Search results for 'Symbol' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Dairon Rodríguez, Jorge Hermosillo & Bruno Lara (2012). Meaning in Artificial Agents: The Symbol Grounding Problem Revisited. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 22 (1):25-34.score: 24.0
    The Chinese room argument has presented a persistent headache in the search for Artificial Intelligence. Since it first appeared in the literature, various interpretations have been made, attempting to understand the problems posed by this thought experiment. Throughout all this time, some researchers in the Artificial Intelligence community have seen Symbol Grounding as proposed by Harnad as a solution to the Chinese room argument. The main thesis in this paper is that although related, these two issues present different problems (...)
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  2. Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi (2008). A Praxical Solution of the Symbol Grounding Problem. Minds and Machines 17 (4):369-389.score: 24.0
    This article is the second step in our research into the Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP). In a previous work, we defined the main condition that must be satisfied by any strategy in order to provide a valid solution to the SGP, namely the zero semantic commitment condition (Z condition). We then showed that all the main strategies proposed so far fail to satisfy the Z condition, although they provide several important lessons to be followed by any new proposal. Here, (...)
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  3. Jochen Dreher (2003). The Symbol and the Theory of the Life-World: “The Transcendences of the Life-World and Their Overcoming by Signs and Symbols”. Human Studies 26 (2):141-163.score: 24.0
    This essay presents a phenomenological analysis of the functioning of symbols as elements of the life-world with the purpose of demonstrating the interrelationship of individual and society. On the basis of Alfred Schutz''s theory of the life-world, signs and symbols are viewed as mechanisms by means of which the individual can overcome the transcendences posed by time, space, the world of the Other, and multiple realities which confront him or her. Accordingly, the individual''s life-world divides itself into the dimensions of (...)
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  4. Vincent C. Müller (2009). Symbol Grounding in Computational Systems: A Paradox of Intentions. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 19 (4):529-541.score: 24.0
    The paper presents a paradoxical feature of computational systems that suggests that computationalism cannot explain symbol grounding. If the mind is a digital computer, as computationalism claims, then it can be computing either over meaningful symbols or over meaningless symbols. If it is computing over meaningful symbols its functioning presupposes the existence of meaningful symbols in the system, i.e. it implies semantic nativism. If the mind is computing over meaningless symbols, no intentional cognitive processes are available prior to (...) grounding. In this case, no symbol grounding could take place since any grounding presupposes intentional cognitive processes. So, whether computing in the mind is over meaningless or over meaningful symbols, computationalism implies semantic nativism. (shrink)
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  5. Stephane Savanah, Mirror Self-Recognition and Symbol-Mindedness. Biology and Philosophy.score: 24.0
    Abstract The view that mirror self-recognition (MSR) is a definitive demonstration of self-awareness is far from universally accepted, and those who do support the view need a more robust argument than the mere assumption that self-recognition implies a self-concept (e.g. Gallup in Socioecology and Psychology of Primates, Mouton, Hague, 1975 ; Gallup and Suarez in Psychological Perspectives on the Self, vol 3, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1986 ). In this paper I offer a new argument in favour of the view that MSR (...)
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  6. David Lumsden (2005). How Can a Symbol System Come Into Being? Dialogue 44 (1):87-96.score: 24.0
    One holistic thesis about symbols is that a symbol cannot exist singly, but only as apart of a symbol system. There is also the plausible view that symbol systems emerge gradually in an individual, in a group, and in a species. The problem is that symbol holism makes it hard to see how a symbol system can emerge gradually, at least if we are considering the emergence of a first symbol system. The only way (...)
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  7. Roy A. Sorensen (1999). Mirror Notation: Symbol Manipulation Without Inscription Manipulation. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (2):141-164.score: 24.0
    Stereotypically, computation involves intrinsic changes to the medium of representation: writing new symbols, erasing old symbols, turning gears, flipping switches, sliding abacus beads. Perspectival computation leaves the original inscriptions untouched. The problem solver obtains the output by merely alters his orientation toward the input. There is no rewriting or copying of the input inscriptions; the output inscriptions are numerically identical to the input inscriptions. This suggests a loophole through some of the computational limits apparently imposed by physics. There can be (...)
