Search results for 'The Standard Model of Particle Physics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Slobodan Perovic (2011). Missing Experimental Challenges to the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (1):32-42.score: 4074.0
    The success of particle detection in high energy physics colliders critically depends on the criteria for selecting a small number of interactions from an overwhelming number that occur in the detector. It also depends on the selection of the exact data to be analyzed and the techniques of analysis. The introduction of automation into the detection process has traded the direct involvement of the physicist at each stage of selection and analysis for the efficient handling of vast amounts (...)
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  2. Aharon Kantorovich (2009). Ontic Structuralism and the Symmetries of Particle Physics. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (1):73 - 84.score: 1728.0
    According to structural realism, in mature science there is structural continuity along theoretical change. A major counterexample to this thesis is the transition from the Eightfold Way to the Standard Model in particle physics. Nevertheless, the notion of structure is significantly important in comprehending the theoretical picture of particle physics, where particles change and undergo transmutations, while the only thing which remains unchanged is the basic structure, i.e. the symmetry group which controls the transmutations. (...)
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  3. Ulrich Mohrhoff (2002). Why the Laws of Physics Are Just So. Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1313-1324.score: 1554.0
    Does a world that contains chemistry entail the validity of both the standard model of elementary particle physics and general relativity, at least as effective theories? This article shows that the answer may very well be affirmative. It further suggests that the very existence of stable, spatially extended material objects, if not the very existence of the physical world, may require the validity of these theories.
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  4. Edward MacKinnon (2011). Interpreting Physics: Language and the Classical/Quantim Divide. Springer.score: 1206.0
    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of physics and mathematics leads to the classical/quantum interface. Bohr's interpretation is analyzed and extended to the interpretation of the standard model of particle physics.
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  5. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1996). The Standard Model of Quantum Measurement Theory: History and Applications. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (7):875-893.score: 1195.0
    The standard model of the quantum theory of measurement is based on an interaction Hamiltonian in which the observable to be measured is multiplied by some observable of a probe system. This simple Ansatz has proved extremely fruitful in the development of the foundations of quantum mechanics. While the ensuing type of models has often been argued to be rather artificial, recent advances in quantum optics have demonstrated their principal and practical feasibility. A brief historical review of the (...)
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  6. John Cramer, The "Real World" and The Standard Model.score: 1179.0
    But the question raised repeatedly in the news media was: What difference does it make? Who cares if the Top mass is 180 GeV or 120 GeV? What possible effect could it have on the "real world" of Medicare and rock stars and ethnic cleansing and Superbowls and insider trading? In this column we will present some ideas from a colloquium given recently at the University of Washington by Dr. Robert N. Cahn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory which address these (...)
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  7. Gerard ’T. Hooft (2011). A Class of Elementary Particle Models Without Any Adjustable Real Parameters. Foundations of Physics 41 (12):1829-1856.score: 1059.0
    Conventional particle theories such as the Standard Model have a number of freely adjustable coupling constants and mass parameters, depending on the symmetry algebra of the local gauge group and the representations chosen for the spinor and scalar fields. There seems to be no physical principle to determine these parameters as long as they stay within certain domains dictated by the renormalization group. Here however, reasons are given to demand that, when gravity is coupled to the system, (...)
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  8. James Ax (1978). The Elementary Foundations of Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 8 (7-8):507-546.score: 963.0
    This paper is an amalgam of physics and mathematical logic. It contains an elementary axiomatization of spacetime in terms of the primitive concepts of particle, signal, and transmission and reception. In the elementary language formed with these predicates we state AxiomsE, C, andU, which are naturally interpretable as basic physical properties of particles and signals. We then determine all mathematical models of this axiom system; these represent certain generalizations of the standard model. Also, the automorphism groups (...)
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  9. Maurice R. Kibler (2007). From the Mendeleev Periodic Table to Particle Physics and Back to the Periodic Table. Foundations of Chemistry 9 (3):221-234.score: 935.0
    We briefly describe in this paper the passage from Mendeleev’s chemistry (1869) to atomic physics (in the 1900’s), nuclear physics (in 1932) and particle physics (from 1953 to 2006). We show how the consideration of symmetries, largely used in physics since the end of the 1920’s, gave rise to a new format of the periodic table in the 1970’s. More specifically, this paper is concerned with the application of the group SO(4,2)⊗SU(2) to the periodic table (...)
