Search results for 'The General Editorial Committee' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. The General Editorial Committee (1946). At the Turning of the Year. Synthese 5 (7-8).score: 592.5
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  2. National Bioethics Committee (forthcoming). Opinion of the National Bioethics Committee on the Therapeutic Use of Stem Cells. Rome: National Bioethics Committee.score: 465.0
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  3. International Bioethics Committee (2009). Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO (IBC) on Consent. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1).score: 435.0
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  4. J.-J. Georges, A. M. The, B. D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen & G. van Der Wal (2008). Dealing with Requests for Euthanasia: A Qualitative Study Investigating the Experience of General Practitioners. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):150-155.score: 260.0
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  5. Thomas Erren, Juliane Groß, David Shaw & Barbara Selle (2014). The Representation of Women as Authors, Reviewers, Editors-in-Chief, and Editorial Board Members at Six General Medical Journals in 2010 and 2011. JAMA Internal Medicine 174 (4):633.score: 108.0
    Although more women continue to enter the medical profession, disparities between the sexes in academic medicine persist. This “gender gap” has implications for academic advancement. In 2006, Jagsi and colleagues reported that, although the proportion of women among first and last authors in the United States had significantly increased since 1970, women still represented a minority of the authors of original research and guest editorials in six prominent medical journals.1 In a related 2008 study, Jagsi and colleagues found a substantial (...)
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  6. William S. Lewis (2007). Editorial Introduction to Louis Althusser’s ‘Letter to the Central Committee of the PCF, 18 March, 1966’.”. Historical Materialism 15 (2):20.score: 93.0
    As an accompaniment to the translation into English of Louis Althusser's 'Letter to the Central Committee of the PCF, March 18th, 1966', this note provides the historical and theoretical context necessary to understand Althusser's 'anti-humanist' interventions into French Communist Party policy decisions during the mid-1960s. Because nowhere else in Althusser's published writings do we see as clearly the political stakes involved in his philosophical project, nor the way in which this project evolved from a 'theoreticist' pursuit into a more (...)
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  7. Alberto Toscano (2007). From Pin Factories to Gold Farmers: Editorial Introduction to a Research Stream on Cognitive Capitalism, Immaterial Labour, and the General Intellect. Historical Materialism 15 (1):3-11.score: 85.5
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  8. Cornelius L. Golightly (1961). Book Review:A Search for Man's Sanity: The Selected Letters of Trigant Burrow Editorial Committee of the Lifwynn Foundation. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 28 (1):94-.score: 85.5
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  9. K. U. Chernenko (1984). Speech of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, K. U. Chernenko, 13 February 1984. Russian Studies in Philosophy 23 (3):3-15.score: 85.5
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  10. Solomon Feferman (2010). GENERAL. The Gödel Editorial Project : A Synopsis. In Kurt Gödel, Solomon Feferman, Charles Parsons & Stephen G. Simpson (eds.), Kurt Gödel: Essays for His Centennial. Association for Symbolic Logic.score: 85.5
  11. José Luis Abreu Quintero & Mohammad Badii (2009). The Editorial Committee Thanks Profoundly the Collaboration of the Researchers That Have Published Their Assays and Research Reports in Our Pages Making Great Contributions in the Generation of New Knowledge and in the Promotion of the Academic Debate. Daena: International Journal of Good Conscience 4 (1).score: 85.5
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  12. Triple Helix (1998). Royal College of Nursing (UK) General Secretary, Christine Hancock, has Been Re-Elected President of the Largest European Nurses Organization, the Standing Committee of Nurses of the European Union (PCN). She Was Voted in for a Sec-Ond Two-Year Term at a Committee Meeting That Took Place in Delphi, Greece, on 30–31 October 1997. [REVIEW] Nursing Ethics 5 (2).score: 81.0
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  13. Henri Wijsbek (2001). How to Regulate a Practice: The Case of Cosmetic Surgery. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (1):59-74.score: 80.0
    How should a practice, subservient to a public good, be regulated in order to guarantee fair access without encouraging improper claims? In the first place, a clear understanding of the goal of the practice is indispensable for knowing what criteria the regulation must contain. As to the purely formal aspect, the regulation of any practice must include both general rules and particular instances. Finally, to resolve conflicts, committees in which different kinds of expertise are represented should be installed. These (...)
