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Profile: Thaddeus Metz (University of Johannesburg)
  1. Thaddeus Metz, An Ubuntu-Based Evaluation of the State’s Responses to Marikana: Where’s the Reconciliation?
    In this article, I consider the ethical status of the South African government’s responses to the Marikana tragedy, in which police shot and killed more than 30 striking miners, in light of a moral principle grounded on values associated with ubuntu. I argue that there are several respects in which the government’s reactions have been unethical from an ubuntu-oriented perspective, and also make positive suggestions about what it instead should have been doing. Much of what I recommend amounts to contending (...)
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  2. Hester du Plessis & Thaddeus Metz (eds.) (forthcoming). The Philosophy of Chinese Civilization. Real African Publishers.
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  3. Ward Jones & Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). The Politics of Doing Philosophy in Africa (Tentative Title). South African Journal of Philosophy 34 (4).
  4. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). An African Egalitarianism: Bringing Community to Bear on Equality. In George Hull (ed.), The Equal Society.
    What might egalitarianism look like if it were derived not from Western moral principles such as utilitarianism and Kantianism, but rather one informed by another, sub-Saharan African tradition? Would it prescribe the same kinds of approaches to distributive, and in particular economic, justice at the national level and for the same reasons? In this chapter, I consider what prima facie attractive communitarian ethical perspectives salient among indigenous peoples below the Sahara entail for distributive justice within a state, and I argue (...)
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  5. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). An African Theory of Social Justice. In Camilla Boisen & Matt Murray (eds.), Distributive Justice Debates in the History of Political and Social Thought: Finding A Fair Share. Routledge.
    A comprehensive account of justice grounded on salient Afro-communitarian values, the article attempts to unify views about the distribution of economic resources, the protection of human rights and the provision of social recognition as ultimately being about proper ways to value loving relationships.
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  6. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). African Ethics, Revised Edition. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley.
    An updated version of this 4000 word overview of the meta-, normative and applied ethical dimensions of contemporary sub-Saharan moral philosophy.
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  7. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Africanising Institutional Culture: What is Possible and Plausible. In Pedro Tabensky & Sally Matthews (eds.), Being at Home: Race, Institutional Culture and Transformation at South African Higher Education Institutions. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.
    Since the transition to a constitutional order, in what respects have cultures in higher education institutions in South Africa become Africanised, and, going forward, how should they be? In this chapter I provide an overview of the major different forms that Africanisation of institutional culture could take, and I then indicate the respects in which South African universities have or have not taken them on board over the past 20 years. In addition, I provide the first comprehensive critical discussion of (...)
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  8. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). African Political Philosophy. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley.
    I critically discuss contemporary work in African, i.e., sub-Saharan, political philosophy that has been written in English. I begin by providing an overview of the profession and discussing the aptness of focusing on African political philosophy as a distinct topic. Next, I highlight discussions that should be of interest to a political philosopher working anywhere in the world, focusing on ideas characteristic of the sub-Saharan region that are under-appreciated not merely for the purpose of comparative ethics, but also for substantive (...)
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  9. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). A Theory of National Reconciliation: Some Insights From Africa. In Claudio Corradetti, Nir Eisikovits & Jack Rotondi (eds.), Theorizing Transitional Justice. Ashgate.
    In this contribution I articulate a theory of national reconciliation informed by salient sub-Saharan ideas about community, and apply it to a variety of topics salient in South African and other discourses on the topic, such as truth-telling, apology, forgiveness and amnesty, in order both to illustrate and motivate the theory and to shed light on these topics.
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  10. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Climate Change in Africa and the Middle East in Light of Health and Salient Regional Values. In Cheryl Macpherson (ed.), Climate Change and Health: Bioethical Insights into Values and Policy. Springer.
    A discussion of respects in which climate change is likely to affect health in Africa and the Middle East with some reference to moral values salient in respective regions.
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  11. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Critical Notice of Guy Bennett-Hunter, Ineffability and Religious Experience. Philosophia 43.
    A review essay on Guy Bennett-Hunter's new book, Ineffability and Religious Experience, particularly as it bears on issues concerning meaning in life.
