Search results for 'Teleology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Natural Teleology (2008). The Role of Material and Efficient Causes in Aristotle's Natural Teleology Margaret Scharle. In John Mouracade (ed.), Aristotle on Life. Academic Print. And Pub.. 41--3.score: 120.0
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  2. Antonio Nunziante (2008). Back to the Roots. “Functions” and “Teleology” in the Philosophy of Leibniz. In Luca Illetterati & Francesca Michelini (eds.), Purposiveness. Teleology between Nature and Mind. Ontos Verlag.score: 21.0
    It is certainly true that in early modern thought the emergence of a new science changed the image of the universe in a mechanistic way. It must be considered, though, that most of the main protagonists of this revolution (Kepler, Newton, Leibniz, ‘biologists’ like Leeuwenhoek, Hartsoeker, Hooke, Malpighi, Redi, etc.) still continued to consider the importance and the utility of a finalistic explanation of natural phenomena. Concepts like “function”, “self-organization”, “organism” have roots in early modern thought: not only from a (...)
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  3. Rich Cameron (2004). How to Be a Realist About Sui Generis Teleology Yet Feel at Home in the 21st Century. The Monist 87 (1):72-95.score: 18.0
    The reigning orthodoxy on biological teleology assumes that teleology either must be reduced (or eliminated) or it depends on a supernatural agent. The dominant orthodox sect rejects supernaturalism and eliminitivism, and, given the poverty of competing views has been allowed to become complacent about the adequacy of favored reductivist accounts. These are beset by more serious problems than proponents acknowledge. Moreover, the assumption underlying orthodoxy is false; there is an alternative scientifically and philosophically plausible naturalistic account of (...). We can share reductivists’ realism about biological teleology, embrace ontological and epistemological naturalism about science as well as science’s the ontic authority yet accept sui generis teleology conceived along ontologically emergentist lines. I sketch one such emergentist account, one that deserves serious consideration if supernaturalism and eliminitivism are as impoverished as reductionists believe. (shrink)
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  4. Gary Banham (2007). Practical Schematism, Teleology and the Unity of the Metaphysics of Morals. In Kyriaki Goudeli, Pavlos Kontos & Iolis Patellis (eds.), Kant: Making Reason Intuitive. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 18.0
    In this piece I address the question of how the two parts of the *Metaphysics of Morals* are to be related to each other through invocation of the notion of practical schematism. In the process I argue that understanding the notion of moral teleology will help us address the relationship between Kant's principles of right, virtue and the categorical imperative.
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  5. Mariska Leunissen (2010). Explanation and Teleology in Aristotle's Science of Nature. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    In Aristotle's teleological view of the world, natural things come to be and are present for the sake of some function or end (for example, wings are present in birds for the sake of flying). Whereas much of recent scholarship has focused on uncovering the (meta-)physical underpinnings of Aristotle's teleology and its contrasts with his notions of chance and necessity, this book examines Aristotle's use of the theory of natural teleology in producing explanations of natural phenomena. Close analyses (...)
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  6. Monte Ransome Johnson (2005). Aristotle on Teleology. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Aristotle's has been the most influential philosophy in the whole history of science. Monte Johnson examines its most controversial aspect: Aristotle's emphasis on the importance of goals and purposes to scientific understanding--his teleology. In some cases this policy has proved deeply flawed, for example in his earth-centric cosmology, or his anthropology purporting to justify slavery and male domination. But in many areas Aristotle's teleology has been successful, and remains influential, for example in adaptationist evolutionary theory, embryology, and genetics. (...)
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  7. Mohan Matthen (1991). Naturalism and Teleology. Journal of Philosophy 88 (11):656-657.score: 18.0
    A brief comment on Mark Bedau's critique of naturalist theories of teleology. A positive account is offered in "Teleology and the Product Analogy".
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  8. James Kreines (forthcoming). Kant and Hegel on Teleology and Life From the Perspective of Debates About Free Will. In Thomas Khurana (ed.), THE FREEDOM OF LIFE. Hegelian Perspectives. Walther König.score: 18.0
    Kant’s treatment of teleology and life in the Critique of the Power of Judgment is complicated and difficult to interpret; Hegel’s response adds considerable complexity. I propose a new way of understanding the underlying philosophical issues in this debate, allowing a better understanding of the underlying structure of the arguments in Kant and Hegel. My new way is unusual: I use for an interpretive lens some structural features of familiar debates about freedom of the will. These debates, I argue, (...)
