In social science research, survey respondents hesitate to answer sensitive questions. This explains why traditional self-report surveys often suffer from high levels of non-response and dishonest answers. To overcome these problems, an adjusted questioning technique is necessary. This article examines one such adjusted questioning technique: the randomized response technique. However, in order to obtain reliable and valid data, respondents need to understand and trust this technique. Respondents' understanding and trust are assessed in two online variants of (...) the randomized response technique: (a) forced response and (b) unrelated question. Results show that understanding was significantly higher in the forced-response condition. Respondents' trust, however, was low in both conditions. (shrink)
La genèse de la vedette de cinéma qu’effectue Walter Benjamin au chapitre 10 de L’Œuvre d’art à l’époque de sa reproductibilité technique (dernière version, 1939) trouve une résonance politique dans une note de bas de page du même chapitre où la star acquiert un statut analogue au dictateur, quand la technique (de reproduction) de l’œuvre d’art devient elle-même, à travers le cinéma, œuvre d’art. Si les démocraties bourgeoises contiennent, dans leur rapport aux médias de masse, la possibilité de (...) leur basculement dans le fascisme, c’est parce que leurs gouvernants, au même titre que l’acteur de cinéma, deviennent des marchandises, soumises à la loi de la forme équivalente (de la marchandise). L’« esthétisation de la politique » doit dès lors être comprise comme la restitution de l’« aura » et de la « valeur cultuelle » qui l’accompagne, dans et par les conditions qui par définition en constituent la liquidation, à savoir la technique, qui sont l’attribut du pouvoir. Sublimer la marchandise en la présentant sous les espèces de l’œuvre d’art quand celle-ci devient marchandise – ainsi s’institue la star –, et identifier l’homme politique à une œuvre d’art – à une star –, revient à faire de lui l’incarnation du pouvoir : un dictateur. (shrink)
Martin Heidegger and Jacques Ellul propounded substantivist accounts of technology which rejected the received instrumentalist view of technology according to which only the ends to which technologies are applied can be evaluated. In opposition to instrumentalism, they claimed that modern technology involves a displacement of non-technological values or (in Heidegger’s case) other ways of relating to Being. The theory of technical autonomy that Jacques Ellul sets out in The Technological Society is distinguished from Heidegger’s brand of substantivism, however, in providing (...) a non-transcendental, naturalistic account of the conditions under which technique displaces non-technical values in modern societies. I show how Ellul’s theory resolves into two components – 1) a theory of the essence of technique given in terms of the notion of efficiency and 2) a theory of the conditions for autonomy - and set out some criticisms of Ellul’s essentialism by way of an analysis of the concept of efficiency. I argue that component (2) is incompatible with his essentialism because it is committed to techniques being replicable across different contexts of use. I then use Jacques Derrida’s notions of iterability and generalised writing to develop a theory of technical replicability which accounts for the historical particularity of techniques and for their mechanism-dependent replicability. I support this account of technical iteration by showing how it allows explanatory connections to be made between specific mechanisms of technical replication and the fragile cultural forms or phenomenologies they support. I then use it to reformulate Ellul’s theory without its essentialist commitments and claim that the background assumptions of the resultant theory are sufficiently weak to render it plausible. However, while this supports certain aspects of Ellul’s original thesis, I argue that the modified theory no longer implies a hegemonic role for technique. While technical process may be self-augmenting and uncontrollable (much as Ellul describes it) there are no grounds for claiming that it prescribes a particular set of values. (shrink)
When a technique purports to provide information that is not available to the unaided senses, it is natural to think that the only way to validate that technique is by appealing to a theory of the processes that lead from the object of study to the raw data. In fact, scientists have a variety of strategies for validating their techniques. Those strategies can yield multiple independent arguments that support the validity of the technique. Thus, it is possible (...) to produce a robust body of data with a single technique. I illustrate and support these claims with a historical case study. *Received September 2009; revised October 2009. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of History and Philosophy of Science, 1017 Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260; e‐mail: email@example.com. (shrink)
This paper argues that if one considers just a single clinical moment there may be no principled way to choose among different approaches to psychoanalytic technique. One must in addition take into account what Aristotle called the final cause of psychoanalysis, which this paper argues is freedom. However, freedom is itself an open-ended concept with many aspects that need to be explored and developed from a psychoanalytic perspective. This paper considers one analytic moment from the perspectives of the techniques (...) of Paul Gray, Hans Loewald, the contemporary Kleinians and Jacques Lacan. It argues that, if we are to evaluate these techniques, we must take into account the different conceptions of freedom they are trying to facilitate. (shrink)