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  10. John Cramer, Breaking the Standard Model.score: 930.0
    So far this has been a lonely and unrewarding quest. New experiments occasionally come along which point to a breakdown of the Standard Model, but up to now they have invariably been proved wrong by more careful analysis or subsequent experiments with better data. A case in point is the energetic jet data from the CDF experiment at FermiLab which suggested possible substructure of the quark. (See my AV column "Inside the Quark" in the September-1996 issue of Analog.) (...)
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  11. Richard Healey (2009). Gauging What's Real: The Conceptual Foundations of Contemporary Gauge Theories. OUP Oxford.score: 894.0
    Gauge theories have provided our most successful representations of the fundamental forces of nature. How, though, do such representations work? Interpretations of gauge theory aim to answer this question. Through understanding how a gauge theory's representations work, we are able to say what kind of world our gauge theories reveal to us. -/- A gauge theory's representations are mathematical structures. These may be transformed among themselves while certain features remain the same. Do the representations related by such a gauge transformation (...)
     
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  12. P. C. W. Davies, Constraints on the Value of the Fine Structure Constant From Gravitational Thermodynamics.score: 882.0
    The fine structure constant α ≡ e2/ c ≈ 1/137 is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics. There is a long history of attempts to derive the measured value of α from an underlying theory, or exhibit it in the form of a compact mathematical expression [2–4, 6, 8, 14–16]. The most significant advance in this endeavour was made by Dirac, who showed that if magnetic monopoles exist, with magnetic charge (...)
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  13. Ph Gueret & J. -P. Vigier (1982). De Broglie's Wave Particle Duality in the Stochastic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: A Testable Physical Assumption. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 12 (11):1057-1083.score: 875.0
    If one starts from de Broglie's basic relativistic assumptions, i.e., that all particles have an intrinsic real internal vibration in their rest frame, i.e., hv 0 =m 0 c 2 ; that when they are at any one point in space-time the phase of this vibration cannot depend on the choice of the reference frame, then, one can show (following Mackinnon (1) ) that there exists a nondispersive wave packet of de Broglie's waves which can be assimilated to the nonlinear (...)
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  14. Paolo Lanciani (1999). A Model of the Electron in a 6-Dimensional Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 29 (2):251-265.score: 870.0
    The electron is considered as a massless point-particle which moves in a spacetime with (3+3) dimensions subjected to a field that attracts it towards the (3+1) standard spacetime. This field is assumed to be described by the radial time component of the e.m. 6-potential and to be due to the vacuum polarization arising when the charge of the electron is removed from the (3+1) spacetime. The pertinent Klein-Gordon equitation in 6 dimensions is solved and the right values for (...)
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  15. Simon Friederich, Robert Harlander & Koray Karaca (forthcoming). Philosophical Perspectives on Ad Hoc Hypotheses and the Higgs Mechanism. Synthese:1-21.score: 870.0
    We examine physicists’ charge of ad hocness against the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particle physics. We argue that even though this charge never rested on a clear-cut and well-entrenched definition of “ad hoc”, it is based on conceptual and methodological assumptions and principles that are well-founded elements of the scientific practice of high-energy particle physics. We further evaluate the implications of the recent discovery of a Higgs-like particle at the (...)
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  16. Renat Nugayev (1991). The Fundamental Laws of Physics Can Tell the Truth. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (1):79 – 87.score: 860.0
    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Vol. 5, number 1, Autumn 1991, pp. 79-87. R.M. Nugayev. -/- The fundamental laws of physics can tell the truth. -/- Abstract. Nancy Cartwright’s arguments in favour of phenomenological laws and against fundamental ones are discussed. Her criticisms of the standard cjvering-law account are extended using Vyacheslav Stepin’s analysis of the structure of fundamental theories. It is argued that Cartwright’s thesis 9that the laws of physics lie) is too radical to (...)
