Search results for 'Syllogistic' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Charles J. Kelly Syllogistic (1986). Robert Hanna. The Monist 69 (2).score: 30.0
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  2. Piotr Kulicki (2002). Remarks on Axiomatic Rejection in Aristotle’s Syllogistic. Studies in Logic and Theory of Knowledge 5:231-236.score: 24.0
    In the paper we examine the method of axiomatic rejection used to describe the set of nonvalid formulae of Aristotle's syllogistic. First we show that the condition which the system of syllogistic has to fulfil to be ompletely axiomatised, is identical to the condition for any first order theory to be used as a logic program. Than we study the connection between models used or refutation in a first order theory and rejected axioms for that theory. We show (...)
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  3. Susanne Bobzien (1996). Stoic Syllogistic. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:133-92.score: 24.0
    ABSTRACT: For the Stoics, a syllogism is a formally valid argument; the primary function of their syllogistic is to establish such formal validity. Stoic syllogistic is a system of formal logic that relies on two types of argumental rules: (i) 5 rules (the accounts of the indemonstrables) which determine whether any given argument is an indemonstrable argument, i.e. an elementary syllogism the validity of which is not in need of further demonstration; (ii) one unary and three binary argumental (...)
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  4. Phil Corkum (forthcoming). Is Aristotle's Syllogistic a Logic? History and Philosophy of Logic.score: 24.0
    Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle’s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning, only if it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the world. In this paper, I will argue that this a misleading interpretative framework. The syllogistic is something sui generis: by our lights, it is neither clearly a logic, nor clearly a theory, but (...)
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  5. Edgar Andrade-Lotero & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Validity, the Squeezing Argument and Alternative Semantic Systems: The Case of Aristotelian Syllogistic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):387-418.score: 24.0
    We investigate the philosophical significance of the existence of different semantic systems with respect to which a given deductive system is sound and complete. Our case study will be Corcoran’s deductive system D for Aristotelian syllogistic and some of the different semantic systems for syllogistic that have been proposed in the literature. We shall prove that they are not equivalent, in spite of D being sound and complete with respect to each of them. Beyond the specific case of (...)
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  6. Susanne Bobzien (2002). Pre-Stoic Hypothetical Syllogistic in Galen. The Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies:57-72.score: 24.0
    ABSTRACT: This paper traces the evidence in Galen's Introduction to Logic (Institutio Logica) for a hypothetical syllogistic which predates Stoic propositional logic. It emerges that Galen is one of our main witnesses for such a theory, whose authors are most likely Theophrastus and Eudemus. A reconstruction of this theory is offered which - among other things - allows to solve some apparent textual difficulties in the Institutio Logica.
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  7. John N. Martin (2001). Proclus and the Neoplatonic Syllogistic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):187-240.score: 24.0
    An investigation of Proclus' logic of the syllogistic and of negations in the Elements of Theology, On the Parmenides, and Platonic Theology. It is shown that Proclus employs interpretations over a linear semantic structure with operators for scalar negations (hypemegationlalpha-intensivum and privative negation). A natural deduction system for scalar negations and the classical syllogistic (as reconstructed by Corcoran and Smiley) is shown to be sound and complete for the non-Boolean linear structures. It is explained how Proclus' syllogistic (...)
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  8. Lawrence S. Moss (2011). Syllogistic Logic with Comparative Adjectives. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (3):397-417.score: 24.0
    This paper adds comparative adjectives to two systems of syllogistic logic. The comparatives are interpreted by transitive and irreflexive relations on the underlying domain. The main point is to obtain sound and complete axiomatizations of the valid formulas in the logics.
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  9. Georg Theiner (2007). Where Syllogistic Reasoning Happens: An Argument for the Extended Mind Hypothesis. In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.score: 24.0
    Does cognition sometimes literally extend into the extra-organismic environment (Clark, 2003), or is it always “merely” environmentally embedded (Rupert, 2004)? Underlying this current border dispute is the question about how to individuate cognitive processes on principled grounds. Based on recent evidence about the active role of representation selection and construction in learning how to reason (Stenning, 2002), I raise the question: what makes two distinct, modality-specific pen-and-paper manipulations of external representations – diagrams versus sentences – cognitive processes of the same (...)
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  10. Edgar Andrade-Lotero & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Validity, the Squeezing Argument and Alternative Semantic Systems: The Case of Aristotelian Syllogistic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):387 - 418.score: 24.0
    We investigate the philosophical significance of the existence of different semantic systems with respect to which a given deductive system is sound and complete. Our case study will be Corcoran's deductive system D for Aristotelian syllogistic and some of the different semantic systems for syllogistic that have been proposed in the literature. We shall prove that they are not equivalent, in spite of D being sound and complete with respect to each of them. Beyond the specific case of (...)
