Search results for 'The Standard Model of Particle Physics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Slobodan Perovic (2011). Missing Experimental Challenges to the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (1):32-42.score: 5406.0
    The success of particle detection in high energy physics colliders critically depends on the criteria for selecting a small number of interactions from an overwhelming number that occur in the detector. It also depends on the selection of the exact data to be analyzed and the techniques of analysis. The introduction of automation into the detection process has traded the direct involvement of the physicist at each stage of selection and analysis for the efficient handling of vast amounts (...)
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  2. Aharon Kantorovich (2009). Ontic Structuralism and the Symmetries of Particle Physics. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (1):73 - 84.score: 2322.0
    According to structural realism, in mature science there is structural continuity along theoretical change. A major counterexample to this thesis is the transition from the Eightfold Way to the Standard Model in particle physics. Nevertheless, the notion of structure is significantly important in comprehending the theoretical picture of particle physics, where particles change and undergo transmutations, while the only thing which remains unchanged is the basic structure, i.e. the symmetry group which controls the transmutations. (...)
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  3. Ulrich Mohrhoff (2002). Why the Laws of Physics Are Just So. Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1313-1324.score: 1878.0
    Does a world that contains chemistry entail the validity of both the standard model of elementary particle physics and general relativity, at least as effective theories? This article shows that the answer may very well be affirmative. It further suggests that the very existence of stable, spatially extended material objects, if not the very existence of the physical world, may require the validity of these theories.
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  4. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1996). The Standard Model of Quantum Measurement Theory: History and Applications. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (7):875-893.score: 1695.0
    The standard model of the quantum theory of measurement is based on an interaction Hamiltonian in which the observable to be measured is multiplied by some observable of a probe system. This simple Ansatz has proved extremely fruitful in the development of the foundations of quantum mechanics. While the ensuing type of models has often been argued to be rather artificial, recent advances in quantum optics have demonstrated their principal and practical feasibility. A brief historical review of the (...)
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  5. John Cramer, The "Real World" and The Standard Model.score: 1521.0
    But the question raised repeatedly in the news media was: What difference does it make? Who cares if the Top mass is 180 GeV or 120 GeV? What possible effect could it have on the "real world" of Medicare and rock stars and ethnic cleansing and Superbowls and insider trading? In this column we will present some ideas from a colloquium given recently at the University of Washington by Dr. Robert N. Cahn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory which address these (...)
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  6. Edward MacKinnon (2011). Interpreting Physics: Language and the Classical/Quantim Divide. Springer.score: 1350.0
    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of physics and mathematics leads to the classical/quantum interface. Bohr's interpretation is analyzed and extended to the interpretation of the standard model of particle physics.
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  7. G. Mccabe (2007). The Structure and Interpretation of the Standard Model. Philosophy and Foundations of Physics 2:i-252.score: 1297.5
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  8. Gerard ’T. Hooft (2011). A Class of Elementary Particle Models Without Any Adjustable Real Parameters. Foundations of Physics 41 (12):1829-1856.score: 1263.0
    Conventional particle theories such as the Standard Model have a number of freely adjustable coupling constants and mass parameters, depending on the symmetry algebra of the local gauge group and the representations chosen for the spinor and scalar fields. There seems to be no physical principle to determine these parameters as long as they stay within certain domains dictated by the renormalization group. Here however, reasons are given to demand that, when gravity is coupled to the system, (...)
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  9. Emilio Santos (forthcoming). Towards a Realistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Providing a Model of the Physical World. Foundations of Science:1-30.score: 1245.8
    It is argued that a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is possible and useful. Current interpretations, from “Copenhagen” to “many worlds” are critically revisited. The difficulties for intuitive models of quantum physics are pointed out and possible solutions proposed. In particular the existence of discrete states, the quantum jumps, the alleged lack of objective properties, measurement theory, the probabilistic character of quantum physics, the wave–particle duality and the Bell inequalities are analyzed. The sketch of a realistic picture (...)
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  10. R. Powell & S. Clarke (2012). Religion as an Evolutionary Byproduct: A Critique of the Standard Model. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (3):457-486.score: 1236.0
    The dominant view in the cognitive science of religion (the ‘Standard Model’) is that religious belief and behaviour are not adaptive traits but rather incidental byproducts of the cognitive architecture of mind. Because evidence for the Standard Model is inconclusive, the case for it depends crucially on its alleged methodological superiority to selectionist alternatives. However, we show that the Standard Model has both methodological and evidential disadvantages when compared with selectionist alternatives. We also consider (...)
