Search results for 'Taxation' (try it on Scholar)

263 found
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  1.  2
    Conscientious Objection Taxation & Religious Freedom (2003). Promoting International Dialogue Between Fundamental and Applied Ethics. Ethical Perspectives 12 (2004):06-2013.
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  2.  4
    Teppo Eskelinen & Arto Laitinen (2015). Taxation: Its Justification and Application to Global Contexts. In Helmut P. Gaisbauer, Gottfried Schweiger & Clemens Sedmak (eds.), Philosophical Explorations of Justice and Taxation. National and Global Issues. Springer 219-236.
    This article focuses on the justification of taxation, in other words the principled rather than the technical aspect of taxation. We first show how democracy is on the one hand required for legitimate taxation, and how on the other hand democratic communities are dependent on taxation, and argue there is no vicious cirle. We then present a typology of ways of justifying taxation, according to which taxation can base its legitimacy on (1) meeting basic (...)
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  3.  18
    Helmut P. Gaisbauer, Gottfried Schweiger & Clemens Sedmak (2013). Ethical Obligations of Wealthy People: Progressive Taxation and the Financial Crisis. Ethics and Social Welfare 7 (2):141--154.
    The Financial Crisis in Europe puts pressure on welfare states and its tax systems as well as on considerations of social justice. In this paper, we would like to explore the status of the idea of progressive taxation and its justification (especially the ‘ability-to-pay’ principle) in times of a financial crisis. We will discuss it within a social justice framework following David Miller—using the principles of (i) need, (ii) merit, and (iii) equality. We will conclude that progressive taxation (...)
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  4.  56
    Annabelle Lever (2013). 'Taxation, Conscientious Objection and Religious Freedom'. Ethical Perspectives 20 (1):144-153.
    This is part of a symposium on conscientious objection and religious freedom inspired by the US Catholic Church's claim that being forced to pay for health insurance that covers abortions (the effect of 'Obamacare')is the equivalent of forcing pacifists to fight. This article takes issue with this claim, and shows that while it would be unjust on democratic principles to force pacifists to fight, given their willingness to serve their country in other ways, there is no democratic objection to forcing (...)
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  5.  4
    Ann Mumford (2005). VAT, Taxation and Prostitution: Feminist Perspectives on Polok. Feminist Legal Studies 13 (2):163-180.
  6. Edward Feser (2010). Classical Natural Law Theory, Property Rights, and Taxation. Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):21-52.
    Classical natural law theory derives moral conclusions from the essentialist and teleological understanding of nature enshrined in classical metaphysics. The paper argues that this understanding of nature is as defensible today as it was in the days of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas. It then shows how a natural law theory of the grounds and content of our moral obligations follows from this understanding of nature, and how a doctrine of natural rights follows in turn from the theory of natural (...)
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  7. Gillian Brock (2008). Taxation and Global Justice: Closing the Gap Between Theory and Practice. Journal of Social Philosophy 39 (2):161–184.
    I examine how reforming our international tax regime could be an important vehicle by which we can begin to realize global justice. For instance, eliminating tax havens, tax evasion, and transfer pricing schemes are all important to ensure accountability and to support democracies. I argue that the proposals concerning taxation reform are likely to be more effective in tackling global poverty than Thomas Pogge's global resources dividend because they target some of the central issues more effectively. I also discuss (...)
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  8. Ellen Frankel Paul, Miller Jr & Jeffrey Paul (eds.) (2006). Taxation, Economic Prosperity, and Distributive Justice: Volume 23, Part 2. Cambridge University Press.
    What constitutes a just tax system, and what are its moral foundations? Should a society's tax regime be designed to achieve a just distribution of wealth among its citizens, or should such a regime be designed to promote economic growth, rising standards of living, and increasing levels of employment? Are these two goals compatible or incompatible? Why should justice not require, or at least lead to, an increase in general prosperity? The essays in this volume examine the history of tax (...)
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  9.  36
    Donald R. Nichols & William F. Wempe (2010). Regressive Tax Rates and the Unethical Taxation of Salaried Income. Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):553 - 566.
    In a regressive tax system, lower-income taxpayers pay larger percentages of their incomes in taxes compared to higher-income taxpayers. Although most policymakers and citizens view regressive taxation as generally unfair and unethical, the U.S. tax system taxes wage, salary, and self-employment income in a manner that deliberately subjects lower-income taxpayers to marginal tax rates that are greater than those imposed on higher-income taxpayers. As a result, some lower-income taxpayers pay a larger percentage of their income in taxes than higher-income (...)
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  10.  53
    Eric Mack (2006). Non-Absolute Rights and Libertarian Taxation. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (2):109-141.