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  8. Stevan Harnad (2002). Symbol Grounding and the Origin of Language. In Matthias Scheutz (ed.), Computationalism: New Directions. MIT Press.score: 22.0
    What language allows us to do is to "steal" categories quickly and effortlessly through hearsay instead of having to earn them the hard way, through risky and time-consuming sensorimotor "toil" (trial-and-error learning, guided by corrective feedback from the consequences of miscategorisation). To make such linguistic "theft" possible, however, some, at least, of the denoting symbols of language must first be grounded in categories that have been earned through sensorimotor toil (or else in categories that have already been "prepared" for us (...)
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  9. Ron Sun (2000). Symbol Grounding: A New Look at an Old Idea. Philosophical Psychology 13 (2):149-172.score: 22.0
    Symbols should be grounded, as has been argued before. But we insist that they should be grounded not only in subsymbolic activities, but also in the interaction between the agent and the world. The point is that concepts are not formed in isolation (from the world), in abstraction, or "objectively." They are formed in relation to the experience of agents, through their perceptual/motor apparatuses, in their world and linked to their goals and actions. This paper takes a detailed look at (...)
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  10. Max M. Louwerse (2011). Symbol Interdependency in Symbolic and Embodied Cognition. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):273-302.score: 22.0
    Whether computational algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA) can both extract meaning from language and advance theories of human cognition has become a topic of debate in cognitive science, whereby accounts of symbolic cognition and embodied cognition are often contrasted. Albeit for different reasons, in both accounts the importance of statistical regularities in linguistic surface structure tends to be underestimated. The current article gives an overview of the symbolic and embodied cognition accounts and shows how meaning induction attributed to (...)
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  11. Tanya de Villiers-Botha (2007). Why Peirce Matters: The Symbol in Deacon's Symbolic Species. Language Sciences 29 (1):88-108.score: 22.0
    In "Why brains matter: an integrational perspective on The Symbolic Species" Cowley (2002) [Language Sciences 24, 73-95] suggests that Deacon pictures brains as being able to process words qua tokens, which he identifies as the theory's Achilles' heel. He goes on to argue that Deacon's thesis on the co-evolution of language and mind would benefit from an integrational approach. This paper argues that Cowley's criticism relies on an invalid understanding of Deacon's use the concept of "symbolic reference", which he appropriates (...)
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  12. Warren H. Teichner & Ernest Sadler (1962). Effects of Exposure Time and Density on Visual Symbol Identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (4):376.score: 21.0
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  13. John D. Gould & David R. Peeples (1970). Eye Movements During Visual Search and Discrimination of Meaningless, Symbol, and Object Patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (1):51.score: 21.0
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  14. Fred L. Royer (1971). Information Processing of Visual Figures in the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (3):335-342.score: 21.0
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  15. Warren H. Teichner, Raymond Reilly & Ernest Sadler (1961). Effects of Density on Identification and Discrimination in Visual Symbol Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (6):494.score: 21.0
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  16. Istvan S. Berkeley (2008). What the <0.70, 1.17, 0.99, 1.07> is a Symbol? Minds and Machines 18 (1):93-105.score: 20.0
    The notion of a ‘symbol’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue that give (...)
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  17. Limor Gertner, Isabel Arend & Avishai Henik (2013). Numerical Synesthesia is More Than Just a Symbol-Induced Phenomenon. Frontiers in Psychology 4:860.score: 20.0
    Numerical synesthesia is more than just a symbol-induced phenomenon.
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  18. Charles E. Hughes (1976). A Reduction Class Containing Formulas with One Monadic Predicate and One Binary Function Symbol. Journal of Symbolic Logic 41 (1):45-49.score: 19.0
    A new reduction class is presented for the satisfiability problem for well-formed formulas of the first-order predicate calculus. The members of this class are closed prenex formulas of the form ∀ x∀ yC. The matrix C is in conjunctive normal form and has no disjuncts with more than three literals, in fact all but one conjunct is unary. Furthermore C contains but one predicate symbol, that being unary, and one function symbol which symbol is binary.
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  19. Stevan Harnad (1990). The Symbol Grounding Problem. Philosophical Explorations 42:335-346.score: 18.0
    There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive modeling. This paper describes the symbol grounding problem: How can the semantic interpretation of a formal symbol system be made intrinsic to the system, rather than just parasitic on the meanings in our heads? How can the meanings of the meaningless symbol tokens, manipulated solely on the basis of their (arbitrary) (...)