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  9. Jason Ford (2011). Tye-Dyed Teleology and the Inverted Spectrum. Philosophical Studies 156 (2):267-281.score: 18.0
    Michael Tye’s considered position on visual experience combines representationalism with externalism about color, so when considering spectrum inversion, he needs a principled reason to claim that a person with inverted color vision is seeing things incorrectly. Tye’s responses to the problem of the inverted spectrum ( 2000 , in: Consciousness, color, and content, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA and 2002a , in: Chalmers (ed.) Philosophy of mind: classical and contemporary readings, Oxford University Press, Oxford) rely on a teleological approach to (...)
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  10. Wayne Christensen (1996). A Complex Systems Theory of Teleology. Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):301-320.score: 18.0
    Part I [sections 2–4] draws out the conceptual links between modern conceptions of teleology and their Aristotelian predecessor, briefly outlines the mode of functional analysis employed to explicate teleology, and develops the notion of cybernetic organisation in order to distinguish teleonomic and teleomatic systems. Part II is concerned with arriving at a coherent notion of intentional control. Section 5 argues that intentionality is to be understood in terms of the representational properties of cybernetic systems. Following from this, section (...)
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  11. Andrew Woodfield (1976). Teleology. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    INTRODUCTION I What is teleology? If you ever look closely at an ants' nest, you will see an intricate network of pathways and chambers teeming with ...
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  12. Robert C. Koons (1998). Teleology as Higher-Order Causation: A Situation-Theoretic Account. Minds and Machines 8 (4):559-585.score: 18.0
    Situation theory, as developed by Barwise and his collaborators, is used to demonstrate the possibility of defining teleology (and related notions, like that of proper or biological function) in terms of higher order causation, along the lines suggested by Taylor and Wright. This definition avoids the excessive narrowness that results from trying to define teleology in terms of evolutionary history or the effects of natural selection. By legitimating the concept of teleology, this definition also provides promising new (...)
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  13. William Joseph FitzPatrick (2000). Teleology and the Norms of Nature. Garland Pub..score: 18.0
    This work is an examination of teleological attributions (i.e. ascriptions of proper functions and natural ends) to the features and behavior of living things, with a view ultimately to understanding their application to human life and the significance they may or may not have for an understanding of human nature and values. The author argues that such teleological attributions do indeed apply to living things, including human beings, and that this sheds substantial light on what living things are; interestingly, it (...)
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  14. Jonathan Jacobs (1986). Teleology and Reduction in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 1 (4):389-399.score: 18.0
    The main claim in this paper is that because organisms have teleological constitutions, the reduction of biology to physical science is not possible. It is argued that the teleology of organisms is intrinsic and not merely projected onto them. Many organic phenomena are end-oriented and reference to ends is necessary for explaining them. Accounts in terms of functions or goals are appropriate to organic parts and processes. siis is because ends as systemic requirements for survival and health have explanatory (...)
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  15. F. J. K. Soontiëns (1991). Evolution: Teleology or Chance? [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 22 (1):133-141.score: 18.0
    Revaluation of the problem of natural teleology seems an important precondition for elucidating our environmental crisis and for formulating an 'econological ethics', because it calls for a recognition of an intrinsic value in nature and organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to show that the concept of natural teleology is not in contradiction with scientific theories, in particular not with the theory of evolution. In this paper I shall argue that there is a fundamental misunderstanding about the concepts of (...)
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  16. Brian Jonathan Garrett (2010). Santayana's Treatment of Teleology. Bulletin of the Santayana Society 28 (28):1-10.score: 18.0
    Santayana's epiphenomenalism is best understood as part of his thinking about teleology and final causes. Santayana makes a distinction between final causes, which he rejects, and teleology, which he finds ubiquitous. Mental causation is identified with a doctrine of final causes which he argues is an absurd form of causation. Thus mental causes are rejected and Santayana embraces epiphenomenalism.
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  17. Israel Idalovichi (1992). Life and Teleology. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 23 (1):85-103.score: 18.0
    A comprehensive definition of the phenomenon called "life" led to the addition of many dimensions to the natural sciences, and especially the conscious mental dimension. Historical attention is paid not only to those employing the natural philosophical paradigms, but also to evolutionary theories and to the Kantian teleological philosophy. The belief that science can solve the riddle of life is a category of purposal thinking. A revised version of critical teleology is essential for comprehension of life.