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  14. Mehmet Seyitdanlioglu (2010). 'Meclis-I Alî-I Umumî' (The Supreme Conseil-General) and the Transformation in the Ottoman Political Thought (1839-1876). [REVIEW] Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 8 (23):107-123.score: 75.0
    As one of the most important episodes of change in the Ottoman Empire, the Tanzimat Era (1839-1876) was a phase when the state and its political and ideological formation witnessed structural transformation and reforms. During this period, privy councils were instituted at every level, as one of the basic changes in decision-making and the legislation process of the Ottoman State. Meclis-i Âlî-i Umûmî (the Supreme Council-General) is located at the top of the counsulting hierarchy of councils at the administrative (...)
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  15. Koen Lenaerts* (2012). Defining the Concept of 'Services of General Interest' in Light of the 'Checks and Balances' Set Out in the EU Treaties. Jurisprudence 19 (4):1247-1267.score: 72.0
    This article aims to shed some light on the concepts embedded in the expressions ‘services of general interest’ (‘SGI’), ‘services of general economic interest’ (‘SGEI’), ‘non-economic services of general interest’ (‘NSGI’) and ‘social services of general interest’ (‘SSGI’). It is submitted that the expression ‘SGI’ conveys a general concept which comprises both SGEI and NSGI. SGEI may be distinguished from NSGI in that only the former involve an economic activity. In contrast to SGI, SGEI and (...)
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  16. Clinton Free, Vaughan S. Radcliffe & Brent White (2013). Crisis, Committees and Consultants: The Rise of Value-For-Money Auditing in the Federal Public Sector in Canada. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):441-459.score: 70.5
    This paper investigates the key drivers behind the origins of value-for-money (VFM) audit in Canada and the aims, intents, and logics ascribed by the original proponents. Drawing on insights from governmentality and New Public Management, the paper utilizes analysis methods adapted from case study research to review a wide range of primary documentation (e.g., Hansards from the Public Accounts Committee, House of Commons debates, the so-called Wilson report and the FMCS study) and secondary documentation (newspaper articles, Office of the (...)
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  17. Merryn Ekberg (2012). Reassessing the Role of the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee. Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (4):335-352.score: 70.5
    The role of the Research Ethics Committee (REC) in the design, conduct and dissemination of scientific research is still evolving and many important questions remain unanswered. Hence, the aim of this paper is to address some of the uncertainty that exists around the role and responsibilities of RECs and to discuss some of the controversy that exists over the criteria that RECs should follow when evaluating a research proposal. The discussion is organised around five of the major roles currently (...)
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  18. Thomas May & Ross D. Silverman (2003). Should Smallpox Vaccine Be Made Available to the General Public? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (2):67-82.score: 69.0
    : In June 2002, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved draft recommendations concerning preparation for potential biological terror attacks that utilize the smallpox virus. ACIP recommends against both mandatory and voluntary vaccination of the general public. The present paper examines the moral and political considerations both for and against each of the general public vaccination options considered by the ACIP in the context of the state's authority over vaccination for the purposes of protecting public health. (...)
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  19. Eric Racine (2008). Enriching Our Views on Clinical Ethics: Results of a Qualitative Study of the Moral Psychology of Healthcare Ethics Committee Members. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):57-67.score: 69.0
    The contribution of healthcare ethics committee (HEC) members to HECs is fundamental. However, little is known about how HEC members view clinical ethics. We report results from a qualitative study of the moral psychology of HEC members. We found that contrary to the existing Kohlberg-based studies, HEC members hold a pragmatic non-expert view of clinical ethics based mainly on respect for persons and a commitment to the patient’s good. In general, HEC members hold deflationary views regarding moral theory. (...)