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  11. Andrew Schumann (2006). A Lattice for the Language of Aristotle's Syllogistic and a Lattice for the Language of Vasiľév's Syllogistic. Logic and Logical Philosophy 15 (1):17-37.score: 24.0
    In this paper an algebraic system of the new type is proposed (namely, a vectorial lattice). This algebraic system is a lattice for the language of Aristotle’s syllogistic and as well as a lattice for the language of Vasiľév’s syllogistic. A lattice for the language of Aristotle’s syllogistic is called a vectorial lattice on cap-semilattice and a lattice for the language of Vasiľév’s syllogistic is called a vectorial lattice on closure cap-semilattice. These constructions are introduced for (...)
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  12. R. S. Woodworth & S. B. Sells (1935). An Atmosphere Effect in Formal Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (4):451.score: 21.0
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  13. Jean A. Pezzoli & Lawrence T. Frase (1968). Mediated Facilitation of Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):228.score: 21.0
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  14. T. G. Andrews (1940). The Effect of Benzedrine Sulfate on Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (4):423.score: 21.0
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  15. Ian Begg & J. Peter Denny (1969). Empirical Reconciliation of Atmosphere and Conversion Interpretations of Syllogistic Reasoning Errors. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):351.score: 21.0
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  16. Lawrence T. Frase (1968). Associative Factors in Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p1):407.score: 21.0
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  17. Marek Nasieniewski (2004). A Relational Syllogistic. Logic and Logical Philosophy 13:139-145.score: 21.0
    In [1] J. Perzanowski formulated, among others, an ontology expressed in the relational language. He presented some interesting connections which hold between these relations. In the present paper we focus on further analysis of these relations.
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  18. Miles E. Simpson & Donald M. Johnson (1966). Atmosphere and Conversion Errors in Syllogistic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (2):197.score: 21.0
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  19. Anthony Speca (2001). Hypothetical Syllogistic and Stoic Logic. Brill.score: 20.0
    This book uncovers and examines the confusion in antiquity between Aristotle's hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic logic, and offers a fresh perspective on the ...
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  20. Nikolay Ivanov & Dimiter Vakarelov (2012). A System of Relational Syllogistic Incorporating Full Boolean Reasoning. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):433-459.score: 20.0
    We present a system of relational syllogistic, based on classical propositional logic, having primitives of the following form: $$\begin{array}{ll}\mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are} \,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some} \,b;\\ \mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all} \,b.\end{array}$$ Such primitives formalize sentences from natural language like ‘ All students read some textbooks’. Here a, b denote arbitrary sets (of objects), and R denotes (...)
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  21. O. Bradley Bassler (1998). Leibniz on Intension, Extension, and the Representation of Syllogistic Inference. Synthese 116 (2):117-139.score: 18.0
    New light is shed on Leibniz’s commitment to the metaphysical priority of the intensional interpretation of logic by considering the arithmetical and graphical representations of syllogistic inference that Leibniz studied. Crucial to understanding this connection is the idea that concepts can be intensionally represented in terms of properties of geometric extension, though significantly not the simple geometric property of part-whole inclusion. I go on to provide an explanation for how Leibniz could maintain the metaphysical priority of the intensional interpretation (...)
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  22. Graeme S. Halford (2009). Complexity Provides a Better Explanation Than Probability for Confidence in Syllogistic Inferences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):91-91.score: 18.0
    Bayesian rationality is an important contribution to syllogistic inference, but it has limitations. The claim that confidence in a conclusion is a function of informativeness of the max-premise is anomalous because this is the least probable premise. A more plausible account is that confidence is inversely related to complexity. Bayesian rationality should be supplemented with principles based on cognitive complexity.
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  23. Mauro Nasti De Vincentis (2004). From Aristotle's Syllogistic to Stoic Conditionals: Holzwege or Detectable Paths? Topoi 23 (1):113-137.score: 18.0
    This paper is chiefly aimed at individuating some deep, but as yet almost unnoticed, similarities between Aristotle's syllogistic and the Stoic doctrine of conditionals, notably between Aristotle's metasyllogistic equimodality condition (as stated at APr. I 24, 41b27–31) and truth-conditions for third type (Chrysippean) conditionals (as they can be inferred from, say, S.E. P. II 111 and 189). In fact, as is shown in §1, Aristotle's condition amounts to introducing in his (propositional) metasyllogistic a non-truthfunctional implicational arrow '', the truth-conditions (...)