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  12. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Exploring the Ethical Foundations of Nkrumah’s Consciencism. In Martin Ajei (ed.), Disentangling Consciencism: Essays on Kwame Nkrumah's Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield.
    In this chapter I critically discuss the meta-ethical and normative ethical foundations of Nkrumah’s philosophy as discussed in Consciencism. With respect to meta-ethics, I address Nkrumah’s characteristically African attempt to ground ethics on metaphysics, and, specifically, his claim that a basic egalitarian moral principle follows from a materialist ontology. Granting Nkrumah that reality is ultimately physical and that the physical is unitary, I argue that nothing logically follows about whether human beings have an equal worth. However, on Nkrumah’s behalf I (...)
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  13. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). How to Obtain Meaning in Life: The Roles of Self-Inflation, Self-Deception and World-Delusion. Philosophical Psychology.
    Part of a special Issue on Robert Trivers’ The Folly of Fools: The Logic of Deceit and Self‐Deception in Human Life, with some focus on the implication of self-deception and related mental states for meaning in life.
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  14. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). How the West Was One: The Western as Individualist, the African as Communitarian. Educational Philosophy and Theory.
    There is a kernel of truth in the claim that Western, and especially Anglo-American-Australasian, normative philosophy, including that relating to the philosophy of education, is individualistic; it tends to prize properties that are internal to a human being such as her autonomy, rationality, pleasure, desires, self-esteem, self-realization and virtues relating to, say, her intellect. One notable exception is the idea that students ought to be educated in order to be (world) citizens, participants in a democratic and cosmopolitan order, but, compared (...)
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  15. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Life, Meaning Of. In Henk ten Have (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. Springer.
    An overview of how themes regarding meaning in life and related values enter into bioethical thought and discourses, with discussion of the point of healthcare, the relevance of 'non-moral' goods when practicing medicine, the justifiability of assisted suicide/euthanasia, and similar kinds of topics.
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  16. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Mandela and Ubuntu. In Sabelo Ndlovu-Gatsheni & Busani Ngcaweni (eds.), Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela: Decolonial Ethics of Liberation and Servant Leadership.
  17. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Relational Ethics: An African Moral Theory. Oxford University Press.
  18. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Reply to Cottingham, Goetz, Goldschmidt, Jech and Wielenberg (Tentative Title). European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (2).
    A reply to several critical discussions of Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study.
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  19. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Reply to Morioka Et Al. (Tentative Title). Journal of Philosophy of Life 5.
    A reply to several critical discussions of Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study.
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  20. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). The Meaning of Life. In Duncan Pritchard (ed.), What is This Thing Called Philosophy? Routledge.
    A lengthy introduction to the issue of meaning in life, aimed at undergraduates and generally educated readers.
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  21. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). The Meaning of Life and the Afterlife. In Benjamin Matheson & Yujin Nagasawa (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook on the Afterlife. Palgrave Macmillan. Ch. 16.
    A critical discussion of key positions pertaining to the relationship between an afterlife and what would make a life meaningful, aimed at upper level undergraduates and above.
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  22. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Ubuntu as a Constitutional Principle. In Stu Woolman (ed.), Constitutional Law of South Africa, 2nd Edition. Juta.
    A critical overview of the way ubuntu has figured into Constitutional law in South Africa and the way that it should.
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  23. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Values in China as Compared to Africa. In Hester du Plessis & Thaddeus Metz (eds.), The Philosophy of Chinese Civilization. MISTRA.
    An overview of moral and non-moral values salient in the Chinese tradition, particularly in its Confucian vein, and a comparison of them with those recurrent in the sub-Saharan tradition. Although both traditions are closer to one another than they are to standard Western perspectives, they are found nonetheless to differ in several important ways.
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  24. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). The Proper Aim of Therapy: Subjective Ends, Objective Goodness, or a Meaningful Life? In Alexander Batthyany, Pninit Russo-Netzer & Stefan Schulenberg (eds.), Meaning in Positive and Existential Psychotherapy (Tentative Title). Zeig, Tucker, and Thiessen Inc. Publishers.