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  20. Andrew Courtwright, Sharon Brackett, Alexandra Cist, M. Cornelia Cremens, Eric L. Krakauer & Ellen M. Robinson (2014). The Changing Composition of a Hospital Ethics Committee: A Tertiary Care Center's Experience. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 26 (1):59-68.score: 69.0
    A growing body of research has demonstrated significant heterogeneity of hospital ethics committee (HEC) size, membership and training requirements, length of appointment, institutional support, clinical and policy roles, and predictors of self identified success. Because these studies have focused on HECs at a single point in time, however, little is known about how the composition of HECs changes over time and what impact these changes have on committee utilization. The current study presents 20 years of data on the (...)
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  21. D. Hill (1977). The General Medical Council: Frame of Reference or Arbiter of Morals? Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (3):110-114.score: 69.0
    Many members of the public think of the General Medical Council (GMC) as the body which tries doctors: the doctors' law courts, as it were. And, except in the more sober of newspapers and news reports, the 'offences ' which receive the most publicity are those concerning alleged improper relations between doctors and patients. Professor Sir Denis Hill, in the following paper, which he read in the spring of this year to the annual conference of the London Medical Group (...)
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  22. Jay Elliott (2011). Stag Hunts and Committee Work: Cooperation and the Mutualistic Paradigm. [REVIEW] Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (2):245-260.score: 63.0
    Contemporary philosophers and psychologists seek the roots of ethically sound forms of behavior, including altruism and a sense of fairness, in the basic structure of cooperative action. I argue that recent work on cooperation in both philosophy and psychology has been hampered by what I call “the mutualistic paradigm.” The mutualistic paradigm treats one kind of cooperative situation—what I call a “mutualistic situation”—as paradigmatic of cooperation in general. In mutualistic situations, such as the primeval stag hunt described by Brian (...)
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  23. Ronald M. Davis & Marcus Müllner (2002). Editorial Independence at Medical Journals Owned by Professional Associations: A Survey of Editors. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (4):513-528.score: 63.0
    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of editorial independence at a sample of medical journals and the relationship between the journals and their owners. We surveyed the editors of 33 medical journals owned by not-for-profit organizations (“associations”), including 10 journals represented on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (nine of which are general medical journals) and a random sample of 23 specialist journals with high impact factors that are indexed by the Institute (...)
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  24. Arran Gare & Paul Ashton (2005). Editorial Introduction to the First Edition of Cosmos and History. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 1 (1):1-2.score: 63.0
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  25. Peter Cane (2006). Taking Law Seriously: Starting Points of the Hart/Devlin Debate. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 10 (1-2):21 - 51.score: 60.0
    The famous mid-20th century debate between Patrick Devlin and Herbert Hart about the relationship between law and morality addressed the limits of the criminal law in the context of a proposal by the Wolfenden Committee to decriminalize male homosexual activity in private. The original exchanges and subsequent contributions to the debate have been significantly constrained by the terms in which the debate was framed: a focus on criminal law in general and sexual offences in particular; a preoccupation with (...)
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  26. Katrin Flikschuh (2012). Elusive Unity: The General Will in Hobbes and Kant. Hobbes Studies 25 (1):21-42.score: 60.0
    According to one interpretation of Leviathan, Hobbes sinks the democratic argument in favour of government by representation into his own argument in favour of absolute rule. This paper argues that Kant in turn sinks Hobbes' argument for coercive political authority into Rousseau's construction of the volonté générale . Why does Kant reject Rousseau's argument in favour of popular sovereignty; why does he revert to Hobbes' endorsement of a coercively unifying political authority? The paper examines the different responses given by Hobbes, (...)
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  27. Robert Oeckl (2013). A Positive Formalism for Quantum Theory in the General Boundary Formulation. Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1206-1232.score: 60.0
    We introduce a new “positive formalism” for encoding quantum theories in the general boundary formulation, somewhat analogous to the mixed state formalism of the standard formulation. This makes the probability interpretation more natural and elegant, eliminates operationally irrelevant structure and opens the general boundary formulation to quantum information theory.