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  24. Marko Malink (2006). A Reconstruction of Aristotle's Modal Syllogistic. History and Philosophy of Logic 27 (2):95-141.score: 18.0
    Ever since ?ukasiewicz, it has been opinio communis that Aristotle's modal syllogistic is incomprehensible due to its many faults and inconsistencies, and that there is no hope of finding a single consistent formal model for it. The aim of this paper is to disprove these claims by giving such a model. My main points shall be, first, that Aristotle's syllogistic is a pure term logic that does not recognize an extra syntactic category of individual symbols besides syllogistic (...)
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  25. Kevin Flannery (1993). Alexander of Aphrodisias and Others on a Controversial Demonstration in Aristotle's Modal Syllogistic. History and Philosophy of Logic 14 (2):201-214.score: 18.0
    (1993). Alexander of aphrodisias and others on a controversial demonstration in aristotle’s modal syllogistic. History and Philosophy of Logic: Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 201-214.
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  26. Jamie A. Prowse Turner & Valerie A. Thompson (2009). The Role of Training, Alternative Models, and Logical Necessity in Determining Confidence in Syllogistic Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):69 – 100.score: 18.0
    Prior research shows that reasoners' confidence is poorly calibrated (Shynkaruk & Thompson, 2006). The goal of the current experiment was to increase calibration in syllogistic reasoning by training reasoners on (a) the concept of logical necessity and (b) the idea that more than one representation of the premises may be possible. Training improved accuracy and was also effective in remedying some systematic misunderstandings about the task: those in the training condition were better at estimating their overall performance than those (...)
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  27. Koji Mineshima, Mitsuhiro Okada & Ryo Takemura (2012). A Generalized Syllogistic Inference System Based on Inclusion and Exclusion Relations. Studia Logica 100 (4):753-785.score: 18.0
    We introduce a simple inference system based on two primitive relations between terms, namely, inclusion and exclusion relations. We present a normalization theorem, and then provide a characterization of the structure of normal proofs. Based on this, inferences in a syllogistic fragment of natural language are reconstructed within our system. We also show that our system can be embedded into a fragment of propositional minimal logic.
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  28. Enrique Alvarez & Manuel Correia (2012). Syllogistic with Indefinite Terms. History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (4):297-306.score: 18.0
    This paper presents a restructured set of axioms for categorical logic. In virtue of it, the syllogistic with indefinite terms is deduced and proved, within the categorical logic boundaries. As a result, the number of all the conclusive syllogisms is deduced through a simple and axiomatic methodology. Moreover, the distinction between immediate and mediate inferences disappears, which reinstitutes the unity of Aristotelian logic.
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  29. Alison Bacon, Simon Handley & Stephen Newstead (2003). Individual Differences in Strategies for Syllogistic Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 9 (2):133 – 168.score: 18.0
    Current theories of reasoning such as mental models or mental logic assume a universal cognitive mechanism that underlies human reasoning performance. However, there is evidence that this is not the case, for example, the work of Ford (1995), who found that some people adopted predominantly spatial and some verbal strategies in a syllogistic reasoning task. Using written and think-aloud protocols, the present study confirmed the existence of these individual differences. However, in sharp contrast to Ford, the present study found (...)
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  30. Ian Pratt-hartmann & Lawrence S. Moss (2009). Logics for the Relational Syllogistic. Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (4):647-683.score: 18.0
    The Aristotelian syllogistic cannot account for the validity of certain inferences involving relational facts. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for providing a relational syllogistic. We identify several fragments based on (a) whether negation is permitted on all nouns, including those in the subject of a sentence; and (b) whether the subject noun phrase may contain a relative clause. The logics we present are extensions of the classical syllogistic, and we pay special attention to the question (...)
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  31. Linden J. Ball & Edward J. N. Stupple (2008). Belief-Logic Conflict Resolution in Syllogistic Reasoning: Inspection-Time Evidence for a Parallel-Process Model. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):168-181.score: 18.0
    An experiment is reported examining dual-process models of belief bias in syllogistic reasoning using a problem complexity manipulation and an inspection-time method to monitor processing latencies for premises and conclusions. Endorsement rates indicated increased belief bias on complex problems, a finding that runs counter to the “belief-first” selective scrutiny model, but which is consistent with other theories, including “reasoning-first” and “parallel-process” models. Inspection-time data revealed a number of effects that, again, arbitrated against the selective scrutiny model. The most striking (...)