    Rights-oriented libertarian theory asserts the existence of robust individual rights - including robust rights of property. If these property rights are absolute, then it seems that all taxation is theft. However, it also seems that, if an individual is (faultlessly) in dire straits, it is permissible for him to seize or trespass in order to escape from those straits. It does seem that in this sense property rights are non-absolute. This essay examines what contribution this non-absoluteness of rights makes (...)
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  11.  11
    Gavin Kerr (2016). ‘Predistribution’, Property-Owning Democracy and Land Value Taxation. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 15 (1):67-91.
    The term ‘predistribution’ draws attention to the need for policies and institutions that are designed to improve the position of the least advantaged members of society by generating a fairer distribution of opportunities and benefits from the operation of the free market system, with less reliance on redistributive tax-and-transfer mechanisms. Although the idea of progressive predistribution has only recently begun to attract the attention of politicians and commentators in the mainstream media, there is an older and more philosophically grounded predistributive (...)
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  12.  30
    Daniel Halliday (2013). Justice and Taxation. Philosophy Compass 8 (12):1111-1122.
    This article provides a survey of various topics in which questions about taxation feature alongside questions about justice. It seeks to argue mainly that taxation is a rather fragmentary domain of inquiry about which it is hard to envisage the development of views about what justice requires with respect to tax policy in general. Guided by this idea, the article attempts to highlight some aspects of taxation whose connection with justice has been under-explored by philosophers, as well (...)
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  13. Colin Farrelly, Taxation and Distributive Justice.
    Distributive justice concerns the fair distribution of the benefits and burdens of social cooperation. Opposition to higher rates of taxation, or even existing levels of taxation, are often made on grounds that such taxes are unfair burdens. This fairness argument can be given a number of further, more specific, formulations. Libertarians like Robert Nozick, for example, argue that taxation of income is unfair because it violates individual rights. Libertarians invoke an entitlement argument which presumes that the appropriate (...)
     
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  14.  23
    Barbara H. Fried (2003). Proportionate Taxation as a Fair Division of the Social Surplus: The Strange Career of an Idea. Economics and Philosophy 19 (2):211-239.
    The article considers a surprisingly resilient argument, going back to Adam Smith, for the fairness of proportionate taxation: that proportionate taxation represents the fair way to divide the surplus value produced by social cooperation among all of society's members. The article considers two recent variants on that argument, one by Richard Epstein in Takings and one by David Gauthier in Morals by Agreement. It concludes that the normative and empirical assumptions that underlie these, and all other variants, of (...)
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  15.  42
    Ronald M. Green (1984). Ethics and Taxation: A Theoretical Framework. Journal of Religious Ethics 12 (2):146 - 161.
    The issue of taxation raises essential moral questions about justice and fairness. Although the issue is an ancient one, systematic ethical reflection about taxation can be traced to the last few centuries. The author discusses five key values that have been identified as bearing on tax policy: freedom, material well-being and employment, health and welfare, equity, and distributive justice. He presents these values and their various interpretations as a conceptual framework for approaching the concrete teachings on taxation (...)
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  16.  6
    Mindy Peden (2008). |[Lsquo]|Democratic Taxation|[Rsquo]| and Quantifiable Action: Scientizing Dilemmas. Contemporary Political Theory 7 (3):302.
    Against the easy presupposition that such a thing as ‘democratic taxation’ not only exists but is also practicable, this paper points to the dilemma posed by what I call ‘quantifiable action.’ The essay develops an approach to theorizing the place of taxation in political theory that counters trends in fiscal sociology, political science, and liberal theory by highlighting how taxation presumably violates the requirement that self-government includes an absence of instrumental rationality on the part of democratic citizens. (...)
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  17.  23
    McGraw-Hill, A Paycheck Half-Empty or Half-Full? Framing, Fairness and Progressive Taxation.
    Taxation policy is driven by many factors, including public opinion, but little research has examined the strength and stability of the public’s taxation preferences. This paper demonstrates one way in which preferences for progressiveness depend on the framing of the question asked. Participants indicated how they would share a fixed tax burden between two individuals who earned different amounts of money, either by adjusting the amount of tax paid by the two individuals, or by adjusting the amount of (...)
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  18.  17
    Barbara Goodwin (2008). Taxation in Utopia. Utopian Studies 19 (2):313 - 331.
    Utopias of the right and the left offer different justifications for taxation and propose different tax systems. Here, utopian proposals are analysed and evaluated from two perspectives: the "ideal" form of taxation (visible, equitable, and non-avoidable), and the democratic perspective (would people willingly consent to it?). Pre-taxation, favoured by left-wing utopias, raises problems from a democratic standpoint while right-wing utopias assert that taxation must be voluntary but are over-confident that "voluntary government financing" would provide a safety-net (...)