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  28. Charles Sayward (1982). Should Persons Be Sacrificed for the General Welfare? Journal of Value Inquiry 16 (2):149-152.score: 60.0
    It is argued that Robert Nozick is wrong in asserting that persons should not be sacrificed for the general welfare.
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  29. Carel Ijsselmuiden, Debbie Marais, Douglas Wassenaar & Boitumelo Mokgatla-Moipolai (2012). Mapping African Ethical Review Committee Activity Onto Capacity Needs: The Marc Initiative and Hrweb's Interactive Database of Recs in Africa. Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):74-86.score: 59.0
    Health research initiatives worldwide are growing in scope and complexity, particularly as they move into the developing world. Expanding health research activity in low- and middle-income countries has resulted in a commensurate rise in the need for sound ethical review structures and functions in the form of Research Ethics Committees (RECs). Yet these seem to be lagging behind as a result of the enormous challenges facing these countries, including poor resource availability and lack of capacity. There is thus an urgent (...)
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  30. F. Gonzalez Asenjo (1998). The General Concept of Antinomicity. Foundations of Science 3 (2):429-465.score: 58.5
    Antinomicity is not necessarily dependent on negation; there is a more general conception of antinomicity based on the fundamental idea of opposition. To study this fact is indispensable to show first that truth and falsity are independent of assertion and negation. Then it can be seen that antinomies can be found everywhere, and that some single categories are in intrinsic opposition with themselves while others are opposed to one another in pairs. An antinomic ‘manifesto’ concludes the work.
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  31. Arja Halkoaho, Anna-Maija Pietilä, Mari Vesalainen & Kirsi Vähäkangas (2012). Ethical Aspects in Tissue Research: Thematic Analysis of Ethical Statements to the Research Ethics Committee. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):20.score: 58.5
    Many studies have been published about ethics committees and the clarifications requested about the submitted applications. In Finland, ethics committees require a separate statement on ethical aspects of the research in applications to the ethics committee. However, little is known about how researchers consider the ethical aspects of their own studies.
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  32. Eric Stencil (2011). Malebranche and the General Will of God. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (6):1107 - 1129.score: 57.0
    Central to Nicolas Malebranche?s theodicy is the distinction between general volitions and particular volitions. One of the fundamental claims of his theodicy is that although God created a world with suffering and evil, God does not will these things by particular volitions, but only by general volitions. Commentators disagree about how to interpret Malebranche?s distinction. According to the ?general content? interpretation, the difference between general volitions and particular volitions is a difference in content. General volitions (...)
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  33. Gustavo E. Romero (forthcoming). The Ontology of General Relativity. In M. Novello & S. E. Perez Bergliaffa (eds.), General Relativity and Gravitation. Cambridge University Press.score: 57.0
    I discuss the ontological assumptions and implications of General Relativity. I maintain that General Relativity is a theory about gravitational fields, not about space-time. The latter is a more basic ontological category, that emerges from physical relations among all existents. I also argue that there are no physical singularities in space-time. Singular space-time models do not belong to the ontology of the world: they are not things but concepts, i.e. defective solutions of Einstein’s field equations. I briefly discuss (...)
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  34. Timothy J. White (2010). Change and Continuity in Irish Politics: The General Election of 2007. The European Legacy 15 (3):341-352.score: 57.0
    Bertie Ahern, the incumbent Taoiseach or Prime Minister of Ireland, was elected to a third term in the general election of 24 May 2007. While Ahern's party, Fianna F il, was able to retain its governing coalition, the level of support of some of the other parties changed dramatically. Fine Gael, the principal opposition party, saw its number of seats in the parliament, D il ireann, increase by nineteen. Some of the minor parties did less well than expected or (...)
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  35. Kaat Schulte Fischedick (2000). From Survey to Ecology: The Role of the British Vegetation Committee, 1904-1913. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (2):291 - 314.score: 57.0
    This article focuses on early British vegetation science, in particular on the British Vegetation Committee. In earlier histories of (plant) ecology, the period of the Committee's life, 1904-1913, renowned for its surveys and its maps, was depicted as a brief prelude to British plant ecology. This article traces the course of "survey" and "ecology" within the Committee, demonstrating that survey and ecology were both distinct and intertwined within the Committee. The Committee adhered to two lines (...)