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  32. Hermann Weidemann (2004). Aristotle on the Reducibility of All Valid Syllogistic Moods to the Two Universal Moods of the First Figure (APrA7, 29b1–25). [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of Logic 25 (1):73-78.score: 18.0
    In Prior Analytics A7 Aristotle points out that all valid syllogistic moods of the second and third figures as well as the two particular moods of the first figure can be reduced to the two universal first-figure moods Barbara and Celarent. As far as the third figure is concerned, it is argued that Aristotle does not want to say, as the transmitted text suggests, that only those two valid moods of this figure whose premisses are both universal statements are (...)
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  33. Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter, Syllogistic Reasoning with Intermediate Quantifiers.score: 18.0
    n S are P ”) is proposed for evaluating the rationality of human syllogistic reasoning. Some relations between intermediate quantifiers and probabilistic interpretations are discussed. The paper concludes by the generalization of the atmosphere, matching and conversion hypothesis to syllogisms with intermediate quanti- fiers. Since our experiments are currently still running, most of the paper is theoretical and intended to stimulate psychological studies.
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  34. S. K. Thomason (1997). Relational Models for the Modal Syllogistic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 26 (2):129-141.score: 18.0
    An interpretation of Aristotle's modal syllogistic is proposed which is intuitively graspable, if only formally correst. The individuals to which a term applies, and possibly-applies, are supposed to be determined in a uniform way by the set of individuals to which the term necessarily-applies.
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  35. Adriane A. Rini (1998). Is There a Modal Syllogistic? Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 39 (4):554-572.score: 18.0
    Aristotle's modal syllogistic has been described as "incoherent," "a failure," "a realm of darkness." Even the gentler critics claim that it is inconsistent. I offer an interpretation according to which validity in the modal syllogistic is always obtained by substituting modal terms in the nonmodal syllogistic, and restricting the principles of modal conversion. In this paper I discuss the apodeictic syllogistic, showing that the restrictions I propose are powerful enough to do all the work Aristotle requires (...)
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  36. Edward J. N. Stupple & Linden J. Ball (2008). Belief-Logic Conflict Resolution in Syllogistic Reasoning: Inspection-Time Evidence for a Parallel-Process Model. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):168 – 181.score: 18.0
    An experiment is reported examining dual-process models of belief bias in syllogistic reasoning using a problem complexity manipulation and an inspection-time method to monitor processing latencies for premises and conclusions. Endorsement rates indicated increased belief bias on complex problems, a finding that runs counter to the “belief-first” selective scrutiny model, but which is consistent with other theories, including “reasoning-first” and “parallel-process” models. Inspection-time data revealed a number of effects that, again, arbitrated against the selective scrutiny model. The most striking (...)
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  37. Edward J. N. Stupple, Linden J. Ball & Daniel Ellis (2012). Matching Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning: Evidence for a Dual-Process Account From Response Times and Confidence Ratings. Thinking and Reasoning 19 (1):54 - 77.score: 18.0
    (2013). Matching bias in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a dual-process account from response times and confidence ratings. Thinking & Reasoning: Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 54-77. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2012.735622.
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  38. Hilary J. Leevers & Paul L. Harris (1999). Persisting Effects of Instruction on Young Children's Syllogistic Reasoning with Incongruent and Abstract Premises. Thinking and Reasoning 5 (2):145 – 173.score: 18.0
    Studies of reasoning have often invoked a distinction between a natural or ordinary consideration of the premises, in which they are interpreted, and even distorted, in the light of empirical knowledge, and an analytic or logical consideration of the premises, in which they are analysed in a literal fashion for their logical implications. Two or three years of schooling have been seen as critical for the spontaneous use of analytic reasoning. In two experiments, however, 4-year-olds who were given brief instructions (...)
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  39. Keith Stenning & Peter Yule (1997). Image and Language in Human Reasoning: A Syllogistic Illustration. Philosophical Explorations.score: 18.0
    Existing accounts of syllogistic reasoning oppose rule-based and model-based methods. Stenning \& Oberlander (1995) show that the latter are isomorphic to well-known graphical methods, when these are correctly interpreted. We here extend these results by showing that equivalent sentential implementations exist, thus revealing that all these theories are members of a family of abstract {\it individual identification algorithms} variously implemented in diagrams or sentences. This abstract logical analysis suggests a novel {\it individual identification task} for observing syllogistic reasoning (...)