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  17. R. Powell & S. Clarke (2012). Religion as an Evolutionary Byproduct: A Critique of the Standard Model. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (3):457-486.score: 840.0
    The dominant view in the cognitive science of religion (the ‘Standard Model’) is that religious belief and behaviour are not adaptive traits but rather incidental byproducts of the cognitive architecture of mind. Because evidence for the Standard Model is inconclusive, the case for it depends crucially on its alleged methodological superiority to selectionist alternatives. However, we show that the Standard Model has both methodological and evidential disadvantages when compared with selectionist alternatives. We also consider (...)
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  18. Oliver Schulte (2000). Inferring Conservation Laws in Particle Physics: A Case Study in the Problem of Induction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):771-806.score: 832.0
    This paper develops a means–end analysis of an inductive problem that arises in particle physics: how to infer from observed reactions conservation principles that govern all reactions among elementary particles. I show that there is a reliable inference procedure that is guaranteed to arrive at an empirically adequate set of conservation principles as more and more evidence is obtained. An interesting feature of reliable procedures for finding conservation principles is that in certain precisely defined circumstances they must introduce (...)
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  19. Edward MacKinnon (2008). The Standard Model as a Philosophical Challenge. Philosophy of Science 75 (4):447-457.score: 830.0
    There are two opposing traditions in contemporary quantum field theory (QFT). Mainstream Lagrangian QFT led to and supports the standard model of particle interactions. Algebraic QFT seeks to provide a rigorous consistent mathematical foundation for field theory, but cannot accommodate the local gauge interactions of the standard model. Interested philosophers face a choice. They can accept algebraic QFT on the grounds of mathematical consistency and general accord with the semantic conception of theory interpretation. This suggests (...)
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  20. Richard Healey (2007). Gauging What's Real. Oxford University Press.score: 804.0
    Gauge theories have provided our most successful representations of the fundamental forces of nature. This book describes the representations provided by gauge theories in both classical and quantum physics. I defend the thesis that gauge transformations are purely formal symmetries of almost all the classes of representations provided by each of our theories of fundamental forces. Evidence for classical gauge theories of forces (other than gravity) gives us reason to believe that loops rather than points are the locations of (...)
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  21. G. Mccabe (2007). The Structure and Interpretation of the Standard Model. Philosophy and Foundations of Physics 2:i-252.score: 802.5
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  22. John R. Fanchi (2003). Relativistic Dynamical Theory of Particle Decay and Application to K-Mesons. Foundations of Physics 33 (8):1189-1205.score: 801.0
    The theoretical description of particle decay by a single particle theory requires the use of a probability density in time that is not present in conventional theories. The problem of single particle decay is consistently described here within the context of a single particle, relativistic dynamical theory. We derive experimentally testable differences between the standard model and Relativistic Dynamics for a two-state system: the neutral K-meson (K 0) system. We show that the estimate of (...)
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  23. Luca Bellotti (2007). Formalization, Syntax and the Standard Model of Arithmetic. Synthese 154 (2):199 - 229.score: 800.0
    I make an attempt at the description of the delicate role of the standard model of arithmetic for the syntax of formal systems. I try to assess whether the possible instability in the notion of finiteness deriving from the nonstandard interpretability of arithmetic affects the very notions of syntactic metatheory and of formal system. I maintain that the crucial point of the whole question lies in the evaluation of the phenomenon of formalization. The ideas of Skolem, Zermelo, Beth (...)
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  24. R. E. Hendrick & Anthony Murphy (1981). Atomism and the Illusion of Crisis: The Danger of Applying Kuhnian Categories to Current Particle Physics. Philosophy of Science 48 (3):454-468.score: 796.0
    This paper responds to a recent claim by Shrader-Frechette that current particle physics, with its essentially atomist paradigm, is in a state of Kuhnian crisis. We respond to Shrader-Frechette's claim in two ways: first, we argue directly against much of the evidence used by Shrader-Frechette as indicators of Kuhnian crisis; second, we question Shrader-Frechette's application of Kuhnian categories to current research in general, pointing out the dangers inherent in such an analysis.
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  25. David Wallace (2011). Taking Particle Physics Seriously: A Critique of the Algebraic Approach to Quantum Field Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 42 (2):116-125.score: 796.0
    I argue against the currently prevalent view that algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT) is the correct framework for philosophy of quantum field theory and that “conventional” quantum field theory (CQFT), of the sort used in mainstream particle physics, is not suitable for foundational study. In doing so, I defend that position that AQFT and CQFT should be understood as rival programs to resolve the mathematical and physical pathologies of renormalization theory, and that CQFT has succeeded in this task (...)
