69 found
Sort by:
Disambiguations:
Tomis Kapitan [65]T. Kapitan [3]Thomas Kapitan [1]
See also:
Profile: Tomis Kapitan (Northern Illinois University)
  1. Tomis Kapitan, Europe's Responsibility.
    My topic today is Europe’s responsibility for the creation and resolution the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, one of the most bitter and explosive political struggles in the world today. In the past 60 years, it has consumed thousands of lives, billions of dollars, and endless hours of debate. It is not localized; it is at the heart of on-going tensions between the West and the Islamic world, and it is directly related to the current American aggression in southern Asia. The fate of (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Tomis Kapitan, Terrorism.
    Terrorism, as a form of politically motivated violence, is as ancient as organized warfare itself, emerging as soon as one society, pitted against another in the quest for land, resources, or domination, was moved by a desire for vengeance or found advantages in military operations against noncombatants or other ‘soft’ targets. It is sanctioned and glorified in holy scriptures and has been part of the genesis of states and the expansion of empires from the inception of recorded history. The United (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Tomis Kapitan, The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Its History, and Some Philosophical Questions It Raises.
    Preface The conflict between Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs has endured for a century. It centers on control of territory and, as common in such disputes, is characterized by conquest, destruction, and revenge, with all the animosity and sorrow that these actions bring. Because the land in question is terra sancta to three major religions, the conflict evokes powerful passions involving identity, honor, and the propriety of cultural claims. That its disputants employ sophisticated arguments and armaments, that they are willing (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Tomis Kapitan, Terrorism in the Arab-Israeli Conflict.
    Terrorism is politically motivated violence directed against noncombatants. It is no doubt as ancient as organized warfare itself, emerging as soon as one society, pitted against another in the quest for land, resources, and dominance, was moved by a desire for vengeance, or, found advantages in operations against ‘soft’ targets. While terrorist violence has been present in the conflict between Jews and Arabs over Palestine for over eighty years, the prevalence of the rhetoric of ‘terror’ to describe Arab violence against (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Tomis Kapitan, A Brief Dialogue on the Desirability of Immortality.
    Adrian. In the Apology, Socrates said that since death involves one of two alternatives, either nonexistence or transition to a better place, then it is not to be feared. Now I think he was absolutely wrong about this for the simple reason that non-existence is a frightful alternative. For those of us who love life, who want to continue living—and admittedly, that's most people in the world—the prospect of ceasing to exist is a cause of legitimate fear.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Tomis Kapitan, Can Terrorism Be Justified?
    My concern today is with the last of these questions. But, it is virtually impossible to say anything intelligent about this matter unless some effort is made to delineate the phenomenon under scrutiny. So I will begin by addressing the first question, and this requires that something be said about the semantics and pragmatics of the terms, ‘terrorism’ and ‘terrorist’.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Tomis Kapitan, On Depicting Indexical Reference.
    According to Hector-Neri Castañeda, indexical reference is our most basic means of identifying the objects and events we experience and think about. Its tokens reveal our own part in the process by denoting what are "referred to as items present in experience" (Castañeda 1981, 285-6). If you hear me say, "Take that box over there and set it next to this box here," you learn something about my orientation towards the referents in a way that is not conveyed by, "Take (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Tomis Kapitan, Reason and Flexibility in Islam.
    The role of reason, and its embodiment in philosophical-scientific theorizing, is always a troubling one for religious traditions. The deep emotional needs that religion strives to satisfy seem ever linked to an attitudes of acceptance, belief, or trust, yet, in its theoretical employment, reason functions as a critic as much as it does a creator, and in the special fields of metaphysics and epistemology its critical arrows are sometimes aimed at long-standing cherished beliefs. Understandably, the mere approach to these beliefs (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Tomis Kapitan, Reality and Rhetoric in the War on Terror.
    Let me begin with definition. Many observers have pointed out that despite the fact that for over three decades, “terrorism” has been deemed a threat to the civilized world, to democratic values, or to “our way of life,” and despite the fact that our country is now engaged in a “war on terror,” there is no universally agreed upon definition of terrorism—not even the various agencies within the U.S. Government are agreed—and, hence, there is no clarity about what we are (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Tomis Kapitan, Self-Determination.