Context: Neurophenomenology is a relatively new field, with scope for novel and informative approaches to empirical questions about what structural parallels there are between neural activity and phenomenal experience. Problem: The overall aim is to present a method for examining possible correlations of neurodynamic and phenodynamic structures within the structurally-coupled work of Alexander Technique practitioners with their pupils. Method: This paper includes the development of an enkinaesthetic explanatory framework, an overview of the salient aspects of the Alexander Technique, (...) and the presentation of an elicitation interview technique as part of a neurophenomenological method. It will propose a way of testing the hypothesis that if, in the effective practice of Alexander Technique, there is a union between the nervous systems of teacher and pupil, it should be visible neurologically and affective phenomenologically, and thus it should be possible to investigate both its neural and phenomenal signatures. Results: The proposed means of testing the hypothesis is to use the elicitation interview technique alongside neural monitoring during the teaching of the Alexander Technique in four paired sets of subjects. Constructivist content: At the heart of this paper is the claim that all activity is co-activity. I make no assumption of an ontological primacy of mental or physical, or explanatory primacy of any methodology. Implications: This has important ramifications for somatic education and therapies, for establishing frameworks of co-engagement and care in health-care situations, and for understanding empathy. (shrink)
I respond to H. M. Collins's claim (1985, 1990, 1993) that experimental inquiry cannot be objective because the only criterium experimentalists have for determining whether a technique is "working" is the production of "correct" (i.e., the expected) data. Collins claims that the "experimenters' regress," the name he gives to this data-technique circle, cannot be broken using the resources of experiment alone. I argue that the data-technique circle, can be broken even though any interpretation of the raw data (...) produced by techniques is theory-dependent. However, it is possible to break this circle by eliminating dependence on even those theoretical presuppositions that are shared by an entire scientific community through the use of multiple independently theory-dependent techniques to produce robust bodies of data. Moreover, I argue, that it is the production of robust bodies of data that convinces experimentalists of the objectivity of their data interpretations. (shrink)
In this paper, I deal with video data not as a transparent window on social interaction but as a situated product of video practices. This perspective invites an analysis of the practices of video-making, considering them as having a configuring impact on both on the way in which social interaction is documented and the way in which it is locally interpreted by video-makers. These situated interpretations and online analyses reflexively shape not only the record they produce but also the interactional (...) order itself as it is documented. Dealing with practices of video-making not as a resource but as a topic, I explore a particular editing practice, the use of the split-screen technique, consisting in combining various camera views within the same image. This technique is now widely used in cinema, professional settings, TV, and social research. I focus on its uses in TV talk shows and debates: through a systematic sequential analysis of the positions where split screen is introduced, I show that directors do orient to the sequential features of interaction in using this technique and that, conversely, their uses of split screen reveal their local understanding—and configuring—of what the interactional dimension of debates and interviews consist of, for all practical purposes. (shrink)
Student cheating and reporting of that cheating represents one form of organizational wrong-doing and subsequent whistle-blowing, in the context of an academic organization. Previous research has been hampered by a lack of information concerning the validity of survey responses estimating the incidence of organizational wrongdoing and whistle-blowing. An innovative method, the Randomized Response Technique (RRT), was used here to assess the validity of reported incidences of wrongdoing and whistle-blowing. Surprisingly, our findings show that estimates of these incidences did not (...) vary significantly when RRT questionnaire results were compared to those obtained from standard surveys. In fact, a large number of business undergraduates admitted cheating while only a small percentage reported peers'' cheating when they observed it. These results should be sobering for managers and their implications are considered in some detail. (shrink)
Hobbes is commonly treated as a foundational figure for liberalism. This familiar view relies on emphasizing his account of the relationship between rights bearing individuals and state power. By contrast, this essay centers the practical question of how to govern, and develops this perspective to both question Hobbes's supposed liberalism and to demonstrate the utility of construing liberalism as more than a set of philosophical arguments regarding subject-state relations. In particular, understanding liberalism in terms of political technique offers a (...) new perspective on the relationship between liberalism and republicanism. (shrink)