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  26. Federico Piazza (2010). Glimmers of a Pre-Geometric Perspective. Foundations of Physics 40 (3):239-266.score: 792.0
    Spacetime measurements and gravitational experiments are made by using objects, matter fields or particles and their mutual relationships. As a consequence, any operationally meaningful assertion about spacetime is in fact an assertion about the degrees of freedom of the matter (i.e. non gravitational) fields; those, say for definiteness, of the Standard Model of particle physics. As for any quantum theory, the dynamics of the matter fields can be described in terms of a unitary evolution of a (...)
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  27. Paolo Budinich (2002). From the Geometry of Pure Spinors with Their Division Algebras to Fermion Physics. Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1347-1398.score: 787.5
    The Cartan equations defining simple spinors (renamed “pure” by C. Chevalley) are interpreted as equations of motion in compact momentum spaces, in a constructive approach in which at each step the dimensions of spinor space are doubled while those of momentum space increased by two. The construction is possible only in the frame of the geometry of simple or pure spinors, which imposes contraint equations on spinors with more than four components, and then momentum spaces result compact, isomorphic to invariant-mass-spheres (...)
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  28. T. J. López (2012). Trichotomizing the Standard Twofold Model of Thomistic Eudaimonism. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):23-46.score: 784.0
    Aquinas’s eudaimonism is normally interpreted as twofold in the sense of it dividing into the imperfect, natural happiness of Aristotle and the perfect, supernatural happiness of Augustine. I argue in this work that Aquinas is logically committed to a third type of happiness that, in light of the standard view, rendershis eudaimonism threefold. The paper begins with an overview of the standard twofold model of Aquinas’s eudaimonism; it then turns to the model’s logicalproblem whose solution requires (...)
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  29. E. Di Grezia & S. Esposito (2004). Fermi, Majorana and the Statistical Model of Atoms. Foundations of Physics 34 (9):1431-1450.score: 774.0
  30. Sang Wook Yi (2002). The Nature of Model-Based Understanding in Condensed Matter Physics. Mind and Society 3 (1):81-91.score: 772.7
    The paper studies the nature of understanding in condensed matter physics (CMP), mediated by the successful employment of its models. I first consider two obvious candidates for the criteria of model-based understanding, Van Fraassen's sense of empirical adequacy and Hacking's instrumental utility , and conclude that both are unsatisfactory. Inspired by Hasok Chang's recent proposal to reformulate realism as the pursuit of ontological plausibility in our system of knowledge, we may require the model under consideration to be (...)
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  31. Décio Krause & Otávio Bueno (2007). Scientific Theories, Models, and the Semantic Approach. Principia 11 (2):187-201.score: 765.0
    According to the semantic view, a theory is characterized by a class of mod- els. In this paper, we examine critically some of the assumptions that underlie this approach. First, we recall that models are models of something. Thus we cannot leave completely aside the axiomatization of the theories under consider- ation, nor can we ignore the metamathematics used to elaborate these models, for changes in the metamathematics often impose restrictions on the resulting models. Second, based on a parallel between (...)
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  32. Otávio Bueno & Décio Krause (2010). Scientific Theories, Models, and the Semantic Approach. Principia 11 (2):187-201.score: 765.0
    According to the semantic view, a theory is characterized by a class of models. In this paper, we examine critically some of the assumptions that underlie this approach. First, we recall that models are models of something. Thus we cannot leave completely aside the axiomatization of the theories under consideration, nor can we ignore the metamathematics used to elaborate these models, for changes in the metamathematics often impose restrictions on the resulting models. Second, based on a parallel between van Fraassen’s (...)
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  33. Yusuf Sucu & Nuri Ünal (2012). Symmetry and Integrability in the Classical Model of Zitterbewegung. Foundations of Physics 42 (8):1067-1077.score: 762.5
    We extended the Barut’s classical model of zitterbewegung from 3+1 dimensional spacetime into 2+1 and 1+1 dimensional spacetimes and discussed the symmetry and integrability properties of the model in 2+1, 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. In these cases, the free particle current or the velocity of the particle can be decomposed as a constant convection current and polarization currents.In 2+1 dimensional spacetime, a velocity of the particle and spin tensor are dependent to each other and the (...)