    Disputes over territory are among the most contentious in human affairs. Throughout the world, societies view control over land and resources as necessary to ensure their survival and to further their particular life-style, and the very passion with which claims over a region are asserted and defended suggests that difficult normative issues lurk nearby. Questions about rights to territory vary. It is one thing to ask who owns a particular parcel of land, another who has the right to reside within (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Tomis Kapitan, Self-Consciousness and Freedom.
    As practical beings, we act with a sense of freedom, or, to use Kant’s memorable phrase, “unter der Idee der Freiheit.” This attitude is present whenever we are deciding what to do, and it is most clearly revealed when we reflect on what we take for granted while deliberating. Consider a young man, Imad, who lives under an oppressive military occupation and deliberates about whether to join the resistance, leave the country, or continue quietly in his studies hoping that the (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Tomis Kapitan, Sabra and Shatilla Massacre.
    After the 1970 civil war in Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) moved its operations to Lebanon, recruiting fighters from Palestinian refugee camps. Its presence altered the balance of power among Lebanon's sects, and in 1975 the PLO was drawn into a civil war with its Lebanese allies against the Maronite community whose military strength was centered in the Phalangist militia. PLO advances against the Phalangists led to Syrian intervention in 1976 to restore the status quo.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Tomis Kapitan, Terror.
    Any intelligent discussion of terrorism must demarcate its subject matter, for the term ‘terrorism’ is differently understood and where there is no accord on its meaning there is little chance for agreement on its application or normative status. The best course is to sketch a morally neutral definition that classifies as ‘terrorist’ as many widely-agreed upon cases as possible. Definitions that explicitly render terrorism illegitimate make classification contentious, and it is more informative to base moral assessment on an examination of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Tomis Kapitan, Time, Necessity, and Ability.
    I will discuss the so-called “Master Argument” attributed to Diodorus Cronos in the light of some contemporary speculations on indexicals. In one version, this argument goes as follows: Premise 1. The past, relative to any time t, is necessary. Premise 2. The impossible cannot follow from the possible. Therefore.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Tomis Kapitan, The Ontological Significance of Variables.
    The use of single letters in displaying patterns, functions, generalizations, and unknowns, dominates mathematical expression, and for that reason, appears in every domain of theoretical and technical discourse employing even the slightest bit of mathematical language. These variables, as they have come to be called, are the very mark of abstract power and precision, ingenious tools for expressing functionality and valid formulae and, thereby, for providing solutions to types of problems as well as facilitating the calculation of unknowns. Compare, for (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Tomis Kapitan (2012). Agency and First-Person Reference. Critica 44 (131):83-101.
    En la parte I de Self-Knowing Agents, Lucy O�Brien expone una teoría de la referencia de primera persona. En lo que sigue describo su teoría y luego planteo dudas en torno a sus logros. Como no estoy seguro de haberla entendido correctamente, tal vez esté yo erigiendo y atacando un muñeco de paja; en todo caso, lo único que espero es que lo que se dice aquí sobre la primera persona sea de interés por sí mismo.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. T. Kapitan (2011). Free Will as an Open Scientific Problem, by Mark Balaguer. Mind 120 (479):848-852.
  18. Tomis Kapitan (2010). I. The Project of Demarcating “Religion”. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 2:80.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Tomis Kapitan (2009). Evaluating Religion. In Jonathan L. Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion: Volume 2. Oup Oxford.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Tomis Kapitan (2007). Sohail H. Hashmi and Stephen Lee: Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Faith and Philosophy 24 (1):109-112.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Tomis Kapitan (2007). The Phenomenology of Freedom. Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (3/4):189.
    John Searle describes our sense of freedom as an experience of a “gap” between an intentional action and its psychological antecedents, specifically, our reasons.. Since the gap is itself understood as a lack of causation, then no agent can accept the antecedent determination of voluntary action except at the price of “practical inconsistency.” I argue that despite Searle’s insightful discussion, the sense of freedom is not an experience of a gap as he describes it but, instead, is a higher-order attitude (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Tomis Kapitan (2006). Indexicality and Self-Awareness. In Uriah Kriegel & Kenneth Williford (eds.), Self-Representational Approaches to Consciousness. MIT Press. 379--408.
    Self-awareness is commonly expressed by means of indexical expressions, primarily, first- person pronouns like.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Tomis Kapitan (2006). Self-Determination and International Order. The Monist 89 (2):356 - 370.