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  11. John Cramer, Breaking the Standard Model.score: 1234.0
    So far this has been a lonely and unrewarding quest. New experiments occasionally come along which point to a breakdown of the Standard Model, but up to now they have invariably been proved wrong by more careful analysis or subsequent experiments with better data. A case in point is the energetic jet data from the CDF experiment at FermiLab which suggested possible substructure of the quark. (See my AV column "Inside the Quark" in the September-1996 issue of Analog.) (...)
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  12. Maurizio Consoli (forthcoming). Probing the Vacuum of Particle Physics with Precise Laser Interferometry. Foundations of Physics:1-22.score: 1234.0
    The discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC confirms that what we experience as empty space should actually be thought as a condensate of elementary quanta. This condensate characterizes the physically realized form of relativity and could play the role of preferred reference frame in a modern Lorentzian approach. This observation suggests a new interpretative scheme to understand the unexplained residuals in the old ether-drift experiments where light was still propagating in gaseous systems. Differently from present vacuum experiments, where anyhow (...)
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  13. Ph Gueret & J. -P. Vigier (1982). De Broglie's Wave Particle Duality in the Stochastic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: A Testable Physical Assumption. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 12 (11):1057-1083.score: 1225.0
    If one starts from de Broglie's basic relativistic assumptions, i.e., that all particles have an intrinsic real internal vibration in their rest frame, i.e., hv 0 =m 0 c 2 ; that when they are at any one point in space-time the phase of this vibration cannot depend on the choice of the reference frame, then, one can show (following Mackinnon (1) ) that there exists a nondispersive wave packet of de Broglie's waves which can be assimilated to the nonlinear (...)
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  14. Oliver Schulte (2000). Inferring Conservation Laws in Particle Physics: A Case Study in the Problem of Induction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):771-806.score: 1224.0
    This paper develops a means–end analysis of an inductive problem that arises in particle physics: how to infer from observed reactions conservation principles that govern all reactions among elementary particles. I show that there is a reliable inference procedure that is guaranteed to arrive at an empirically adequate set of conservation principles as more and more evidence is obtained. An interesting feature of reliable procedures for finding conservation principles is that in certain precisely defined circumstances they must introduce (...)
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  15. Maurice R. Kibler (2007). From the Mendeleev Periodic Table to Particle Physics and Back to the Periodic Table. Foundations of Chemistry 9 (3):221-234.score: 1215.0
    We briefly describe in this paper the passage from Mendeleev’s chemistry (1869) to atomic physics (in the 1900’s), nuclear physics (in 1932) and particle physics (from 1953 to 2006). We show how the consideration of symmetries, largely used in physics since the end of the 1920’s, gave rise to a new format of the periodic table in the 1970’s. More specifically, this paper is concerned with the application of the group SO(4,2)⊗SU(2) to the periodic table (...)
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  16. Paolo Lanciani (1999). A Model of the Electron in a 6-Dimensional Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 29 (2):251-265.score: 1206.0
    The electron is considered as a massless point-particle which moves in a spacetime with (3+3) dimensions subjected to a field that attracts it towards the (3+1) standard spacetime. This field is assumed to be described by the radial time component of the e.m. 6-potential and to be due to the vacuum polarization arising when the charge of the electron is removed from the (3+1) spacetime. The pertinent Klein-Gordon equitation in 6 dimensions is solved and the right values for (...)
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  17. Luca Bellotti (2007). Formalization, Syntax and the Standard Model of Arithmetic. Synthese 154 (2):199 - 229.score: 1200.0
    I make an attempt at the description of the delicate role of the standard model of arithmetic for the syntax of formal systems. I try to assess whether the possible instability in the notion of finiteness deriving from the nonstandard interpretability of arithmetic affects the very notions of syntactic metatheory and of formal system. I maintain that the crucial point of the whole question lies in the evaluation of the phenomenon of formalization. The ideas of Skolem, Zermelo, Beth (...)
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  18. R. E. Hendrick & Anthony Murphy (1981). Atomism and the Illusion of Crisis: The Danger of Applying Kuhnian Categories to Current Particle Physics. Philosophy of Science 48 (3):454-468.score: 1188.0
    This paper responds to a recent claim by Shrader-Frechette that current particle physics, with its essentially atomist paradigm, is in a state of Kuhnian crisis. We respond to Shrader-Frechette's claim in two ways: first, we argue directly against much of the evidence used by Shrader-Frechette as indicators of Kuhnian crisis; second, we question Shrader-Frechette's application of Kuhnian categories to current research in general, pointing out the dangers inherent in such an analysis.