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  34. Roger A. Hegstrom & Fernando Sols (1995). A Model of Quantum Measurement in Josephson Junctions. Foundations of Physics 25 (5):681-700.score: 762.0
    A model for the quantum measurement of the electronic current in a Josephson junction is presented and analyzed. The model is similar to a Stern-Gerlach apparatus, relying on the deflection of a spin-polarized particle beam by the magnetic field created by the Josephson current. The aim is (1) to explore, with the help of a simple model, some general ideas about the nature of the information which can be obtained by measurements upon a quantum system and (...)
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  35. Roderick I. Sutherland (1997). Phase Space Generalization of the de Broglie-Bohm Model. Foundations of Physics 27 (6):845-863.score: 755.8
    A generalization of the familiar de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics is formulated, based on relinquishing the momentum relationship p=∇S and allowing a spread of momentum values at each position. The development of this framework also provides a new perspective on the well-known question of joint distributions for quantum mechanics. It is shown that, for an extension of the original model to be physically acceptable and consistent with experiment, it is necessary to impose certain restrictions on the associated joint (...)
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  36. Thomas Brückner (2008). A Structuralist Reconstruction of the Theory of Elementary Particles. Erkenntnis 68 (2):169 - 186.score: 753.3
    In the present paper the attempt is made for the first time to formalize the modern theory of elementary particles based on the structuralist approach. To this end, the description within the scope of the so-called standard model is considered. In the physics of elementary particles the term ‘standard model’ denotes the summary of theories which describe the various elementary building blocks of matter as well as their interactions between each other. This model represents (...)
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  37. Gianfranco Spavieri (1990). Model of the Electron Spin in Stochastic Physics. Foundations of Physics 20 (1):45-61.score: 748.0
    The electron is conceived here as a complex structure composed of a subparticle that is bound to a nearly circular motion. Although in quantum mechanics the spin is not representable, in classical stochastic physics this corresponds to the angular momentum of the subparticle. In fact, assuming Schrödinger-type hydrodynamic equations of motion for the subparticle, the spin-1/2 representation in configuration space and the corresponding Pauli matrices for the electron are obtained. The Hamiltonian of Pauli's theory as the nonrelativistic limit of (...)
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  38. J. C. Aron (1981). The Foundations of Relativity. Foundations of Physics 11 (1-2):77-101.score: 747.0
    In a previous paper a stochastic foundation was proposed for microphysics: the nonrelativistic and relativistic domains were shown to be connected with two different approximations of diffusion theory; the relativistic features (Lorentz contraction for the coordinate standard deviation, covariant diffusion equation) were not derived from the relativistic formalism introduced at the start, but emerged from diffusion theory itself. In the present paper these results are given a new presentation, which aims at elucidating not the foundations of quantum mechanics, but (...)
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  39. Nicholaos Jones (2009). General Relativity and the Standard Model: Why Evidence for One Does Not Disconfirm the Other. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (2):124-132.score: 740.0
    General Relativity and the Standard Model often are touted as the most rigorously and extensively confirmed scientific hypotheses of all time. Nonetheless, these theories appear to have consequences that are inconsistent with evidence about phenomena for which, respectively, quantum effects and gravity matter. This paper suggests an explanation for why the theories are not disconfirmed by such evidence. The key to this explanation is an approach to scientific hypotheses that allows their actual content to differ from their apparent (...)
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  40. Bert Schroer (2010). A Critical Look at 50 Years Particle Theory From the Perspective of the Crossing Property. Foundations of Physics 40 (12):1800-1857.score: 740.0
    The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrixelements of the S-matrix or formfactors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas (...)
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  41. Chris Smeenk (2006). The Elusive Higgs Mechanism. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):487-499.score: 738.0
    The Higgs mechanism is an essential but elusive component of the Standard Model of particle physics. Without it Yang-Mills gauge theories would have been little more than a warm-up exercise in the attempt to quantize gravity rather than serving as the basis for the Standard Model. This article focuses on two problems related to the Higgs mechanism clearly posed in Earman's recent papers (Earman 2003, 2004a, 2004b): what is the gauge-invariant content of the Higgs (...)