    Therapists tend to hold one of two broad views about how to help their patients. On the one hand, some maintain that the basic point of therapy is to help patients become clear about what they want deep down and to enable them to achieve it by overcoming mental blockages. On the other hand, there are those who contend that the aim of therapy should instead be to enable patients to live objectively good lives, perhaps ones that involve developing their (...)
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  25. Thaddeus Metz & Sarah Clark Miller (forthcoming). Relational Ethics. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    An overview of relational approaches to ethics, which contrast with individualist and holist ones.
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  26. Thaddeus Metz (2014). African Values and Human Rights as Two Sides of the Same Coin: Reply to Oyowe. African Human Rights Law Journal 14 (2).
    In an article previously published in this Journal, Anthony Oyowe critically engages with my attempt to demonstrate how the human rights characteristic of South Africa’s Constitution can be grounded on a certain interpretation of Afro-communitarian values that are often associated with talk of ‘ubuntu’. Drawing on recurrent themes of human dignity and communal relationships in the sub-Saharan tradition, I have advanced a moral-philosophical principle that I argue entails and plausibly explains a wide array of individual rights to civil liberties, political (...)
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  27. Thaddeus Metz (2014). African Values, Human Rights and Group Rights: A Philosophical Foundation for the Banjul Charter. In Oche Onazi (ed.), African Legal Theory and Contemporary Problems: Critical Essays. Springer. 131-51.
    A communitarian perspective, which is characteristic of African normative thought, accords some kind of primacy to society or a group, whereas human rights are by definition duties that others have to treat individuals in certain ways, even when not doing so would be better for others. Is there any place for human rights in an Afro-communitarian political and legal philosophy, and, if so, what is it? I seek to answer these questions, in part by critically exploring one of the most (...)
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  28. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Dignity in the Ubuntu Tradition. In Marcus Düwell (ed.), Cambridge Handbook on Human Dignity. Cambridge University Press. 310-18.
    I draw on ideas commonly advocated by adherents to ubuntu, the term often used to capture sub-Saharan morality, in order to spell out, and sometimes construct, understandings of human dignity that are worth taking seriously by professional ethicists, moral philosophers, jurisprudential scholars and Constitutional Courts anywhere in the world. In particular, I seek to articulate a theory of dignity grounded in African values that could serve as a genuine rival to the influential Kantian conception that currently dominates most intellectual reflection (...)
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  29. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Fundamental Conditions of Human Existence as the Ground of Life’s Meaning: Reply to Landau. Religious Studies:1-13.
    Taking the good (generosity), the true (enquiry), and the beautiful (creativity) as exemplars of what can make a life noticeably meaningful, elsewhere I have advanced a principle that entails and plausibly explains all three. Specifically, I have proffered the view that great meaning in life, at least insofar as it comes from this triad, is a matter of positively orienting one’s rational nature towards fundamental conditions of human existence, conditions of human life responsible for much else about it. Iddo Landau (...)
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  30. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Gross National Happiness: A Philosophical Appraisal. Ethics and Social Welfare 8 (3):218-232.
    For more than 40 years, the Kingdom of Bhutan has eschewed evaluating its socio-economic status in terms of Gross Domestic Product and has instead done so under the heading of ‘Gross National Happiness’. As part of the upswing in international interest in well-being as the proper final end of development, it would be apt to critically explore the approach that has been in use for several decades. In this article I expound the central elements of Gross National Happiness and discuss (...)
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  31. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Harmonizing Global Ethics in the Future: A Proposal to Add South and East to West. Journal of Global Ethics 10 (2):146-155.
    This article considers how global ethical matters might be approached differently in the English-speaking literature if values salient in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia were taken seriously. Specifically, after pointing out how indigenous values in both of these major parts of the world tend to prescribe honouring harmonious relationships, the article brings out what such an approach to morality entails for political power, foreign relations and criminal justice. For each major issue, it suggests that harmony likely has implications that differ (...)
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  32. Thaddeus Metz (2014). In Search of Ubuntu: A Political Philosopher’s View of Democratic South Africa. In Busani Ngcaweni (ed.), Liberation Diaries: Reflections on 20 Years of Democracy. Jacana. 205-214.