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  19.  14
    Gillian Brock (2009). Reforming Our Taxation Arrangements to Promote Global Gender Justice. Philosophical Topics 37 (2):141-160.
    In this article I examine how reforming our international tax regime could be an important vehicle for realizing key aspects of global gender justice. Ensuring all,including and especially multinationals, pay their fair share of taxes is crucial to ensuring that all countries, especially developing countries, are able to fund education, job training, infrastructural development, programs which promote gender equity, and so forth, thereby enabling all countries to help themselves better. I discuss various positive proposals for levying global taxes. I review (...)
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  20.  22
    Tibor R. Machan, No Taxation with or Without Representation: Completing the Revolutionary Break with Feudalist Practices.
    Taxation is a vestige of feudalism and monarchy. It persists because of the mistaken belief that government is somehow entitled to a portion of our labor or assets. This article challenges that belief from a philosophical perspective and offers a different viewpoint.
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  21.  2
    W. M. Ormrod (1988). An Experiment in Taxation: The English Parish Subsidy of 1371. Speculum 63 (1):58-82.
    In 1371 Edward III appealed to Parliament for a grant of taxation in order to support the war recently reopened against the French. The resulting lay subsidy, levied in each parish throughout the country and designed to contribute a total of £50,000 to the royal coffers, marked a change in the taxation procedures used in England since the 1330s and opened a period of experimentation which was to culminate in the three poll taxes of 1377, 1379, and 1380. (...)
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  22.  2
    Phillip H. Stump (1989). The Reform of Papal Taxation at the Council of Constance (1414–1418). Speculum 64 (1):69-105.
    Historians have generally concluded that the Council of Constance, although it successfully ended the Great Schism by reuniting the church, failed in its effort to reform the church. The council's negotiations concerning papal taxation of the clergy have often been singled out as an example of incomplete and abortive reform efforts: those reforms that were enacted were merely cosmetic; the rest failed because the cardinals and the newly elected pope were able to outmaneuver the reformers by exploiting the divisions (...)
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  23.  2
    S. Stewart Braun (2015). Liberty, Political Rights and Wealth Transfer Taxation. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):n/a-n/a.
    Libertarians famously contend that the minimal state is the most just social arrangement because it secures individual freedoms and basic political rights. They also oppose wealth transfer taxation, i.e. taxation of inheritances, bequests, and inter vivos gifts, arguing that it violates people's right to use their wealth freely. However, as I argue, libertarian opposition to wealth transfer taxation causes practical problems for their commitment to a minimal state, as there is strong empirical evidence demonstrating that wealth transfer (...)
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  24.  9
    Joel Slemrod (2006). The Consequences of Taxation. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (2):73-87.
    The consequences of taxation matter for the optimal design of the tax system. Those consequences depend on behavioral responses to taxation, as summarized by the elasticity of taxable income. Although this elasticity depends on characteristics of preferences, such as the elasticity of substitution between goods and leisure, it also depends on the avoidance technology, and on the response of government to avoidance behavior. It depends on the size of states, and the amount of tax coordination and harmonization. To (...)
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  25.  5
    Gottfried Schweiger (2012). Achieving Income Justice in Professional Sports: Limitation, Taxation, or Donation. Physical Culture and Sport 56 (1):12-22.
    This paper is based on the assumption that the high incomes of some professional sports athletes, such as players in professional leagues in the United States and Europe, pose an ethical problem of social justice. I deal with the questions of what should follow from this evaluation and in which ways those incomes should be regulated. I discuss three different options: a) the idea that the incomes of professional athletes should be limited, b) the idea that they should be vastly (...)
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  26.  8
    Jeffrey Schoenblum (2006). Taxation, the State, and the Community. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (2):210-234.
    The paper is concerned with the relationship of taxation to conceptions of the state and the community. The paper contends that public finance theorists have focused little attention on what, precisely, the state is and the role of subnational and supranational communities, even though understanding the state and these communities is essential for grasping how tax revenues are really distributed. The failure of public finance to do so is explainable by the powerful faith in the expertise of theorists and (...)
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  27.  2
    Vytautas Sulija (2009). Benefits and Costs of Anticipated Statutory Framework on Residental Property Taxation: From Tax Theory to Ineffective Administrative Practices. Jurisprudence 118 (4):285-298.