    Towards the end of the first world war, a “principle of self-determination” was proposed as a foundation for international order. In the words of its chief advocate, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, it specified that the “settlement of every question, whether of territory, of sovereignty, of economic arrangement, or of political relationship” is to be made “upon the basis of the free acceptance of that settlement by the people immediately concerned and not upon the basis of the material interest or advantage (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Tomis Kapitan (2005). I Terrorism & Counter-Terrorism/Semantics. In Georg Meggle (ed.), Ethics of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism. Ontos. 3--9.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Tomis Kapitan (2003). The Terrorism of 'Terrorism'. In James Sterba (ed.), Terrorism and International Justice. Oxford University Press. 47--66.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. T. Kapitan (2002). Oratio Obliqua, Oratio Recta: An Essay on Metarepresentation. Philosophical Review 111 (3):459-462.
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Tomis Kapitan (2002). A Master Argument for Incompatibilism? In Robert H. Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. Oxford University Press. 127--157.
    The past 25 years have witnessed a vigorous discussion of an argument directed against the compatibilist approach to free will and responsibility. This reasoning, variously called the “consequence argument,” the “incompatibility argument,” and the “unavoidability argument,” may be expressed informally as follows: If determinism is true then whatever happens is a consequence of past events and laws over which we have no control and which we are unable to prevent. But whatever is a consequence of what’s beyond our control is (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Tomis Kapitan (2001). Indexical Identification: A Perspectival Account. Philosophical Psychology 14 (3):293 – 312.
    It is widely agreed that the references of indexical expressions are fixed partly by their relations to contextual parameters such as the author, time, and place of the utterance. Because of this, indexicals are sometimes described as token-reflexive or utterance-reflexive in their semantics. But when we inquire into how indexicals help us to identify items within experience, we find that while utterance-reflexivity is essential to an interpretation of indexical tokens, it is not a factor in a speaker's identificatory use of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Tomis Kapitan (2000). Autonomy and Manipulated Freedom. Philosopical Perspectives 14 (s14):81-104.
    In recent years, compatibilism has been the target of two powerful challenges. According to the consequence argument, if everything we do and think is a consequence of factors beyond our control (past events and the laws of nature), and the consequences of what is beyond our control are themselves beyond our control, then no one has control over what they do or think and no one is responsible for anything. Hence, determinism rules out responsibility. A different challenge--here called the manipulation (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. H. N. Castaneda, J. G. Hart & T. Kapitan (1999). The Phenomeno-Logic of the I: Essays on Self-Consciousness. Indiana University Press.
    This unique volume will appeal to those interested in the philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence as well as students of Castaneda and Latin American philosophy.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. James G. Hart & Tomis Kapitan (eds.) (1999). The Phenomeno-Logic of the I: Essays on Self-Consciousness. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Thomas Kapitan (1999). Free Will Problem. In Robert Audi (ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Tomis Kapitan (1999). Quasi-Indexical Attitudes. Sorites 11:24-40.
    Indexicals are inevitably autobiographical, even when we are not talking about ourselves. For example, if you hear me say, "That portrait right there is beautiful," you can surmise not only that I ascribe beauty to an object of my immediate awareness but also something about my spatial relation to it. Again, if I praise you directly within earshot of others by using the words, "You did that very well!," my concern need not be to cause them to think the exact (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Tomis Kapitan (1999). The Ubiquity of Self-Awareness. Grazer Philosophische Studien 57:17-43.
    Two claims have been prominent in recent discussion of self-consciousness. One is that first-person reference or first-person thinking is irreducible {Irreducibility Thesis), and the other is that awareness of self accompanies at least all those conscious states through which one refers to something. The latter {Ubiquity Thesis) has long been associated with philosophers like Fichte, Brentano and Sartre, but recently variants have been defended by D. Henrich and M. Frank. Facing criticism from three arguments which nevertheless cannot decisively refute the (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Tomis Kapitan (1998). Vision, Vector, Veracity. In Christian Strub (ed.), Blick Und Bild. Wilhelm Fink Verlag.
    To experience is to undergo a process, to be in a state of receiving input which affords information about our environment. For highly developed beings like ourselves, the inputs determining states of conscious sensory perception are among the most important for our survival. At first glance, these states seem relational, each being a situation wherein a percipient X is passively conscious of something Y--its object, subject-matter, or content--without any apparent effort. Of course, the briefest reflection convinces us that despite a (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Tomis Kapitan (1997). Acting and the Open Future: A Brief Rejoinder to David Hunt. Religious Studies 33 (3):287-292.