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  40. Pierre Joray (2014). The Principle of Contradiction and Ecthesis in Aristotle's Syllogistic. History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (3):219-236.score: 18.0
    In his 1910 book On the principle of contradiction in Aristotle, Jan ?ukasiewicz claims that syllogistic is independent of the principle of contradiction (PC). He also argues that Aristotle would have defended such a thesis in the Posterior Analytics. In this paper, we first show that ?ukasiewicz's arguments for these two claims have to be rejected. Then, we show that the thesis of the independence of assertoric syllogistic vis-à-vis PC is nevertheless true. For that purpose, we first establish (...)
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  41. N. E. Wetherick (1989). Psychology and Syllogistic Reasoning. Philosophical Psychology 2 (1):111 – 124.score: 18.0
    A theory of syllogistic reasoning is proposed, derived from the medieval doctrine of 'distribution of terms'. This doctrine may or may not furnish an adequate ground for the logic of the syllogism but does appear to illuminate the psychological processes involved. Syllogistic thinking is shown to have its origins in the approach and avoidance behaviour of pre-verbal organisms and, in verbal (human) organisms, to bridge the gap between the intuitive grasp shown by most of us of the validity (...)
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  42. Norman E. Wetherick (1993). Psychology and Syllogistic Reasoning: Further Considerations. Philosophical Psychology 6 (4):423 – 440.score: 18.0
    Following an earlier paper (Wetherick, 1989), the analysis of syllogistic reasoning via the medieval doctrine of “distribution of terms” is pursued and completed. The doctrine was not originally presented as an explanation of syllogistic reasoning but turns out to furnish one. It is shown that: It is impossible to assert two propositions having a distributed middle term in common without, at the same time, tacitly asserting the valid conclusion, if any. When the middle term is distributed but no (...)
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  43. Philip L. Peterson (1991). Complexly Fractionated Syllogistic Quantifiers. Journal of Philosophical Logic 20 (3):287 - 313.score: 18.0
    Consider syllogisms in which fraction (percentage) quantifiers are permitted in addition to universal and particular quantificrs, and then include further quantifiers which are modifications of such fractions (such as "almost ½ the S are P" and "Much more than ½ the S are P"). Could a syllogistic system containing such additional categorical forms be coherent? Thompson's attempt (1986) to give rules for determining validity of such syllogisms has failed; cf. Carnes & Peterson (forthcoming) for proofs of the unsoundness and (...)
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  44. Ian Pratt-Hartmann (2011). The Hamiltonian Syllogistic. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (4):445-474.score: 18.0
    This paper undertakes a re-examination of Sir William Hamilton’s doctrine of the quantification of the predicate . Hamilton’s doctrine comprises two theses. First, the predicates of traditional syllogistic sentence-forms contain implicit existential quantifiers, so that, for example, All p is q is to be understood as All p is some q . Second, these implicit quantifiers can be meaningfully dualized to yield novel sentence-forms, such as, for example, All p is all q . Hamilton attempted to provide a deductive (...)
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  45. Ian Pratt-Hartmann (2008). On the Computational Complexity of the Numerically Definite Syllogistic and Related Logics. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):1-28.score: 18.0
    The numerically definite syllogistic is the fragment of English obtained by extending the language of the classical syllogism with numerical quantifiers. The numerically definite relational syllogistic is the fragment of English obtained by extending the numerically definite syllogistic with predicates involving transitive verbs. This paper investigates the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem for these fragments. We show that the satisfiability problem (= finite satisfiability problem) for the numerically definite syllogistic is strongly NP-complete, and that the (...)
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  46. Marcin J. Schroeder (2012). Search for Syllogistic Structure of Semantic Information. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 22 (1-2):83-103.score: 18.0
    The study of information based on the approach of Shannon was detached from problems of meaning. Also, it did not allow analysis of the structural characteristics of information, nor describe the way structures carry information. An outline of a different theory of information, including its semantics, was earlier proposed by the author. This theory was using closure spaces to model information. In the present paper, structures (called syllogistics) underlying syllogistic reasoning as well as ethnoscientific classifications are identified together with (...)
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  47. Jan Łukasiewicz (1957/1987). Aristotle's Syllogistic From the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic. Garland Pub..score: 17.0
  48. Michael Clark (1980). The Place of Syllogistic in Logical Theory. Nottingham University Press.score: 17.0
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  49. Lynn E. Rose (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield, Ill.,Thomas.score: 17.0
  50. Otto A. Bird (1964). Syllogistic and its Extensions. Prentice-Hall.score: 17.0
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