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  19. David Wallace (2011). Taking Particle Physics Seriously: A Critique of the Algebraic Approach to Quantum Field Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 42 (2):116-125.score: 1188.0
    I argue against the currently prevalent view that algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT) is the correct framework for philosophy of quantum field theory and that “conventional” quantum field theory (CQFT), of the sort used in mainstream particle physics, is not suitable for foundational study. In doing so, I defend that position that AQFT and CQFT should be understood as rival programs to resolve the mathematical and physical pathologies of renormalization theory, and that CQFT has succeeded in this task (...)
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  20. T. J. López (2012). Trichotomizing the Standard Twofold Model of Thomistic Eudaimonism. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):23-46.score: 1176.0
    Aquinas’s eudaimonism is normally interpreted as twofold in the sense of it dividing into the imperfect, natural happiness of Aristotle and the perfect, supernatural happiness of Augustine. I argue in this work that Aquinas is logically committed to a third type of happiness that, in light of the standard view, rendershis eudaimonism threefold. The paper begins with an overview of the standard twofold model of Aquinas’s eudaimonism; it then turns to the model’s logicalproblem whose solution requires (...)
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  21. Robert D. Cousins (forthcoming). The Jeffreys–Lindley Paradox and Discovery Criteria in High Energy Physics. Synthese:1-38.score: 1164.0
    The Jeffreys–Lindley paradox displays how the use of a \(p\) value (or number of standard deviations \(z\) ) in a frequentist hypothesis test can lead to an inference that is radically different from that of a Bayesian hypothesis test in the form advocated by Harold Jeffreys in the 1930s and common today. The setting is the test of a well-specified null hypothesis (such as the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, possibly with “nuisance parameters”) versus (...)
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  22. Sang Wook Yi (2002). The Nature of Model-Based Understanding in Condensed Matter Physics. Mind and Society 3 (1):81-91.score: 1156.7
    The paper studies the nature of understanding in condensed matter physics (CMP), mediated by the successful employment of its models. I first consider two obvious candidates for the criteria of model-based understanding, Van Fraassen's sense of empirical adequacy and Hacking's instrumental utility , and conclude that both are unsatisfactory. Inspired by Hasok Chang's recent proposal to reformulate realism as the pursuit of ontological plausibility in our system of knowledge, we may require the model under consideration to be (...)
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  23. Gianfranco Spavieri (1990). Model of the Electron Spin in Stochastic Physics. Foundations of Physics 20 (1):45-61.score: 1140.0
    The electron is conceived here as a complex structure composed of a subparticle that is bound to a nearly circular motion. Although in quantum mechanics the spin is not representable, in classical stochastic physics this corresponds to the angular momentum of the subparticle. In fact, assuming Schrödinger-type hydrodynamic equations of motion for the subparticle, the spin-1/2 representation in configuration space and the corresponding Pauli matrices for the electron are obtained. The Hamiltonian of Pauli's theory as the nonrelativistic limit of (...)
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  24. Renat Nugayev (1991). The Fundamental Laws of Physics Can Tell the Truth. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (1):79 – 87.score: 1140.0
    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Vol. 5, number 1, Autumn 1991, pp. 79-87. R.M. Nugayev. -/- The fundamental laws of physics can tell the truth. -/- Abstract. Nancy Cartwright’s arguments in favour of phenomenological laws and against fundamental ones are discussed. Her criticisms of the standard cjvering-law account are extended using Vyacheslav Stepin’s analysis of the structure of fundamental theories. It is argued that Cartwright’s thesis 9that the laws of physics lie) is too radical to (...)
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  25. James Ax (1978). The Elementary Foundations of Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 8 (7-8):507-546.score: 1119.0
    This paper is an amalgam of physics and mathematical logic. It contains an elementary axiomatization of spacetime in terms of the primitive concepts of particle, signal, and transmission and reception. In the elementary language formed with these predicates we state AxiomsE, C, andU, which are naturally interpretable as basic physical properties of particles and signals. We then determine all mathematical models of this axiom system; these represent certain generalizations of the standard model. Also, the automorphism groups (...)
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  26. Edward MacKinnon (2008). The Standard Model as a Philosophical Challenge. Philosophy of Science 75 (4):447-457.score: 1115.0
    There are two opposing traditions in contemporary quantum field theory (QFT). Mainstream Lagrangian QFT led to and supports the standard model of particle interactions. Algebraic QFT seeks to provide a rigorous consistent mathematical foundation for field theory, but cannot accommodate the local gauge interactions of the standard model. Interested philosophers face a choice. They can accept algebraic QFT on the grounds of mathematical consistency and general accord with the semantic conception of theory interpretation. This suggests (...)