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  36. Sol Azuelos-Atias (2011). On the Incoherence of Legal Language to the General Public. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 24 (1):41-59.score: 57.0
    I will suggest, in this article, a possible explanation of the fact that legal language appears incoherent to the general public. I will present one legal text (an indictment), explaining why it appears incoherent to legal laypersons. I will argue that the traits making this particular text appear incoherent are, first, that a specialized legal meaning is conveyed implicitly and, second, that there are no key-words that could direct laypersons to the knowledge making this meaning obvious to legalists. I (...)
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  37. Abraham Rudnick (2012). A Philosophical Analysis of the General Methodology of Qualitative Research: A Critical Rationalist Perspective. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis:1-10.score: 56.0
    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist (...)
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  38. Carlo Vercellone (2007). From Formal Subsumption to General Intellect: Elements for a Marxist Reading of the Thesis of Cognitive Capitalism. Historical Materialism 15 (1):13-36.score: 55.5
    Since the crisis of Fordism, capitalism has been characterised by the ever more central role of knowledge and the rise of the cognitive dimensions of labour. This is not to say that the centrality of knowledge to capitalism is new per se. Rather, the question we must ask is to what extent we can speak of a new role for knowledge and, more importantly, its relationship with transformations in the capital/labour relation. From this perspective, the paper highlights the continuing validity (...)
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  39. Daniela Marchetti, Angelico Spagnolo, Marina Cicerone, Fidelia Cascini, Giuseppe La Monaca & Antonio G. Spagnolo (2013). Research Ethics Committee Auditing: The Experience of a University Hospital. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 25 (3):257-268.score: 55.5
    The authors report the first Italian experience of a research ethics committee (REC) audit focused on the evaluation of the REC’s compliance with standard operating procedures, requirements in insurance coverage, informed consent, protection of privacy and confidentiality, predictable risks/harms, selection of subjects, withdrawal criteria and other issues, such as advertisement details and justification of placebo. The internal audit was conducted over a two-year period (March 2009–February 2011) divided into quarters to better value the influence of the new insurance coverage (...)
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  40. Michelle Cunningham (2010). Research Ethics in a Business School Context: The Establishment of a Review Committee and the Primary Issues of Concern. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (1):43-66.score: 55.5
    This paper describes the establishment of and the issues experienced by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) of a Business School within a University in Ireland. It identifies the issue of voluntarily given informed consent as a key challenge for RECs operating in a Business School context. The paper argues that whilst the typology of ethical issues in business research are similar to the wider social sciences, the fact that much research is carried out in the workplace adds to the (...)
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  41. James Garrison (1999). Philosophy as the General Theory of Critical Education. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 3:51-61.score: 55.5
    Dewey blurs the distinction between poetry and philosophy. This is clearest in his aesthetics where he affirms Matthew Arnold’s dictum that “poetry is criticism of life.” The maxim, though, fails to say “how poetry is a criticism.” The role of art in general is imagining and creating images of the actual beyond the possible that (from a moral perspective) ought to exist. One can derive an ought from an is if one understands the is of poetic possibility. Dewey asserts (...)
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  42. Nathan Hanna (2009). Liberalism and the General Justifiability of Punishment. Philosophical Studies 145 (3):325-349.score: 54.0
    I argue that contemporary liberal theory cannot give a general justification for the institution or practice of punishment, i.e., a justification that would hold across a broad range of reasonably realistic conditions. I examine the general justifications offered by three prominent contemporary liberal theorists and show how their justifications fail in light of the possibility of an alternative to punishment. I argue that, because of their common commitments regarding the nature of justification, these theorists have decisive reasons to (...)