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  18. Philip Van Loocke (2002). Deep Teleology in Artificial Systems. Minds and Machines 12 (1):87-104.score: 18.0
    Teleological variations of non-deterministic processes are defined. The immediate past of a system defines the state from which the ordinary (non-teleological) dynamical law governing the system derives different possible present states. For every possible present state, again a number of possible states for the next time step can be defined, and so on. After k time steps, a selection criterion is applied. The present state leading to the selected state after k time steps is taken to be the effective present (...)
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  19. Julia Jorati (2013). Monadic Teleology Without Goodness and Without God. The Leibniz Review 23:43-72.score: 18.0
    Most interpreters think that for Leibniz, teleology is goodness-directedness. Explaining a monadic action teleologically, according to them, simply means explaining it in terms of the goodness of the state at which the agent aims. On some interpretations, the goodness at issue is always apparent goodness: an action is end-directed iff it aims at what appears good to the agent. On other interpretations, the goodness at issue is only sometimes apparent goodness and at other times merely objective goodness: some actions (...)
     
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  20. Julia Jorati (forthcoming). Three Types of Spontaneity and Teleology in Leibniz. Journal of the History of Philosophy.score: 18.0
    Leibniz holds that all substances are spontaneous, that is, that all states of a given substance originate within it. Several commentators distinguish two kinds of spontaneity. This paper sharpens and expands this distinction by arguing that we need to distinguish not just two, but three types of spontaneity. This in turn sheds light on Leibniz’s otherwise puzzling views on teleology. The paper argues that there is an intimate connection between spontaneity and teleology and that a type of (...) corresponds to each type of spontaneity. Making these distinctions can help us understand, among other things, how Leibniz can account for significant differences between different types of actions while maintaining that all monadic activity is teleological and spontaneous. (shrink)
     
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  21. Mariska Leunissen & Allan Gotthelf (2010). What's Teleology Got to Do with It? A Reinterpretation of Aristotle's Generation of Animals V. Phronesis 55 (4):325-356.score: 16.0
    Despite the renewed interest in Aristotle’s Generation of Animals in recent years, the subject matter of GA V, its preferred mode(s) of explanation, and its place in the treatise as a whole remain misunderstood. Scholars focus on GA I-IV, which explain animal generation in terms of efficient-final causation, but dismiss GA V as a mere appendix, thinking it to concern (a) individual, accidental differences among animals, which are (b) purely materially necessitated, and (c) are only tangentially related to the topics (...)
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  22. Karen M. Nielsen (2008). The Private Parts of Animals: Aristotle on the Teleology of Sexual Difference. Phronesis 53 (s 4-5):373-405.score: 16.0
    In this paper I examine Aristotle's account of sexual difference in Generation of Animals, arguing that Aristotle conceives of the production of males as the result of a successful teleological process, while he sees the production of females as due to material forces that defeat the norms of nature. My suggestion is that Aristotle endorses what I call the "degrees of perfection" model. I challenge Devin Henry's attempt to argue that Aristotle explains sex determination exclusively with reference to material necessity (...)
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  23. Robert Friedman (1986). Necessitarianism and Teleology in Aristotle's Biology. Biology and Philosophy 1 (3):355-365.score: 16.0
    In Aristotle's biological works, there is an apparent conflict between passages which seem to insist that only hypothetical necessity (anagk ex hypotheses) operates in the sublunary world, and passages in which some biological phenomena are explained as simply (hapls) necessary. Parallel to this textual problem lies the claim that explanations in terms of simple necessity render teleological explanations (in some of which Aristotle puts hypothetical necessity to use) superfluous. I argue that the textual conflict is only apparent, and that Aristotle's (...)
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  24. Jonathan Knowles (1999). Physicalism, Teleology and the Miraculous Coincidence Problem. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (195):164-81.score: 16.0
    I focus on Fodor’s model of the relationship between special sciences and basic physics, and on a criticism of this model, that it implies that the causal stability of, e.g., the mental in its production of behaviour is nothing short of a miraculous coincidence. David Papineau and Graham Macdonaldendorse this criticism. But it is far less clear than they assume that Fodor’s picture indeed involves coincidences, which in any case their injection of a teleological supplement cannot explain. Papineau’s and Macdonald’s (...)