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  20. Stevan Harnad, Symbol Grounding is an Empirical Problem: Neural Nets Are Just a Candidate Component.score: 18.0
    "Symbol Grounding" is beginning to mean too many things to too many people. My own construal has always been simple: Cognition cannot be just computation, because computation is just the systematically interpretable manipulation of meaningless symbols, whereas the meanings of my thoughts don't depend on their interpretability or interpretation by someone else. On pain of infinite regress, then, symbol meanings must be grounded in something other than just their interpretability if they are to be candidates for what is (...)
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  21. Carl Schmitt (1996/2008). The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes: Meaning and Failure of a Political Symbol. University of Chicago Press.score: 18.0
    One of the most significant political philosophers of the twentieth century, Carl Schmitt is a deeply controversial figure who has been labeled both Nazi sympathizer and modern-day Thomas Hobbes. First published in 1938, The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes used the Enlightenment philosopher’s enduring symbol of the protective Leviathan to address the nature of modern statehood. A work that predicted the demise of the Third Reich and that still holds relevance in today’s security-obsessed society, this volume (...)
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  22. Istvan S. N. Berkeley (2008). What the is a Symbol? Minds and Machines 18 (1).score: 18.0
    The notion of a ‘symbol’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue (...)
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  23. Andy Clark, The Presence of a Symbol.score: 18.0
    The image of the presence of symbols in an inner code pervades recent debates in cognitive science. Classicists worship in the presence. Connectionists revel in the absence. However, the very ideas of code and symbol are ill understood. A major distorting factor in the debates concerns the role of processing in determining the presence or absence of a stuctured inner code. Drawing on work by David Kirsh and David Chambers , the present paper attempts to re-define such notions to (...)
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  24. Stevan Harnad (1994). Computation is Just Interpretable Symbol Manipulation; Cognition Isn't. Minds and Machines 4 (4):379-90.score: 18.0
    Computation is interpretable symbol manipulation. Symbols are objects that are manipulated on the basis of rules operating only on theirshapes, which are arbitrary in relation to what they can be interpreted as meaning. Even if one accepts the Church/Turing Thesis that computation is unique, universal and very near omnipotent, not everything is a computer, because not everything can be given a systematic interpretation; and certainly everything can''t be givenevery systematic interpretation. But even after computers and computation have been successfully (...)
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  25. Stevan Harnad (1992). Connecting Object to Symbol in Modeling Cognition. In A. Clark & Ronald Lutz (eds.), Connectionism in Context. Springer-Verlag. 75--90.score: 18.0
    Connectionism and computationalism are currently vying for hegemony in cognitive modeling. At first glance the opposition seems incoherent, because connectionism is itself computational, but the form of computationalism that has been the prime candidate for encoding the "language of thought" has been symbolic computationalism (Dietrich 1990, Fodor 1975, Harnad 1990c; Newell 1980; Pylyshyn 1984), whereas connectionism is nonsymbolic (Fodor & Pylyshyn 1988, or, as some have hopefully dubbed it, "subsymbolic" Smolensky 1988). This paper will examine what is and is not (...)
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  26. W. Martin Davies (2004). Amodal or Perceptual Symbol Systems: A False Dichotomy? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):162-163.score: 18.0
    Although Barsalou is right in identifying the importance of perceptual symbols as a means of carrying certain kinds of content, he is wrong in playing down the inferential resources available to amodal symbols. I argue that the case for perceptual symbol systems amounts to a false dichotomy and that it is feasible to help oneself to both kinds of content as extreme ends on a content continuum. The continuum thesis I advance argues for the inferential content at one end (...)
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  27. Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi, Solving the Symbol Grounding Problem: A Critical Review of Fifteen Years of Research.score: 18.0
    This article reviews eight proposed strategies for solving the Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP), which was given its classic formulation in Harnad (1990). After a concise introduction, we provide an analysis of the requirement that must be satisfied by any hypothesis seeking to solve the SGP, the zero semantical commitment condition. We then use it to assess the eight strategies, which are organised into three main approaches: representationalism, semi-representationalism and non-representationalism. The conclusion is that all the strategies are semantically committed (...)
