Syllogisms. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (3):347-364.score: 9.0
    A diagrammatic logical calculus for the syllogistic reasoning is introduced and discussed. We prove that a syllogism is valid if and only if it is provable in the calculus.
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  39. Mary Mothersill (1962). Anscombe's Account of the Practical Syllogism. Philosophical Review 71 (4):448-461.score: 9.0
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  40. Alfred R. Mele (1981). The Practical Syllogism and Deliberation in Aristotle's Causal Theory of Action. New Scholasticism 55 (3):281-316.score: 9.0
  41. Simo Knuuttila (2010). Generality and Identity in Late Medieval Discussions of the Prior Analytics. Vivarium 48 (1-2):215-227.score: 9.0
    In this article, I shall consider medieval discussions of the principles of Aristotelian syllogistic which were called the dictum de omni et nullo and the expository syllogism. I am particularly interested in how theological questions contributed to the introduction of some influential new medieval ideas, such as the extensional sameness of the subject as the basis of predication, the interpretation of the expository syllogism from this point of view, and the explication of the logical subject of universal and (...)
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  42. Henrik Lagerlund (2010). Al-Ghazali on the Form and Matter of the Syllogisms. Vivarium 48 (1-2):193-214.score: 9.0
    Al-Ghazālī's Maqāsid al-falāsifa is an intelligent reworking of Avicenna's Dānesh-name (Book of Science). It was assumed by Latin scholastics that the Maqāsid contained the views of Al-Ghazālī himself. Very well read in Latin translation, it was the basic text from which the Latin authors gained their knowledge of Arabic logic. This article examines the views on the form and matter of the syllogism given in the Maqāsid and considers how they would have been viewed by a Latin reader in (...)
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  43. I. Susan Russinoff (1999). The Syllogism's Final Solution. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 5 (4):451-469.score: 9.0
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  44. Friedrich Solmsen (1941). The Discovery of the Syllogism. Philosophical Review 50 (4):410-421.score: 9.0
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  45. Gregor Betz (2013). Justifying Inference to the Best Explanation as a Practical Meta-Syllogism on Dialectical Structures. Synthese 190 (16):3553-3578.score: 9.0
    This article discusses how inference to the best explanation (IBE) can be justified as a practical meta-argument. It is, firstly, justified as a practical argument insofar as accepting the best explanation as true can be shown to further a specific aim. And because this aim is a discursive one which proponents can rationally pursue in—and relative to—a complex controversy, namely maximising the robustness of one’s position, IBE can be conceived, secondly, as a meta-argument. My analysis thus bears a certain analogy (...)
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  46. H. B. Curry (1936). A Mathematical Treatment of the Rules of the Syllogism. Mind 45 (178):209-216.score: 9.0
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  47. A. Bain (1878). Mill's Theory of the Syllogism. Mind 3 (9):137-141.score: 9.0
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  48. Gemma Robles & José M. Méndez (2010). Paraconsistent Logics Included in Lewis’ S4. Review of Symbolic Logic 3 (03):442-466.score: 9.0
    As is known, a logic S is paraconsistent if the rule ECQ (E contradictione quodlibet) is not a rule of S. Not less well known is the fact that Lewis’ modal logics are not paraconsistent. Actually, Lewis vindicates the validity of ECQ in a famous proof currently known as the “Lewis’ proof” or “Lewis’ argument.” This proof essentially leans on the Disjunctive Syllogism as a rule of inference. The aim of this paper is to define a series of paraconsistent (...)
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  49. Friedrich Solmsen (1951). Aristotle's Syllogism and its Platonic Background. Philosophical Review 60 (4):563-571.score: 9.0
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