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  27. Víctor Navarro-Brotóns, Jorge Velasco González & José Doménech Torres (2005). The Birth of Particle Physics In Spain. Minerva 43 (2):183-196.score: 1102.0
    Experimental high-energy and nuclear physics was created in Spain thanks to Joaquín Catalá de Alemany, who founded the Institute of Corpuscular Physics (IFIC) at the University of Valencia in 1950. The physics of photographic emulsions, cheap and easy to manipulate, were well adapted to the depressed situation in Spain following the Civil War. This essay describes how, using these techniques, Catalá de Alemany created a group, established links with international laboratories, and fostered a tradition that continues today.
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  28. Charis Anastopoulos (2008). Particle or Wave: The Evolution of the Concept of Matter in Modern Physics. Princeton University Press.score: 1097.3
    'Particle or Wave' explains the origins and development of modern physical concepts about matter and the controversies surrounding them.
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  29. Axel Gelfert (2009). Rigorous Results, Cross-Model Justification, and the Transfer of Empirical Warrant: The Case of Many-Body Models in Physics. Synthese 169 (3):497 - 519.score: 1096.0
    This paper argues that a successful philosophical analysis of models and simulations must accommodate an account of mathematically rigorous results. Such rigorous results may be thought of as genuinely model-specific contributions, which can neither be deduced from fundamental theory nor inferred from empirical data. Rigorous results provide new indirect ways of assessing the success of models and simulations and are crucial to understanding the connections between different models. This is most obvious in cases where rigorous results map different models (...)
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  30. James Elkins (2008). Six Stories From the End of Representation: Images in Painting, Photography, Astronomy, Microscopy, Particle Physics, and Quantum Mechanics, 1980-2000. Stanford University Press.score: 1092.0
    James Elkins has shaped the discussion about how we—as artists, as art historians, or as outsiders—view art. He has not only revolutionized our thinking about the purpose of teaching art, but has also blazed trails in creating a means of communication between scientists, artists, and humanities scholars. In Six Stories from the End of Representation , Elkins weaves stories about recent images from painting, photography, physics, astrophysics, and microscopy. These images, regardless of origin, all fail as representations: they are (...)
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  31. Paolo Budinich (2002). From the Geometry of Pure Spinors with Their Division Algebras to Fermion Physics. Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1347-1398.score: 1057.5
    The Cartan equations defining simple spinors (renamed “pure” by C. Chevalley) are interpreted as equations of motion in compact momentum spaces, in a constructive approach in which at each step the dimensions of spinor space are doubled while those of momentum space increased by two. The construction is possible only in the frame of the geometry of simple or pure spinors, which imposes contraint equations on spinors with more than four components, and then momentum spaces result compact, isomorphic to invariant-mass-spheres (...)
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  32. Allan Franklin (forthcoming). The Missing Piece of the Puzzle: The Discovery of the Higgs Boson. Synthese:1-16.score: 1050.0
    The missing piece of the puzzle: the discovery of the Higgs boson On July 4, 2012 the CMS and ATLAS collaborations at the large hadron collider jointly announced the discovery of a new elementary particle, which resembled the Higgs boson, the last remaining undiscovered piece of the standard model of elementary particles. Both groups claimed to have observed a five-standard-deviation (five sigmas) effect above background, the gold standard for discovery in high-energy physics. In this (...)
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  33. Richard Healey (2009). Gauging What's Real: The Conceptual Foundations of Contemporary Gauge Theories. OUP Oxford.score: 1050.0
    Gauge theories have provided our most successful representations of the fundamental forces of nature. How, though, do such representations work? Interpretations of gauge theory aim to answer this question. Through understanding how a gauge theory's representations work, we are able to say what kind of world our gauge theories reveal to us. -/- A gauge theory's representations are mathematical structures. These may be transformed among themselves while certain features remain the same. Do the representations related by such a gauge transformation (...)
     
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  34. Yusuf Sucu & Nuri Ünal (2012). Symmetry and Integrability in the Classical Model of Zitterbewegung. Foundations of Physics 42 (8):1067-1077.score: 1047.5
    We extended the Barut’s classical model of zitterbewegung from 3+1 dimensional spacetime into 2+1 and 1+1 dimensional spacetimes and discussed the symmetry and integrability properties of the model in 2+1, 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. In these cases, the free particle current or the velocity of the particle can be decomposed as a constant convection current and polarization currents.In 2+1 dimensional spacetime, a velocity of the particle and spin tensor are dependent to each other and the (...)