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  28. Angelo Cangelosi, Alberto Greco & Stevan Harnad (2002). Symbol Grounding and the Symbolic Theft Hypothesis. In A. Cangelosi & D. Parisi (eds.), Simulating the Evolution of Language. Springer-Verlag. 191--210.score: 18.0
    Scholars studying the origins and evolution of language are also interested in the general issue of the evolution of cognition. Language is not an isolated capability of the individual, but has intrinsic relationships with many other behavioral, cognitive, and social abilities. By understanding the mechanisms underlying the evolution of linguistic abilities, it is possible to understand the evolution of cognitive abilities. Cognitivism, one of the current approaches in psychology and cognitive science, proposes that symbol systems capture mental phenomena, and (...)
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  29. Bipin Indurkhya (1999). Creativity of Metaphor in Perceptual Symbol Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):621-622.score: 18.0
    A metaphor can often create novel features in an object or a situation. This phenomenon has been particularly hard to account for using amodal symbol systems: although highlighting and downplaying can explain the shift of focus, it cannot explain how entirely new features can come about. We suggest here that the dynamism of perceptual symbol systems, particularly the notion of simulator, provides an elegant account of the creativity of metaphor. The elegance lies in the idea that the creation (...)
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  30. Evan Thompson (1997). Symbol Grounding: A Bridge From Artificial Life to Artificial Intelligence. Brain and Cognition 34 (1):48-71.score: 18.0
    This paper develops a bridge from AL issues about the symbol–matter relation to AI issues about symbol-grounding by focusing on the concepts of formality and syntactic interpretability. Using the DNA triplet-amino acid specification relation as a paradigm, it is argued that syntactic properties can be grounded as high-level features of the non-syntactic interactions in a physical dynamical system. This argu- ment provides the basis for a rebuttal of John Searle’s recent assertion that syntax is observer-relative (1990, 1992). But (...)
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  31. Peter beim Graben (2004). Incompatible Implementations of Physical Symbol Systems. Mind and Matter 2 (2):29-51.score: 18.0
    Classical cognitive science assumes that intelligently behaving systems must be symbol processors that are implemented in physical systems such as brains or digital computers. By contrast, connectionists suppose that symbol manipulating systems could be approximations of neural networks dynamics. Both classicists and connectionists argue that symbolic computation and subsymbolic dynamics are incompatible, though on different grounds. While classicists say that connectionist architectures and symbol processors are either incompatible or the former are mere implementations of the latter, connectionists (...)
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  32. William G. Craven (1981). Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola: Symbol of His Age: Modern Interpretations of a Renaissance Philosopher. Librairie Droz.score: 18.0
    He has become the representative or symbol of the times in which he lived. ... 195; E. Monnerjahn, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, (Wiesbaden, 1960), p. ...
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  33. Dedre Gentner (2010). Bootstrapping the Mind: Analogical Processes and Symbol Systems. Cognitive Science 34 (5):752-775.score: 18.0
    Human cognition is striking in its brilliance and its adaptability. How do we get that way? How do we move from the nearly helpless state of infants to the cognitive proficiency that characterizes adults? In this paper I argue, first, that analogical ability is the key factor in our prodigious capacity, and, second, that possession of a symbol system is crucial to the full expression of analogical ability.
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  34. Berthold Hub (2010). Perspektive, Symbol und symbolische Form. Zum Verhältnis Cassirer – Panofsky. Estetika 47 (2):144-171.score: 18.0
    Perspective, Symbol, and Symbolic Form: Concerning the Relationship between Cassirer and Panofsky During the last two decades of the twentieth century, there was a sudden surge of interest in Ernst Cassirer’s major work, The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (1923–29), and Erwin Panofsky’s essay, ‘Perspective as Symbolic Form’ (1927), an interest that has continued uninterrupted to the present day. Particularly amongst art historians, however, a serious misunderstanding remains evident here – the confusing of ‘symbolic form’ with ‘symbol’. Cultural and (...)
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  35. Samuel Alexander (2013). This Sentence Does Not Contain the Symbol X. The Reasoner 7 (9):108.score: 18.0
    A suprise may occur if we use a similar strategy to the Liar's paradox to mathematically formalize "This sentence does not contain the symbol X".