    I have argued that since (i) intentional agency requires intention-acquisition, (ii) intentionacquisition implies a sense of an open future, and (iii) a sense of an open future is incompatible with complete foreknowledge, then (iv) no agent can be omniscient. Alternatively, an omniscient being is omniimpotent.i David Hunt continues to oppose this reasoning, most recently, in Religious Studies 32 (March 1996). It is increasingly clear that the debate turns on larger issues concerning necessity and knowledge, but let me here offer a (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Tomis Kapitan (1997). Liberation From Self. International Philosophical Quarterly 37 (3):370-372.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Tomis Kapitan (1996). Direct Reference. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56 (4):953-956.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Tomis Kapitan (1996). Incompatibilism and Ambiguity in the Practical Modalities. Analysis 56 (2):102-110.
  40. Tomis Kapitan (1996). Modal Principles in the Metaphysics of Free Will. Philosophical Perspectives 10:419-45.
    Discussions of free will have frequently centered on principles concerning ability, control, unavoidability and other practical modalities. Some assert the closure of the latter over various propositional operations and relations, for example, that the consequences of what is beyond one's control are themselves beyond one's control.1 This principle has been featured in the unavoidability argument for incompatibilism: if everything we do is determined by factors which are not under our control, then, by the principle, we are unable to act and (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Tomis Kapitan (1995). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Mind 104 (414):426-430.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Tomis Kapitan (1995). Intentions and Self-Referential Content. Philosophical Papers 24 (3):151-166.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Tomis Kapitan (1994). Exports and Imports: Anaphora in Attitudinal Ascriptions. Philosophical Perspectives 8:273-292.
  44. Tomis Kapitan (1994). The Incompatibility of Omniscience and Intentional Action: A Reply to David P. Hunt. Religious Studies 30 (1):55 - 66.
    In "Omniprescient Agency" (Religious Studies 28, 1992) David P. Hunt challenges an argument against the possibility of an omniscient agent. The argument—my own in "Agency and Omniscience" (Religious Studies 27, 1991)—assumes that an agent is a being capable of intentional action, where, minimally, an action is intentional only if it is caused, in part, by the agent's intending. The latter, I claimed, is governed by a psychological principle of "least effort," viz., that no one intends without antecedently feeling that (i) (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Tomis Kapitan (1993). Keeping a Happy Face on Exportation. Philosophical Studies 70 (3):337 - 345.
    A familiar means of enhancing the descriptive power of attitudinal reports is the distinction between de re and de dicto readings of ascriptions or, alternatively, between internal and external occurrences of terms and phrases used in ascribing attitudes.i While there is little agreement about the philosophical significance or viability of these contrasts, supporters of cognitive theories of content -- those which take the that-clause of an ascription to express something to which the subject bears a psychological relation, viz., what he (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Tomis Kapitan (1993). ``Providence, Foreknowedge, and Decision Procedure&Quot. Faith and Philosophy 10 (3):415-420.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Tomis Kapitan (1992). I and You, He and She. Analysis 52 (2):125 - 128.
    In 'You and She*' (ANALYSIS 51.3, June 1991) C.J.F. Williams notes the importance of reflexive pronouns in attributions of propositional attitudes, and claims to improve upon an earlier account of Hector-Neri Castaneda's in [1]. However, to the extent which his remarks are accurate, they reveal nothing that Castaneda hasn't already said, while insofar as they are new, they obliterate distinctions vital to Castaneda's theory. Castaneda called these pronouns quasi-indicators and noted that they function as linguistic devices used for attributing indexical (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Tomis Kapitan (1992). Peirce and the Autonomy of Abductive Reasoning. Erkenntnis 37 (1):1 - 26.
    Essential to Peirce's distinction among three kinds of reasoning, deduction, induction and abduction, is the claim that each is correlated to a unique species of validity irreducible to that of the others. In particular, abductive validity cannot be analyzed in either deductive or inductive terms, a consequence of considerable importance for the logical and epistemological scrutiny of scientific methods. But when the full structure of abductive argumentation — as viewed by the mature Peirce — is clarified, every inferential step in (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Tomis Kapitan (1992). Review: Review Essay: Thinking, Language and Experience. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (1):203 - 214.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 69