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  43. Phillip Bricker (2006). The Relation Between General and Particular: Entailment Vs. Supervenience. In Dean Zimmerman (ed.), Oxford Papers in Metaphysics, vol. 3. Oxford University Press. 251-287.score: 54.0
    Some argue, following Bertrand Russell, that because general truths are not entailed by particular truths, general facts must be posited to exist in addition to particular facts. I argue on the contrary that because general truths (globally) supervene on particular truths, general facts are not needed in addition to particular facts; indeed, if one accepts the Humean denial of necessary connections between distinct existents, one can further conclude that there are no general facts. When entailment (...)
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  44. Frederick Neuhouser (1993). Freedom, Dependence, and the General Will. Philosophical Review 102 (3):363-395.score: 54.0
    n his Lectures on the Histmy 0f Philosophy Hegel credits Rousseau with an cpoch-making innovation in the realm 0f practical philosophy, an innovation said to consist in thc fact that Rousseau is thc first thinker t0 recognize "the free will" as thc fundamental principle 0f political philosophy} Since Hcgcl’s 0wn practical philosophy is explicitly grounded in an account 0f thc will and its freedom, Hcgcl’s assertion is clearly intended as an acknowledgment 0f his deep indebtedness t0 R0usscau’s social and political (...)
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  45. Denis McManus (2009). The General Form of the Proposition: The Unity of Language and the Generality of Logic in the Early Wittgenstein. Philosophical Investigations 32 (4):295-318.score: 54.0
    The paper presents an interpretation of the thinking behind the early Wittgenstein's "general form of the proposition." It argues that a central role is played by the assumption that all domains of discourse are governed by the same laws of logic. The interpretation is presented partly through a comparison with ideas presented recently by Michael Potter and Peter Sullivan; the paper argues that the above assumption explains more of the key characteristics of the "general form of the proposition" (...)
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  46. Peter M. Sullivan (2004). ‘The General Propositional Form is a Variable’ (Tractatus 4.53). Mind 113 (449):43-56.score: 54.0
    Wittgenstein presents in the Tractatus a variable purporting to capture the general form of proposition. One understanding of what Wittgenstein is doing there, an understanding in line with the ‘new’ reading of his work championed by Diamond, Conant and others, sees it as a deflationary or even an implosive move—a move by which a concept sometimes put by philosophers to distinctively metaphysical use is replaced, in a perspicuous notation, by an innocent device of generalization, thereby dispersing the clouds (...)
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  47. T. M. Kalotas & A. R. Lee (1978). On the General Form of Lorentz Transformations. Foundations of Physics 8 (9-10):787-792.score: 54.0
    We present a derivation of the homogeneous Lorentz transformations that arrives immediately at the general form without the usual specialization in thex direction.
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  48. Steffen Ducheyne, The General Scholium: Some Notes on Newton's Published and Unpublished Endeavours.score: 54.0
    Newton’s immensely famous, but tersely written, General Scholium is primarily known for its reference to the argument of design and Newton’s famous dictum “hypotheses non fingo”. In the essay at hand, I shall argue that this text served a variety of goals and try to add something new to our current knowledge of how Newton tried to accomplish them. The General Scholium highlights a cornucopia of features that were central to Newton’s natural philosophy in general: matters of (...)
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  49. Stephen Shute & A. P. Simester (eds.) (2002). Criminal Law Theory: Doctrines of the General Part. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
    Written by leading philosophers and lawyers from the United States and the United Kingdom, this collection of original essays offers new insights into the doctrines that make up the general part of the criminal law. It sheds theoretical light on the diversity and unity of the general part and advances our understanding of such key issues as criminalisation, omissions, voluntary actions, knowledge, belief, reckelssness, duress, self-defence, entrapment and officially-induced mistake of law.
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  50. Wu Zhong Chao (1997). The Beauty of General Relativity. Foundations of Science 2 (1):61-64.score: 54.0
    The author proposes to add another dichotomy to the list of essential tensions proposed by Professor Duda, namely beauty and ugliness. Physicists believe that only beautiful theories describe the world correctly, and that General Relativity is one of the most beautiful physical theories. The author explains why physicists regard this theory as beautiful.
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