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  36. Louis C. Charland (1999). Perceptual Symbol Systems and Emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):612-613.score: 18.0
    In his target article, Barsalou cites current work on emotion theory but does not explore its relevance for this project. The connection is worth pursuing, since there is a plausible case to be made that emotions form a distinct symbolic information processing system of their own. On some views, that system is argued to be perceptual: a direct connection with Barsalou's perceptual symbol systems theory. Also relevant is the hypothesis that there may be different modular subsystems within emotion and (...)
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  37. Alberto Díaz Araya, Luis Galdames Rosas & Wilson Muñoz Henríquez (2012). In the Andes Patron Saints: Image, symbol and ritual in the religious festivals of the andean World Colonial (XVI - XVII). Alpha (Osorno) 35 (35):23-39.score: 18.0
    La celebración de fiestas en honor a los santos patronos de las comunidades andinas es una de las manifestaciones de religiosidad más extendidas desde Colonia. Másallá de entenderla como una manifestación en continuidad directa con las prácticas cúlticas del Tawantinsuyo o la ritualidad católica española, consideramos que esta festividad es un fenómeno emergente que debe ser analizado en su especificidad. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la figura del santo y su eficacia simbólico-ritual en la fiesta patronal andina desarrollada (...)
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  38. Angelo Loula, Ricardo Gudwin, Charbel El-Hani & João Queiroz, The Emergence of Symbol-Based Communication in a Complex System of Artificial Creatures.score: 18.0
    We present here a digital scenario to simulate the emergence of self-organized symbol-based communication among artificial creatures inhabiting a virtual world of predatory events. In order to design the environment and creatures, we seek theoretical and empirical constraints from C.S.Peirce Semiotics and an ethological case study of communication among animals. Our results show that the creatures, assuming the role of sign users and learners, behave collectively as a complex system, where self-organization of communicative interactions plays a major role in (...)
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  39. Karl F. MacDorman (1998). Feature Learning, Multiresolution Analysis, and Symbol Grounding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):32-33.score: 18.0
    Cognitive theories based on a fixed feature set suffer from frame and symbol grounding problems. Flexible features and other empirically acquired constraints (e.g., analog-to-analog mappings) provide a framework for letting extrinsic relations influence symbol manipulation. By offering a biologically plausible basis for feature learning, nonorthogonal multiresolution analysis and dimensionality reduction, informed by functional constraints, may contribute to a solution to the symbol grounding problem.
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  40. David M. Rasmussen (1974). Symbol and Interpretation. Martinus Nijhoff.score: 18.0
    INTRODUCTION For the past four or five years much of my thinking has centered upon the relationship of symbolic forms to philosophic imagination and ...
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  41. Mark R. Gundry (2006). Beyond Psyche: Symbol and Transcendence in C.G. Jung. Peter Lang.score: 18.0
    Introduction -- Undermining the hermeneutics of suspicion -- The historical emergence of psychological man -- The "religious" therapeutics -- Rieff on Jung's "language of faith" -- Rieff and the hermeneutics of suspicion -- An alternative hermeneutic -- Applying this hermeneutic to depth psychology -- Concluding remarks -- The historical sources of Jung's psychology -- The young metaphysician -- Tempering metaphysical inclinations with a pragmatic standpoint -- The resurgence of metaphysics in Jung's psychology -- Jung's subjectivist argument -- The influence of (...)
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  42. Jacques Janssen & Theo Verheggen (1997). The Double Center of Gravity in Durkheim's Symbol Theory: Bringing the Symbolism of the Body Back In. Sociological Theory 15 (3):294-306.score: 18.0
    By studying Durkheim through a Schopenhauerian lens, the one-sidedly cognitivist and functionalist reception of his social theory can be balanced. Durkheim explicitly rejected such monistic interpretations. His dialectical approach was always aimed at an essentially dualistic perception of man and society, wherein the lower pole, the individual, is central. In Durkheim's symbol theory, this position leads to two kinds of symbols: those that are bound to the human body, here called "this and that" symbols, and those people can choose (...)