Entrepreneurs typically live with the ever-present threat of business failure arising from limited financial resources and aggressive competition in the marketplace. Under these circumstances, conflicting priorities arise and the entrepreneur is thus faced with certain dilemmas. In seeking to resolve these, entrepreneurs must often rely on their own judgment to determine “what is right”. There is thus a need for a technique to assist them decide on a course of action when no precedent or obvious solution exists. This research (...) paper examines how entrepreneurs experience and deal with these dilemmas. The research is based on interviews with seven entrepreneurs in established service-oriented ventures, which gave rise to 26 dilemmas. These dilemmas were analyzed by making use of the Synergy Star technique, which is introduced here as a tool that is useful in defining any dilemma, isolating the ethical component, and resolving the dilemma in a way that is congruent with the entrepreneur’s personal world-view. (shrink)
At several places in this paper we have made use of a well-known rhetorical device: an argument was made; a character —dubbed “fictional reader” — was then evoked who voiced some objections against that particular argument; and finally, we answered those objections, thus bringing to a close, at least temporarily, our argument. The use of this device raises a question: “How is the presence of the ‘fictional reader” to be understood?” Is it a “mere” rhetorical tool, or does this character (...) designate some particular target? For instance, depending on the context, it could be seen as aimed at different straw men: traditionally minded sociologists, Whiggish historians, well-intentioned philosophers of science. Actually, none of these characters is behind the “fictional reader”. Rather, it refers, potentially, to any of the scientific actors (Milstein, Schwaber, Koprowski, Cohn, and so on) who inhabit our set of narratives. In other words, the “fictional reader” is an icon for the “native” reader/writer who simultaneously produces and questions the products of that particular literary activity known as scientific texts, by explicitly and implicitly raising the issue of the distinction between fact and technique.By following actors in their disputes about the novelty of K & M's contribution, it became apparent that it is not exactly clear which of the different elements of “hybridoma technology” should be regarded as “novel.” Was it the use of the P3 myeloma line? Was it the theoretical framework related to the notion of allelic exclusion? Was it ...? In each and every case, arguments can be made for or against the existence of a certain continuity or discontinuity with previous work. And in each case, the determination of novelty, as translated through the continuity/discontinuity issue, appeared to be hanging on the previous attribution of an epistemological status to the object that had allegedly been discovered: was it a fact or a technique?If one focuses on the relatively narrow network of immunogenetics, it could be argued that within that particular evidential context a series of “facts” had been established which, when transferred to other fields, such as the virological research being pursued in Koprowski's institute, were translated into a technique. However, as we have seen, even from an immunogenetic point of view the production of monoclonal antibodies can be viewed as being simultaneously a fact and a technique to establish that fact. Not only, as he himself noted,139 was Milstein not seeking to develop a technique for the production of monoclonal antibodies when the original experiments were carried out, but the significance later imputed to those experiments was not immediately attributed to them. The paper was seen as one among other papers that used cell fusion techniques to dissect the genetic control of antibody diversity. Distinctions that now appear crucial (e.g.: were the fusion partners two myelomas or a myeloma and a spleen cell?) were easily overlooked. At some point, around 1977, the production of monoclonal antibodies became a goal in itself, no longer linked to the initial immunogenetic network. The transformation of [MILSTEIN 75] into the foundational event of “hybridoma technology” was thus achieved. This transformation did not flow naturally from the original experiments. Rather, it involved specific investments which mobilized the activity of a large number of other scientific and industrial actors.140A tentative generalization can be deduced from our case study. The dichotomy between fact and technique that underlines much of contemporary science studies seem to be fundamentally misconceived, insofar as the determination of what counts as a fact and what counts as a technique is not possible on a priori grounds. Historians and sociologists of science are confronted with a field of heterogeneous interventions where particular pieces of work are constituted as discrete entities and simultaneously attributed a technical or a factual identity. “Novelty” and “innovation” are precisely the result of such polymorphic attributional processes. (shrink)
An instantia is a technique to refute other's arguments, found in many tracts from the latter half of the twelfth century. An instantia has (or appears to have) the same form as the argument to be refuted and its falsity is more evident than that of the argument.Precursors of instantiae are among the teachings of masters active in the first half of the century. These masters produce counter-arguments against various inferential forms in order to examine their validity. But the (...) aim of producing counter-arguments change in the latter half of the century into refuting other's arguments to win in debate by any means available. Logicians of that period do not care whether the counter-arguments (instantiae) are sophistical or not, viz. the falsity of instantiae is or is not due to the flaw common to the argument to be refuted.Many instantiae they produce involve logical entanglements into which they themselves have little clear insight. Some instantiae and the attempts to explain them grows into the new theories in the “terminist texts” around 1200 A.D., when instantia literature itself disappears. Some instantiae and the issues they raise have no place in terminist texts, and sink into oblivion. (shrink)