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  25. Devin Henry, Optimality and Teleology in Aristotle's Natural Science.score: 15.0
    In this paper I examine the role of optimality reasoning in Aristotle’s natural science. By “optimality reasoning” I mean reasoning that appeals to some conception of “what is best” in order to explain why things are the way they are. We are first introduced to this pattern of reasoning in the famous passage at Phaedo 97b8-98a2, where (Plato’s) Socrates invokes “what is best” as a cause (aitia) of things in nature. This passage can be seen as the intellectual ancestor of (...)
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  26. Nicky Kroll (2012). Events in Progress, Dispositions, and Teleology. Dissertation, Yale Universityscore: 15.0
  27. William Charlton (1991). Teleology and Mental States. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 17:17-32.score: 15.0
  28. Scott R. Sehon (1994). Teleology and the Nature of Mental States. American Philosophical Quarterly 31 (1):63-72.score: 15.0
  29. Mark Perlman (2002). Pagan Teleology: Adaptational Role and the Philosophy of Mind. In Andre Ariew, Robert Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.), Functions. Oxford University Press. 263-290.score: 15.0
  30. William E. Lyons (1992). Intentionality and Modern Philosophical Psychology, III--The Appeal to Teleology. Philosophical Psychology 5 (3):309-326.score: 15.0
    This article is the sequel to 'Intentionality and Modern philosophical psychology, I. The modern reduction of intentionality,' (Philosophical Psychology, 3 (2), 1990) which examined the view of intentionality pioneered by Carnap and reaching its apotheosis in the work of Daniel Dennett. In 'Intentionality and modem philosophical psychology, II. The return to representation' (Philosophical Psychology, 4(1), 1991) I examined the approach to intentionality which can be traced back to the work of Noam Chomsky but which has been given its canonical treatment (...)
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  31. James G. Lennox (1994). Teleology by Another Name: A Reply to Ghiselin. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 9 (4):493-495.score: 15.0
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  32. Martin Lin (2006). Teleology and Human Action in Spinoza. Philosophical Review 115 (3):317-354.score: 15.0
  33. David Papineau (1991). Teleology and Mental States. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 65:33-54.score: 15.0
  34. John D. McFarland (1970). Kant's Concept of Teleology. [Edinburgh]University of Edinburgh Press.score: 15.0
  35. Alden O. Weber & David Rapaport (1941). Teleology and the Emotions. Philosophy of Science 8 (January):69-82.score: 15.0
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  36. Peter McLaughlin (1990). Kant's Critique of Teleology in Biological Explanation: Antinomy and Teleology. E. Mellen Press.score: 15.0
  37. William Glen Harris (1941). Teleology in the Philosophy of Joseph Butler and Abraham Tucker.score: 15.0
  38. Ernest Nagel (1979). Teleology Revisited and Other Essays in the Philosophy and History of Science. Columbia University Press.score: 15.0
     
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  39. William Louis Rabenstein (1934). The Problem of Teleology in Relation to the Views of Bosanquet, Royce, B. Russell and S. Alexander. [Ithaca, N.Y.].score: 15.0
  40. Todd A. Salzman (1995). Deontology and Teleology: An Investigation of the Normative Debate in Roman Catholic Moral Theology. Uitgeverij Peeters.score: 15.0
     
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  41. Miriam Ronzoni (2010). Teleology, Deontology, and the Priority of the Right: On Some Unappreciated Distinctions. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (4):453 - 472.score: 12.0
    The paper analyses Rawls's teleology/deontology distinction, and his concept of priority of the right. The first part of the paper aims both 1) to clarify what is distinctive about Rawls's deontology/teleology distinction (thus sorting out some existing confusion in the literature, especially regarding the conflation of such distinction with that between consequentialism and nonconsequentialism); and 2) to cash out the rich taxonomy of moral theories that such a distinction helpfully allows us to develop. The second part of the (...)