    Taxation of residential property is difficult to be implemented in many jurisdictions and in this respect Lithuania is not an exception. Many taxpayers do not comprehend why property should be levied by the government. Indeed, any owner of real estate would usually resist to any attempts to increase this tax burden. However, even when the threshold is once overstepped and a new unpopular statutory framework is introduced, the government still faces new dilemmas regarding the administration of this tax. Sometimes (...)
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  28. Benjamin R. Tucker, Taxation: Voluntary or Compulsory?
    Read Jus, 17 June 1887): The voluntary taxation proposal really means the dissolution of the State into its constituent atoms, and leaving them to recombine in some way or no way, just as it may happen. There would be nothing to prevent the existence of five or six "States" in England, and members of all these "States" might be living in the same house! The proposal is, it appears to me, the outcome of an idea in the minds of (...)
     
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  29.  3
    Richard E. Wagner (2006). Choice, Catallaxy, and Just Taxation: Contrasting Architectonics for Fiscal Theorizing. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (2):235-254.
    Contemporary fiscal theorizing largely assimilates the activities of government to that of some choosing agent. This paper explores an alternative approach where government is assimilated to an emergent process of complex interaction, as a form of complex adaptive system. Within this alternative vision, governments are treated not as objects of intervention into a market economy but as arenas of organized participation within it. While recent developments in computational modeling are starting to provide tools for probing such a vision, the roots (...)
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  30.  2
    J. R. Lucas (1984). Towards a Theory of Taxation. Social Philosophy and Policy 2 (1):161.
    “Towards a Theory of Taxation” is a proper theme for an Englishman to take when giving a paper in America. After all it was from the absence of such a theory that the United States derived its existence. The Colonists felt strongly that there should be no taxation without representation, and George III was unable to explain to them convincingly why they should contribute to the cost of their defense. Since that time, understanding has not advanced much. In (...)
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  31. Richard Epstein (2005). Taxation with Representation: Or, the Libertarian Dilemma. Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 18 (1).
    Without question, the libertarian vision that envisions the use of state power to control force and fraud as a proper governmental function is one piece of any comprehensive political theory. But the hard-line libertarian goes astray in finding this the sole function of government or in thinking that the maintenance of order is possible without the imposition of taxes. Rather, the case for taxation rests on the familiar view that state coercion is sometimes necessary to overcome coordination problems. The (...)
     
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  32. H. V. McLachlan (2002). Tobacco, Taxation, and Fairness. Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (6):381-383.
    The author defends himself against an attack by Smith and Bopp on his views on smoking and taxation. The theory that, on the grounds of equity and/or fairness, smokers should pay via taxation on tobacco for the health care costs of treating smoking-related medical conditions is discussed and shown to be defective. It is argued that the fundamental mistake that Smith and Bopp make is to confuse and conflate the separate issues of whether particular taxes are fair and (...)
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  33. J. R. McCulloch (2015). A Treatise on the Principles and Practical Influence of Taxation and the Funding System. Cambridge University Press.
    A friend, correspondent and intellectual successor to David Ricardo, John Ramsay McCulloch forged his reputation in the emerging field of political economy by publishing deeply researched articles in Scottish periodicals and the Encyclopaedia Britannica. From 1828 he spent nearly a decade as professor of political economy at the newly founded University of London, thereafter becoming comptroller of the Stationery Office. Perhaps the first professional economist, McCulloch had become internationally renowned by the middle of the century, recognised for sharing his ideas (...)
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  34. Roger Schofield (2008). Taxation Under the Early Tudors 1485-1547. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Based on original research, this book marks an important advance in our understanding not only of the fiscal resources available to the English crown but also of the broader political culture of early Tudor England. An original study of taxation under the early Tudors. Explains the significance of the parliamentary lay taxation levied on individuals at this time. Demonstrates the value of the mass of personal tax assessments from this period to social, economic and local historians. Considers the (...)
     
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  35.  23
    Elaine M. Doyle, Jane Frecknall Hughes & Keith W. Glaister (2009). Linking Ethics and Risk Management in Taxation: Evidence From an Exploratory Study in Ireland and the Uk. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (2):177 - 198.
    Ethical dilemmas involving tax issues were identified by members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants as posing the most difficult ethical problem for them (Finn et al., Journal of Business Ethics 7(8), pp. 607–609, 1988). The KPMG tax shelter fraud case proves that the tax profession has not gone untainted in the age of numerous accounting and corporate scandals, such as the Enron débâcle (Sikka and Hampton, Accounting Forum 29(3), 325–343, 2005). High-profile scandals serve to highlight the problems (...)