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  35. Koray Karaca (2014). Guest Editor’s Introduction: An Overview of the Epistemological Perspectives on the Higgs Mechanism. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 45 (2):329-333.score: 1038.0
    The present special section brings together three articles that seek to elucidate the epistemological and ontological foundations of the Higgs mechanism, as well as the epistemic dynamics of the development of the models beyond the “standard model” of elementary particle physics.The standard model of elementary particle physics consists of two gauge theories; namely, the electroweak theory of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and the theory of quantum chromo-dynamics which describes the strong interaction. (...)
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  36. Fred Alan Wolf (1999). A Quantum Physics Model of the Timing of Conscious Experience. In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak & David Chalmers (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness Iii: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates. Mit Press.score: 1028.0
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  37. Simon V. Glynn (1995). The Deconstruction of Some Paradoxes in Relativity, Quantum Theory, and Particle Physics. In Babette E. Babich, Debra B. Bergoffen & Simon Glynn (eds.), Continental and Postmodern Perspectives in the Philosophy of Science. Avebury.score: 1028.0
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  38. P. C. W. Davies, Constraints on the Value of the Fine Structure Constant From Gravitational Thermodynamics.score: 1026.0
    The fine structure constant α ≡ e2/ c ≈ 1/137 is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics. There is a long history of attempts to derive the measured value of α from an underlying theory, or exhibit it in the form of a compact mathematical expression [2–4, 6, 8, 14–16]. The most significant advance in this endeavour was made by Dirac, who showed that if magnetic monopoles exist, with magnetic charge (...)
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  39. Roderick I. Sutherland (1997). Phase Space Generalization of the de Broglie-Bohm Model. Foundations of Physics 27 (6):845-863.score: 1025.8
    A generalization of the familiar de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics is formulated, based on relinquishing the momentum relationship p=∇S and allowing a spread of momentum values at each position. The development of this framework also provides a new perspective on the well-known question of joint distributions for quantum mechanics. It is shown that, for an extension of the original model to be physically acceptable and consistent with experiment, it is necessary to impose certain restrictions on the associated joint (...)
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  40. Nicholaos Jones (2009). General Relativity and the Standard Model: Why Evidence for One Does Not Disconfirm the Other. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (2):124-132.score: 1025.0
    General Relativity and the Standard Model often are touted as the most rigorously and extensively confirmed scientific hypotheses of all time. Nonetheless, these theories appear to have consequences that are inconsistent with evidence about phenomena for which, respectively, quantum effects and gravity matter. This paper suggests an explanation for why the theories are not disconfirmed by such evidence. The key to this explanation is an approach to scientific hypotheses that allows their actual content to differ from their apparent (...)
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  41. Simon Y. Berkovich (1986). Mutual Synchronization in a Network of Digital Clocks as the Key Cellular Automation Mechanism of Nature: Computational Model of Fundamental Physics. Synopsis.score: 1014.0
     
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  42. Andrzej Mostowski (1974). Review: H. B. Enderton, Harvey Friedman, Approximating the Standard Model of Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (3):600-601.score: 1012.0
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  43. Bert Schroer (2010). A Critical Look at 50 Years Particle Theory From the Perspective of the Crossing Property. Foundations of Physics 40 (12):1800-1857.score: 1010.0
    The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrixelements of the S-matrix or formfactors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas (...)
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  44. D. Costantini & U. Garibaldi (1990). The Non Frequency Approach to Elementary Particle Statistics in The Foundations of Statistical Methods in Biology, Physics and Economics. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 122:167-181.score: 1008.0
     
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  45. Nuri Ünal (1997). A Simple Model of the classicalZitterbewegung: Photon Wave Function. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 27 (5):731-746.score: 1005.0
    We propose a simple classical model of the zitterbewegung. In this model spin is proportional to the velocity of the particle, the component parallel top is constant and the orthogonal components are oscillating with2p frequency. The quantization of the system gives wave equations for spin,0, 1/2, 1, 3/2,…, etc. respectively. These equations are convenient for massless particles. The wave equation of the spin-1, massless free particle is equivalent to the Maxwell equations and the state functions have (...)
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  46. E. Di Grezia & S. Esposito (2004). Fermi, Majorana and the Statistical Model of Atoms. Foundations of Physics 34 (9):1431-1450.score: 1002.0
  47. Gershon Sageev (1981). A Model of ZF + There Exists an Inaccessible, in Which the Dedekind Cardinals Constitute a Natural Non-Standard Model of Arithmetic. Annals of Mathematical Logic 21 (2-3):221-281.score: 1002.0
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