This article considers `critique' as performative, being on the one hand a reiterative performance, that enacts the `critic' through the act of critique, and on the other hand reflecting the constitution of the subject. While this approach takes on the conceptual framework of Judith Butler's work, it differs by refusing critique — or its correlates; parody, subversion or similar — any special status. Like any other performance critique is taken here as a cultural practice, as a Foucauldian `technique of (...) self', though the complex genealogy of such a technique lies outside the scope of this article. In order to illustrate this argument I interpret a number of Butler's prefaces, interviews and digressions which diverge from her own theoretical framework, and argue that these `fictions' arise from critical `disavowals': that is, a `self-transformative' turn against power. The subjective `crisis' that prompts critique is then elaborated by comparison to Girard's work on imitation and sacrifice. (shrink)
In the constructive theory of uniform spaces there occurs a technique of proof in which the application of a weak form of the law of excluded middle is circumvented by purely analytic means. The essence of this proof-technique is extracted and then applied in several different situations.
The article presents an analysis of a mystical practice of letter permutation conceived as part of the practice of “kavannah” in prayer. This practice was articulated by a 13th century anonymous ecstatic kabbalist writing in Catalonia. The anonymous author draws on earlier sources in the kabbalah and Ashkenazi spirituality. The article explores the wider connection between ecstasy and ritual, particularly prayer in the earlier stages of Judaism and its development in medieval theology and kabbalah. The anonymous author describes a unique (...) permutation technique capable of inducing ecstatic experiences as part of the liturgical ritual. (shrink)
This analysis demonstrates the application of a data duplication technique in linear regression with censored observations of the waiting time to third pregnancy ending in two outcome types, using data from Malaysia. The linear model not only confirmed the results obtained by the Cox proportional hazards model, but also identified two additional significant factors. The method provides a useful alternative when Cox proportionality assumption of the hazards is violated.
This article explores the use of cognitive mapping as a tool for supporting international negotiation. Cognitive mapping was developed from the research tradition in cognitive psychology that was pioneered by Heider, congruity theory and attribution theory. Applied to political analysis, the technique can be used to represent causal and quasi-causal thinking about a specific policy area. Cognitive maps can be hand-drawn, or, in the case of maps consisting of more than 25 concepts, machine-generated for detailed and systematic analysis. Regardless (...) of the format, cognitive maps can be examined to determine the most central concepts, the explanation of a problem in terms of its root causes and potential consequences, the use of evidence, such as historical analogies, internal consistency, and perceived consequences of policy proposals. Although the technique was designed to represent the views of individuals, cognitive maps can be aggregated to study collective decision-making. Applied to international negotiation, the technique can be employed as a substance-focused tool to represent and integrate knowledge about a specific policy area for use by negotiators. As a process-oriented tool, the technique can be used to help negotiators understand better their own assumptions about a problem, the viewpoints of other parties to the negotiations, and the ways others see their own position. In this mode, the technique has promise for promoting convergence of views and negotiated agreements. (shrink)
This study explores the social representations of cloning taking in consideration a series of associated emotions and the subjects' level of religiosity. The participants in our study consisted of 356 subjects of different ages and professions. The data collection included four tasks for the subjects to fill in. First, they had to fill in a free task association: starting from the stimulus-word „cloning" they had to associate five words or expressions, and then rank these five words according to their importance. (...) The second task required polarity association for each of the expressions; thus, the subjects had to evaluate them as positive, negative or neutral in relation to „cloning". The third task was a questionnaire evaluating the level of religiosity (28 items). The last task included a list of 35 emotions (positive as well as negative) which subjects had to associate on a scale from 1 to 10 with the bio-medical procedure of cloning. The data analysis was focused on comparing the different groups defined in relation to the level of religiosity, affective polarity, age and level of education. We used the prototipicality technique, developed in the framework of the social representation's theory, in order to identify the elements of the social representations of cloning belonging to the previously mentioned variables. . (shrink)
In this paper, it is argued that the classical rhetorical framework undergoes a transformation because of an important change in Western thought. Following this hypothesis, I analyze a rhetorical notion of “dissuasion” as a rhetorical technique of creating a “general disposition to inaction” in addition to a classical rhetorical notion of “dissuasion” that aims at “refraining from an action”.