    In this essay I recount how I have been hoping to see more ubuntu in South Africa’s institutions than had been present in the two dominant socio-politico-economic models across the world in the 20th century. I haven’t been expecting utopia from the past 20 years of democracy; I’ve just wanted something new to come out of Africa. I here relate my experience of learning that it is not always forthcoming, at least not as quickly as I would have liked. However, (...)
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  33. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Just the Beginning for Ubuntu: Reply to Matolino and Kwindingwi. South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (1):65-72.
    In an article titled ‘The end of ubuntu’ recently published in this journal, Bernard Matolino and Wenceslaus Kwindingwi argue that contemporary conditions in (South) Africa are such that there is no justification for appealing to an ethic associated with talk of ‘ubuntu’. They argue that political elites who invoke ubuntu do so in ways that serve nefarious functions, such as unreasonably narrowing discourse about how best to live, while the moral ideals of ubuntu are appropriate only for a bygone, pre-modern (...)
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  34. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Life Worth Living. In Alex Michalos (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-being Research. Springer. 3602-05.
    In this encyclopedia entry, I seek to distinguish the concept of a worthwhile life from related ones such as a happy or meaningful life, to draw key distinctions that arise in discussion of worthwhileness (e.g., between life worth starting and life worth continuing), and to discuss some of the contemporary debates among ethicists about when a life is indeed worth living and when it's not.
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  35. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Meaning as a Distinct and Fundamental Value: Reply to Kershnar. Science, Religion and Culture 1 (2):101-106.
    In this article, I reply to a critical notice of my book, Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study, that Stephen Kershnar has published elsewhere in this issue of Science, Religion & Culture. Beyond expounding the central conclusions of the book, Kershnar advances two major criticisms of it, namely, first, that I did not provide enough evidence that meaning in life is a genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if there (...)
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  36. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Questioning South Africa’s ‘Genetic Link’ Requirement for Surrogacy. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 7 (1):34-39.
    South African law currently forbids those seeking to arrange a surrogate motherhood agreement from creating a child that will not be genetically related to at least one of them. For a surrogacy contract to be legally valid, there must be a ‘genetic link’ between the child created through a surrogate and the parents who will raise it. Currently, this law is being challenged in the High Court of South Africa, and in this article I critically explore salient ethical facets of (...)
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  37. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Review of Leonhard Praeg, A Report on Ubuntu, and of Leonhard Praeg and Siphokazi Magadla (Eds), Ubuntu: Curating the Archive. [REVIEW] Philosophical Papers 43 (3):447-453.
  38. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Ubuntu: The Good Life. In Alex Michalos (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-being Research. Springer. 6761-65.
    An overview of a characteristically African approach to the human good.
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  39. Segun Gbadegesin, Sandra A. McCalla, Kevin Behrens, Munamato Chemhuru, Isaac E. Ukpokolo, Justina O. Ehiakhamen, Jim I. Unah, Motsamai Molefe, Elizabeth Oluwafunmilayo Kehinde, Chris Tasie Osegenwune & Thaddeus Metz (eds.) (2013). Ontologized Ethics: New Essays in African Meta-Ethics. Lexington Books.
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  40. Thaddeus Metz (2013). A Dilemma About the Final Ends of Higher Education -- And a Resolution. Kagisano (The Higher Education Discussion Series) 9:23-41.
    In this article, written for the generally educated reader, I summarize my latest thinking about a dilemma that I believe current theoretical reflection faces about the proper ultimate aims of a public university. Specifically, I make the following three major points: (1) On the one hand, all dominant theories of how properly to spend public resources entail that academics should not pursue knowledge for its own sake and should rather devote their energies toward promoting some concrete public good (such as (...)
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  41. Thaddeus Metz (2013). African Ethics. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell. 129-38.
    I critically discuss contemporary work in African, i.e., sub-Saharan, moral philosophy that has been written in English. I begin by providing an overview of the profession, after which I consider some of the major issues in normative ethics, then discuss a few of the more noteworthy research in applied ethics, and finally take up the key issues in meta-ethics. My aim is to highlight discussions that should be of interest to an ethicist working anywhere in the world, focusing on ideas (...)