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  43. Stevan Harnad & Stephen J. Hanson, Learned Categorical Perception in Neural Nets: Implications for Symbol Grounding.score: 18.0
    After people learn to sort objects into categories they see them differently. Members of the same category look more alike and members of different categories look more different. This phenomenon of within-category compression and between-category separation in similarity space is called categorical perception (CP). It is exhibited by human subjects, animals and neural net models. In backpropagation nets trained first to auto-associate 12 stimuli varying along a onedimensional continuum and then to sort them into 3 categories, CP arises as a (...)
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  44. K. Vaux (1999). Law and Lamb: AKEDAH and the Search for a Deep Religious Symbol for an Ecumenical Bioethics. Christian Bioethics 5 (3):213-219.score: 18.0
    This essay looks at the concept of AKEDAH, the essence of which is the travail of the human condition and the trust in vindication and victory, as a salient and deep metaphor for bioethics. The author first delineates the symbol, then shows its theological and ethical significance, and finally suggests its bioethical applications. The LORD said, “Go get Isaac, your only son, the one you dearly love! Take him to the land of Moriah, and I will show you a (...)
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  45. Christine Magerski (2012). Arnold Gehlen Modern Art as Symbol of Modern Society. Thesis Eleven 111 (1):81-96.score: 18.0
    Arnold Gehlen is one of the most controversial figures of German intellectual history. Gehlen’s commitment to National Socialism (a commitment he never disavowed) is mostly seen in close connection with his theoretical focus on institutions. According to Gehlen, what mankind requires above all is order and thus the protection of institutions. And yet, by reducing Gehlen’s sociology to the necessity of order one misses the analytical scope of his writings. As this article aims to show, the strength of Gehlen’s sociology (...)
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  46. Din Aslamazishvili (2008). Structure of Symbol Within Cultural Transitions. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 12:3-7.score: 18.0
    Among such social-philosophic notions as society, culture, civilization, system, human, sense, sign, truth and others, concept “symbol” takes a special place. Most of the researchers meet the view, that symbol possesses an important place in the development of culture as a social phenomenon. The role of symbol in cultures birth and development is characterized by antipathy and polysemy. However revelation of the symbol role in spiritual processes of cultural transitions is beyond question one of the urgent (...)
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  47. Andrew Wells (1996). Situated Action, Symbol Systems and Universal Computation. Minds and Machines 6 (1):33-46.score: 18.0
    Vera & Simon (1993a) have argued that the theories and methods known as situated action or situativity theory are compatible with the assumptions and methodology of the physical symbol systems hypothesis and do not require a new approach to the study of cognition. When the central criterion of computational universality is added to the loose definition of a symbol system which Vera and Simon provide, it becomes apparent that there are important incompatibilities between the two approaches such that (...)
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  48. Gary Lupyan (2008). Taking Symbols for Granted? Is the Discontinuity Between Human and Nonhuman Minds the Product of External Symbol Systems? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):140-141.score: 18.0
    The target article provides a convincing argument that nonhuman animals cannot process role-governed rules, relational schemas, and so on, in a human-like fashion. However, actual human performance is often more similar to that of nonhuman animals than Penn et al. admit. The kind of rule-governed performance the authors take for granted may rely to a substantial degree on language on external symbol systems such as those provided by language and culture.
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  49. Ruediger Oehlmann (1999). Can Metacognition Be Explained in Terms of Perceptual Symbol Systems? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):629-630.score: 18.0
    Barsalou's theory of perceptual symbol systems is considered from a metacognitive perspective. Two examples are discussed in terms of the proposed perceptual symbol theory. First, recent results in research on feeling-of-knowing judgement are used to argue for a representation of familiarity with input cues. This representation should support implicit memory. Second, the ability of maintaining a theory of other people's beliefs (theory of mind) is considered and it is suggested that a purely simulation-based view is insufficient to explain (...)
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  50. Anne O.’Byrne (2004). Symbol, Exchange and Birth: Towards a Theory of Labour and Relation. Philosophy and Social Criticism 30 (3):355-373.score: 18.0
    In this article I use Baudrillard’s claim that systems of exchange are ontologically and historically prior to systems of production, and Arendt’s understanding of birth as the arrival of something both quite familiar and quite new into the world as the starting-points for a theory of labour as relation. Such a theory has the virtue of avoiding the problem, found in Marx, Arendt and elsewhere, that labour is both a vital feature of being human and yet a drudgery that will (...)
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