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  42. Peter Kosso (2000). Fundamental and Accidental Symmetries. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 14 (2):109 – 121.score: 732.0
    The Standard Model of elementary particle physics distinguishes between fundamental and accidental symmetries. The distinction is not based on empirical features of the symmetry, nor on a metaphysical notion of necessity. A symmetry is fundamental to the extent that other aspects of nature depend on it, and it is recognized as fundamental by its being theoretically well-connected. This paper clarifies the concept of what it is to be fundamental in this sense, and suggests broader implications for (...)
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  43. Simon Friederich (forthcoming). A Philosophical Look at the Higgs Mechanism. Journal for General Philosophy of Science:1-16.score: 732.0
    On the occasion of the recent experimental detection of a Higgs-type particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the paper reviews philosophical aspects of the Higgs mechanism as the presently preferred account of the generation of particle masses in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics and its most discussed extensions. The paper serves a twofold purpose: on the one hand, it offers an introduction to the Higgs mechanism and its most interesting philosophical (...)
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  44. Attila Grandpierre (1997). The Physics of Collective Consciousness. World Futures 48 (1):23-56.score: 727.5
    ABSTRACT: It is pointed out that the organisation of an organism necessarily involves fields which are the only means to make an approximately simultaneous tuning of the different subsystems of the organism-as-a-whole. Nature uses the olfactory fields, the acoustic fields, the electromagnetic fields and quantum-vacuum fields. Fields with their ability to comprehend the whole organism are the natural basis of a global interaction between organisms and of collective consciousness. Evidences are presented that electromagnetic potential fields mediate the collective field of (...)
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  45. Nuri Ünal (1997). A Simple Model of the classicalZitterbewegung: Photon Wave Function. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 27 (5):731-746.score: 725.0
    We propose a simple classical model of the zitterbewegung. In this model spin is proportional to the velocity of the particle, the component parallel top is constant and the orthogonal components are oscillating with2p frequency. The quantization of the system gives wave equations for spin,0, 1/2, 1, 3/2,…, etc. respectively. These equations are convenient for massless particles. The wave equation of the spin-1, massless free particle is equivalent to the Maxwell equations and the state functions have (...)
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  46. Alexei Grinbaum (2012). Which Fine-Tuning Arguments Are Fine? Foundations of Physics 42 (5):615-631.score: 722.5
    Fine-tuning arguments are a frequent find in the literature on quantum field theory. They are based on naturalness—an aesthetic criterion that was given a precise definition in the debates on the Higgs mechanism. We follow the history of such definitions and of their application at the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking. They give rise to a special interpretation of probability, which we call Gedankenfrequency. Finally, we show that the argument from naturalness has been extended to comparing different models of the (...)
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  47. John G. Cramer, Millimeter Gravity and the Superstring Wall.score: 720.0
    Why is gravity so weak? Why are the color forces between quarks so strong? In the standard model of particle physics, why are there so many different energies at which distinct fundamental forces are supposed to "unify", and what determines these widely separated energies? The answers to these questions may be provided by extra dimensions curled into loops a millimeter around. In other words, our universe may be only a millimeter across, in directions we are not (...)
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  48. Paweł Tambor (2008). Model kosmologiczny (LCDM, CDM) w schemacie pojęciowym efektywnych teorii Wszechświata. Filozofia Nauki 3.score: 715.0
    In the paper we show that modern cosmology has a status of effective theory of the Universe similarly to the standard models in particle physics. We illustrate that the source of such a point of view is the fact that the complete theory of the Universe (TOE) should be complicated enough to derive observables. The role of epistemological emergence in the context of cosmological models (Cold Dark Matter vs. Lambda Cold Dark Matter) is also investigated. We demonstrate (...)
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  49. Reiner Hedrich, String Theory - From Physics to Metaphysics.score: 714.0
    Currently, string theory represents the only advanced approach to a unification of all interactions, including gravity. In spite of the more than thirty years of its existence, the sequence of metamorphosis it ran through, and the ever more increasing number of involved physicists, until now, it did not make any empirically testable predictions. Because there are no empirical data incompatible with the quantum field theoretical standard model of elementary particle physics and with general relativity, the only (...)
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