LLe terme ' évaluation ' est porteur d'une ambiguïté dès l'origine car son contenu sémantique est double : donner un prix, ou une mesure, mais aussi ' donner une valeur ' entendu d'un point de vue éthique, la valeur dont parle Weber. Or la fascination pour la mesure occulte le fait que le choix des éléments à mesurer est subjectif et qu'en aucun cas la scientificité ne vient directement de l'observation de l'objet. Cette caractéristique subjective est tout simplement ignorée dans (...) le domaine de l'évaluation des effets induits par le développement technologique. Le mode de fonctionnement de ce sophisme scientifique qu'est l'évaluation est très différent suivant la catégorie d'objets mesurés. Je vais donc dégager trois grandes catégories qui nous font passer du plus concret au plus abstrait, du plus simple au plus compliqué dans le sophisem: la description du ' progrès ' technique à parti de l'évolution d'objets simples, couteau et automobile, l'histoire quantitative d'un fait naturel, le réchauffement climatique, la chronique d'un indicateur qui est lui-même un concept, l'empreinte écologique. Chacune de ces catégories pose un problème d'interprétation spécifique. (shrink)
The separation of Shockley partial dislocations in gold has been measured as a function of dislocation line orientation by means of the weak-beam technique of electron microscopy (Cockayne, Ray and Whelan 1969). The results have been interpreted on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory to give a value of the stacking-fault energy ?gold = 32±5 erg cm?2.
We have measured the Soret (S T ), diffusion (D), and thermal diffusion (D T ) coefficients of three binary mixtures of dodecane (DD), isobutylbenzene (IB) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (TH) for a concentration of 50 wt% at a temperature of 25°C by means of an optical beam deflection cell. This relevant experimental technique was still missing from a recent benchmark campaign for the measurement of the Soret effect. The measured coefficients agree to within a few percent (10% for S T (...) , D of TH/IB) with the proposed benchmark values. A detailed analysis of the measurement process of the beam deflection cell, which allows for an elegant extension to include temperature gradients within the windows, is given, and improved benchmark values are suggested. In addition, ethanol?water mixtures have been investigated very carefully over a broad concentration and temperature range. Comparison with data of Kolodner and Wiegand gives a generally good agreement with some systematic deviations. Contrary to theoretical predictions, we have not been able to identify a second sign change of S T at high ethanol concentrations. (shrink)
In all cultures, ethnomedical practices are largely the same for animals and people, whether in mode of administration of materia medica, in the materials themselves, or in surgical, mechanical, behavioral, medico-religious, and other realms. Below, parallels between veterinary and human ethnomedical techniques are outlined. Taken together, they suggest that a number of benefits could be gained by closer collaboration between veterinary and human medicine in the delivery of basic healthcare information and services.