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  36.  15
    Elaine Doyle, Jane Frecknall-Hughes & Barbara Summers (2009). Research Methods in Taxation Ethics: Developing the Defining Issues Test (Dit) for a Tax-Specific Scenario. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):35 - 52.
    This paper reports on the development of a research instrument designed to explore ethical reasoning in a tax context. This research instrument is a version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT) originally developed by Rest [1979a, Development in Judging Moral Issues (Univer sity of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN); 1979b, Defining Issues Test (University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN)], but adapted to focus specifically on the environment encountered by tax practitioners. The paper explores reasons for developing a context-(and profession-) specific test, (...)
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  37. Peter Vallentyne (2012). Taxation, Redistribution and Property Rights. In Andrei Marmor (ed.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Law. Routledge
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  38.  6
    Tareq Moqbel (2015). The UK Islamic Finance Taxation Framework and the Substance V Form Debate in Islamic Finance. Legal Ethics 18 (1):84-86.
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  39.  35
    Lars Fallan (1999). Gender, Exposure to Tax Knowledge, and Attitudes Towards Taxation; an Experimental Approach. Journal of Business Ethics 18 (2):173 - 184.
    This study reports findings of gender differences in tax attitude changes influenced by better tax knowledge. Male students are more exposed to tax knowledge in a way that makes them reconsider more easily their attitudes towards their own tax evasion, i.e. tax ethics, than their female peers. Male students get a significantly stricter attitude towards their own tax evasion. On the other hand, female students are more exposed to tax knowledge in a way that makes them reconsider their attitude towards (...)
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  40.  19
    Kevin A. Kordana & David H. Blankfein Tabachnick (2006). Taxation, the Private Law, and Distributive Justice. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (2):142-165.
    We argue that for theorists with a post-institutional conception of property, e.g., Rawlsians, there is no principled reason to limit the domain of distributive justice to tax and transfer-both tax policy and the rules of the private law are constructed in service to distributive aims. Such theorists cannot maintain a commitment to a normative conception of private law independent of their overarching distributive principles. In contrast, theorists with a pre-institutional conception of property can derive the private law from sectors of (...)
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  41.  14
    Miguel Eduardo Ramírez Castillo (2012). Tratamiento Fiscal Del Fondo de Previsión Social de la Sociedad Cooperativa Prestadora de Servicios de Personal (Outsourcing)(Taxation of Social Security Fund for the Cooperative Society Personal Service Lender). Daena 7 (2):10-23.
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  42. Martin Hughes (1990). Locke on Taxation and Suffrage. History of Political Thought 11 (3):423-442.
     
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  43.  6
    KÅre P. Hagen (1971). Taxation and Investment Behaviour Under Uncertainty - A Multiperiod Portfolio Analysis. Theory and Decision 1 (3):269.
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  44.  17
    Jason Waller (2011). Nozick's Taxation is Forced Labor Argument. In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell
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  45.  1
    Douglas Bamford (2016). Arguing for a New Form of Taxation: Lifetime Hourly Averaging. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):n/a-n/a.
    This article presents an argument for a new form of tax calculation. Firstly it is argued that Hypothetical Insurance is the best method to determine the correct type of distributive policies and the precise amounts that should be redistributed. Hourly averaging is then presented as a new candidate policy for both assisting the less economically fortunate and taxing the more economically fortunate. The article then argues that hourly averaging compares favourably against rival policies as a hypothetical insurance choice.
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  46.  7
    Alan Rogers (1969). Henry IV, the Commons and Taxation. Mediaeval Studies 31 (1):44-70.
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  47.  14
    Dirk Haubrich (2004). Global Distributive Justice and the Taxation of Natural Resources |[Mdash]| Who Should Pick Up the Tab? Contemporary Political Theory 3 (1):48.
    Increasingly visible global distributive inequalities and famine pose considerable challenges for policy-makers and political philosophers alike. A recent proposal forwarded by Thomas Pogge has taken on the challenge of outlining a concept of global justice according to which redistribution is not merely predicated on the beneficiaries being in a state of need. The scheme, which he calls the Global Resources Dividend , aims to compensate people who are excluded from the benefits of the common stock of natural resources, by taxing (...)
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  48.  7
    Ed M. Meyers (1971). Social Purpose Taxation. Social Theory and Practice 1 (4):71-82.
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  49.  2
    Dirk Haubrich (2004). Global Distributive Justice and the Taxation of Natural Resources — Who Should Pick Up the Tab? Contemporary Political Theory 3 (1):48-69.
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  50.  2
    Mindy Peden (2008). ‘Democratic Taxation’ and Quantifiable Action: Scientizing Dilemmas. Contemporary Political Theory 7 (3):302-316.
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