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  42. Mariska Leunissen (forthcoming). Biology and Teleology in Aristotle’s Account of the City. In Julius Rocca (ed.), Teleology in the Ancient World: The Dispensation of Nature. Cambridge.score: 12.0
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  43. Hannah Ginsborg, Kant's Aesthetics and Teleology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 12.0
    While Kant is perhaps best known for his writings in metaphysics and epistemology (in particular the Critique of Pure Reason of 1781, with a second edition in 1787) and in ethics (the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals of 1785 and the Critique of Practical Reason of 1788), he also developed an influential and much-discussed theory of aesthetics. This theory is presented in his Critique of Judgment Kritik der Urteilskraft , also translated as Critique of the Power of Judgment ) (...)
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  44. Rich Cameron (2010). Aristotle's Teleology. Philosophy Compass 5 (12):1096-1106.score: 12.0
    Teleology is the study of ends and goals, things whose existence or occurrence is purposive. Aristotle’s views on teleology are of seminal importance, particularly his views regarding biological functions or purposes. This article surveys core examples of Aristotle’s invocations of teleology; explores philosophically puzzling aspects of teleology (including their normativity and the fact that ends can, apparently, act as causes despite never coming to exist); articulates two of Aristotle’s arguments defending commitment to teleology against critics (...)
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  45. Mark Schroeder (2007). Teleology, Agent‐Relative Value, and 'Good'. Ethics 117 (2):265-000.score: 12.0
    It is now generally understood that constraints play an important role in commonsense moral thinking and generally accepted that they cannot be accommodated by ordinary, traditional consequentialism. Some have seen this as the most conclusive evidence that consequentialism is hopelessly wrong,1 while others have seen it as the most conclusive evidence that moral common sense is hopelessly paradoxical.2 Fortunately, or so it is widely thought, in the last twenty-five years a new research program, that of Agent-Relative Teleology, has come (...)
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  46. Hannah Ginsborg (2006). Kant's Biological Teleology and Its Philosophical Significance. In A Companion to Kant. Blackwell Publishing.score: 12.0
    The article surveys Kant’s treatment of biological teleology in the ’Critique of Judgment’, with special attention to the question of whether the notion of natural teleology is coherent. It argues that our entitlement to regard nature as teleological is not established by the argument of the ’Antinomy’, but rather results from our entitlement to regard the workings of our own cognitive faculties in normative terms. This implies a view of the relation between biological teleology and the representational (...)
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  47. James Kreines (2005). The Inexplicability of Kant's Naturzweck: Kant on Teleology, Explanation and Biology. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 87 (3):270-311.score: 12.0
    Kant’s position on teleology and biology is neither inconsistent nor obsolete; his arguments have some surprising and enduring philosophical strengths. But Kant’s account will appear weak if we muddy the waters by reading him as aiming to defend teleology by appealing to considerations popular in contemporary philosophy. Kant argues for very different conclusions: we can neither know teleological judgments of living beings to be true, nor legitimately explain living beings in teleological terms; such teleological judgment is justified only (...)
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  48. James E. Macdonald & Caryn L. Beck-Dudley (1994). Are Deontology and Teleology Mutually Exclusive? Journal of Business Ethics 13 (8):615 - 623.score: 12.0
    Current discussions of business ethics usually only consider deontological and utilitarian approaches. What is missing is a discussion of traditional teleology, often referred to as virtue ethics. While deontology and teleology are useful, they both suffer insufficiencies. Traditional teleology, while deontological in many respects, does not object to utilitarian style calculations as long as they are contained within a moral framework that is not utilitarian in its origin. It contains the best of both approaches and can be (...)
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  49. Robert C. Cummins (2002). Neo-Teleology. In Andre Ariew, Robert E. Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.), Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology. Oxford University Press.score: 12.0
    Neo-teleology is the two part thesis that, e.g., (i) we have hearts because of what hearts are for: Hearts are for blood circulation, not the production of a pulse, so hearts are there--animals have them--because their function is to circulate the blood, and (ii) that (i) is explained by natural selection: traits spread through populations because of their functions. This paper attacks this popular doctrine. The presence of a biological trait or structure is not explained by appeal to its (...)
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  50. Andre Ariew (2007). Teleology. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.score: 12.0
    Teleology in biology is making headline news in the United States. Conservative Christians are utilizing a teleological argument for the existence of a supremely intelligent designer to justify legislation calling for the teaching of "intelligent design" (ID) in public schools. Teleological arguments of one form or another have been around since Antiquity. The contemporary argument from intelligent design varies little from William Paley's argument written in 1802. Both argue that nature exhibits too much complexity to be explained by 'mindless' (...)
     
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