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  42. Thaddeus Metz (2013). The Virtues of African Ethics. In Stan van Hooft (ed.), The Handbook of Virtue Ethics. Acumen Publishing. 276-84.
    Since its inception as a professional field in the 1960s or so, African ethics has been neglected not only by virtue ethicists, but also by international scholars in moral philosophy generally. This is unfortunate, since sub-Saharan normative perspectives are characteristically virtue-centred, and, furthermore, are both different from traditional Western forms and just as worth taking seriously as they are. In my contribution, I spell out the two major respects in which virtue is a salient theme in African ethics, and critically (...)
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  43. Thaddeus Metz (2013). Engaging with the Philosophy of D A Masolo. Quest 25:7-15.
    This is an introduction to the special issue of Quest devoted to D. A. Masolo’s latest book, Self and Community in a Changing World. It situates this book in relation to not only Masolo’s earlier research on African philosophy but also the field more generally, sketches the central positions of the contributions to the journal issue, and in light of them makes some critical recommendations for future reflection.
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  44. Thaddeus Metz (2013). How God Could Assign Us a Purpose Without Disrespect: Reply to Salles. Quadranti - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia Contemporanea 1 (1):99-112.
    In one of the most widely read texts on what makes a life meaningful, composed more than 50 years ago, Kurt Baier presents an intriguing argument against the view that meaning in life would come by fulfilling a purpose God has assigned us. Baier contends that God could not avoid degrading us were He to assign us a purpose, which would mean that God, as a morally ideal being by definition, would not do so. Defenders of God-centred accounts of meaning (...)
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  45. Thaddeus Metz (2013). Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study. Oxford University Press.
    What makes a person's life meaningful? Thaddeus Metz offers a new answer to an ancient question which has recently returned to the philosophical agenda. He proceeds by examining what, if anything, all the conditions that make a life meaningful have in common. The outcome of this process is a philosophical theory of meaning in life. He starts by evaluating existing theories in terms of the classic triad of the good, the true, and the beautiful. He considers whether meaning in life (...)
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  46. Thaddeus Metz (2013). Meaning in Life as the Aim of Psychotherapy: A Hypothesis. In Joshua Hicks & Clay Routledge (eds.), The Experience of Meaning in Life: Classical Perspectives, Emerging Themes, and Controversies. Springer. 405-17.
    The point of psychotherapy has occasionally been associated with talk of ‘life’s meaning’. However, the literature on meaning in life written by contemporary philosophers has yet to be systematically applied to literature on the point of psychotherapy. My broad aim in this chapter is to indicate some plausible ways to merge these two tracks of material that have run in parallel up to now. More specifically, my hunch is that the connection between meaning as philosophers understand it and therapy as (...)
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  47. Thaddeus Metz (2013). The Desirability of a Property Clause: Michelman's Defence of Liberalism. Stellenbosch Law Review 25 (2):312-28.
    I address Frank Michelman’s recent attempts to dispel the notion that there are deep tensions between a liberal approach to constitution making and a resolute commitment to fighting poverty, i.e., to holding what he calls ‘social liberalism’. He focuses on the prima facie tension between anti-poverty struggle on the part of government and the existence of a property clause in a constitution, a tension that several commentators in South Africa have contended requires removing that clause from its Constitution. In reply, (...)
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  48. Thaddeus Metz (2013). Philosophy of Higher Education. In Duncan Pritchard (ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    A lengthy annotated bibliography of the most central work from the past 25 years on various aspects of the philosophy of higher education.
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  49. Thaddeus Metz (2013). Questioning African Attempts to Ground Ethics on Metaphysics. In John Bewaji & Elvis Imafidon (eds.), Ontologized Ethics: New Essays in African Meta-Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 189-204.
    In the literature on African moral philosophy, it is common to find normative conclusions about the way we ought to act directly drawn from purported metaphysical facts about the nature of ourselves and the world. For example, Kwame Gyekye, the most influential sub-Saharan political philosopher, attempts to defend moderate communitarianism, roughly the view that agents have strong duties to support others in ways that do not violate human rights, by contending that it follows from the dual nature of the self (...)
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