This essay deals with Jean-Luc Nancy’s ambivalent philosophical relationship to the phenomenological perspective on the problem of corporeity. The present analysis aims to point out how within the framework of a critical rejection of some of the fundamental elements of the phenomenological tradition, Nancy adopts some of its other elements in order to forge his own approach to corporeity. While traversing Nancy’s thinking from his critique of the Leib to his concept of technique and ecotechnics, the essay engages in (...) a critical discussion of diverse phenomenological motifs from Husserl’s, Merleau-Ponty’s and Heidegger’s oeuvre. (shrink)
The Nikolais/Louis Dance Technique provides the definite resource for understanding and practicing the influential dance technique developed by two pioneers of modern dance, Alwin Nikolais and Murray Louis. The Nikolais/Louis technique is presented in a week-to-week classroom manual, providing an indispensable tool for teachers and students of this widely studied movement practice. Theoretical background for further reading is set off from the manual for those interested in deeper study. Their philosophy and methodology span a broad readership and (...) offer an important addition to dance literature and American cultural history. (shrink)
One important aspect of the nurse-patient relationship is nurses’ attitudes towards their patients. Nurses’ attitudes towards people with dementia have been studied from a wide range of approaches, but few authors have focused on the structure of these attitudes. This study aimed to identify a structure in licensed practical nurses’ attitudes towards people with dementia. Twenty-one group dwelling units for people with dementia at 11 nursing homes participated in the study. A total of 1 577 assessments of 178 patients were (...) sent out to 181 respondents and 1 237 answers were returned. The semantic differential technique was used. The scale had 57 bipolar pairs of adjectives that estimate an unknown number of dimensions of nurses’ attitudes towards an identified patient. The assessments were analysed using entropy-based measures of association combined with structural plots. The analysis revealed four dimensions, which related to licensed practical nurses’ opinions of the patients: an ethical and aesthetic dimension; an ability to understand; an ability to experience; and an ability for social interaction. The results of the study indicated that, on the positive to negative attitude continuum, the nurses’ attitudes fell at the positive to neutral end. This is an important finding owing to the personhood perspective, from which it is reasonable to assume that, with a more positive attitude to people with dementia, the prerequisites for person-centred care will improve. (shrink)
In this paper, I analyze the notion of technique and a phenomenon, or practice, that I call the detachment of technique, or DT, for short. I argue that the technique of a significant human activity, such as thinking or teaching, is always embodied in persons and must be understood in relation to the context of ends that provides the technique whatever intellectual and moral authority it may have. With the use of two extended examples — one (...) from Kurt Vonnegut's novel, Player Piano, and the other from the critical commentary of Harry Broudy — I explore the consequences of detaching the formal or mechanical aspects of technique from its traditional context of ends. DT and expert systems, the most advanced form of DT, are shown to distort the technique and destroy the traditions of significant human activities. I also explore DT as a technique that is informed by the tradition of technological rationality. The most serious problem of DT is that when technique is detached from the traditions of significant human activities, it is also separated from the educational process whereby intelligence is developed. (shrink)
Entrepreneurs typically live with the ever-present threat of business failure arising from limited financial resources and aggressive competition in the marketplace. Under these circumstances, conflicting priorities arise and the entrepreneur is thus faced with certain dilemmas. In seeking to resolve these, entrepreneurs must often rely on their own judgment to determine "what is right". There is thus a need for a technique to assist them decide on a course of action when no precedent or obvious solution exists. This research (...) paper examines how entrepreneurs experience and deal with these dilemmas. The research is based on interviews with seven entrepreneurs in established service-oriented ventures, which gave rise to 26 dilemmas. These dilemmas were analyzed by making use of the Synergy Star technique, which is introduced here as a tool that is useful in defining any dilemma, isolating the ethical component, and resolving the dilemma in a way that is congruent with the entrepreneur's personal world-view. (shrink)
I survey the syntactic technique of tiering which can be used to restrict the power of a recursion scheme. I show how various results can be obtained entirely proof theoretically without the use of a model of computation.
Gas bubbles in liquids have been studied for decades with a variety of optical and acoustic techniques. The evolution of a bubble consists of several stages, including formation and growth at a nozzle, detachment and resonance, and rise towards terminal velocity. Most existing techniques can monitor only a single aspect of the bubble behaviour. This work describes an acoustic technique to monitor all stages of an air bubble's evolution. The technique uses a combination of passive acoustic listening and (...) active ultrasonic Doppler observation to study millimetre-sized air bubbles in liquid. A hollow cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, located around the nozzle used to produce the bubbles, detects the resonance of the bubble following its detachment. An ultrasonic Doppler system, positioned several centimetres above the nozzle, monitors both the growth and the rise of the bubble, including shape oscillations and the terminal velocity through the use of joint time-frequency analysis. Because all aspects of the bubble evolution are affected by the properties of the liquid, by monitoring the bubble evolution with this technique the rising bubble can potentially be used as a tool to characterize the liquid. (shrink)
The continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) method is a well-established technique for obtaining elastic modulus and hardness data continuously during a nanoindentation process. The applicability of this technique is based on the assumption that the material properties of the specimen being tested are not affected by the imposed oscillatory excitation of the indenter. In this study, nanoindentation experiments on aluminium with a Berkovich tip show that nanometric oscillations of the CSM can lead to significant softening even though the indents (...) made are micron-sized. The amount of softening is similar to that observed from macroscopic indentation tests with simultaneous ultrasonic excitation of similar displacement/amplitude ratios. Electron microscopy analyses reveal subgrain formation under the CSM nanoindents, which is also a feature of ultrasonically deformed bulk aluminium. The Oliver?Pharr and CSM method of hardness measurement are found to be erroneous with the CSM mode switched on. (shrink)
The weak beam technique is used to obtain a value for the stacking-fault energy of copper. The observed partial dislocation image spacings are compared with many-beam computational models and it is demonstrated that anisotropic elasticity theory breaks down for small partial dislocation spacings in copper.
A short review is provided of the way the weak-beam technique was developed for observing dislocations at higher resolution than previously attained. Some of the early applications of the technique are described.
Within the framework of an international benchmark test, the Soret coefficient S T , thermal diffusion coefficient D T and mutual mass diffusion coefficient D of the three binary mixtures of dodecane, isobutylbenzene and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene with a concentration of 50 wt% of each component at a temperature of 25°C have been measured with a holographic grating technique. For the analysis of the experimental data a new numerical correction algorithm based on linear response theory has been employed. The corrections applied (...) are on the order of 1% for S T and 5% for D . The coefficients S T , D and D T are determined with relative errors of a few per cent. (shrink)
Summary L. J. M. Daguerre realized it was impossible to capitalize by subscription or to patent his daguerreotype technique. In January 1839 François Arago, both scientist and Republican politician, suggested that financial support for Daguerre should be sought from the state in return for his secret. The idea made no immediate headway because of governmental breakdown. Only after a new cabinet was established in May 1839 could any procedure be set in motion to obtain the agreement of parliament. After (...) discussing attitudes towards patents and pensions during the July Monarchy, the article documents the way the Bill for a pension passed through parliament in June and July 1839. An annotated bibliography of the government Bill and Arago's Report to the Chambre des Députés are provided, as well as Arago's Lecture of 19 August 1839 by which a description of Daguerre's process was released to the world. (shrink)
The weak-beam technique of electron microscopy has been used to investigate plate-like G.P. zones in aluminium-copper alloys. For aluminium-1-48 and 3-97 wt% copper alloys aged at 80, 100 and 130°C, G.P. (I) zones of about 35 to 100 Å in diameter were observed. In dark-field images, using the (002) reflection with |s| ? 0-45 to 1-1 ? 10?2 Å?1 the zones appeared as pairs of bright lines, the separation of which depends on the magnitude of [s]. Similarly in alloys (...) containing G.P. (II) zones, the images showed pairs of bright lines with a slightly wider separation than the G.P. (1) zone images, sometimes accompanied by a series of closely spaced fringes. The pairs of bright lines were interpreted as corresponding to individual G.P. (I) and (II) zones by comparison with computed image profiles. The experimental images are in good agreement with images computed for a model having a displacement field corresponding to a circular edge loop lying on the habit plane of the G.P. zones, with a Burgers vector equal to 0.2o, where ?o, is the lattice parameter of aluminium. These results are compared with Gerold's model of G.P. zones. (shrink)