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Profile: Theodore Drange (West Virginia University)
  1. Theodore M. Drange, The Argument From the Bible (1996).
    Almost all evangelical Christians believe that the writing of the Bible was divinely inspired and represents God's main revelation to humanity. They also believe that the Bible contains special features which constitute evidence of its divine inspiration. This would be a use of the Bible to prove God's existence within natural theology rather than within revealed theology, since the book's features are supposed to be evident even to (open-minded) skeptics. Furthermore, since a divinely inspired work must be true, those features (...)
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  2. Theodore M. Drange, Atheism, Agnosticism, Noncognitivism (1998).
    Suppose you are to answer the following two questions: (1) Does the sentence "God exists" express a proposition? (2) If so, then is that proposition true or false? If you say no to the first question, then you may be classified as a noncognitivist with regard to God talk . If you say yes to it, thereby allowing that the given sentence does express a proposition, then you are a cognitivist with regard to God talk . (Let us henceforth abbreviate (...)
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  3. Theodore M. Drange, Can Creationism Be Scientific? (1998).
    My answer to the title question is a qualified "Yes." A certain rare form of creationism is in principle testable and compatible with natural law, and therefore scientific, however, this is a moot point. I arrive at my conclusions purely through thought experiments. But before getting to that, let us first consider the issues of what creationism is and what it means for a theory to be scientific.
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  4. Theodore M. Drange, Incompatible Properties Arguments: A Survey (1998).
    Atheological arguments (arguments for the nonexistence of God) can be divided into two main groups. One group consists of arguments which aim to show an incompatibility between two of God's properties. Let us call those "incompatible properties arguments." The other group consists of arguments which aim to show an incompatibility between God's existence and the nature of the world. They may be called "God vs. world arguments." A prime example of one of those would be the Evidential Argument (...)
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  5. Theodore M. Drange, On Defending Atheism (2005).
    Two quite different issues need to be addressed with regard to the sentence "God exists." One is whether or not the sentence expresses a proposition (something that is true or false and that can be believed or disbelieved). If we say, "Yes, it expresses a proposition," then the second issue comes in: Is that proposition true or false?[ 1].
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  6. Theodore M. Drange, Review of Jordan Howard Sobel's Logic and Theism (2006). [REVIEW]
    The book is long, abstruse, technical (making ample use of symbolic logic and Bayesian notation), and written in a rather difficult style. Nevertheless, for those up to reading it who have an interest in its topics, it is a most valuable work. It is directed mainly at professional analytical philosophers with a background in both deductive and inductive logic. For such readers, I recommend this book most highly.
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  7. Theodore M. Drange, Science and Miracles (1998).
    The problem I wish to investigate is the relation between science and religion, with a special focus on religion's appeal to miracles. Let us define a "miracle" simply as an event which violates at least one law of nature. I realize that the term is used in other ways. For example, it is sometimes additionally required that miracles be caused by a supernatural being. For our purposes and in the interest of economy, that further requirement can be dispensed with. (...)
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  8. Theodore M. Drange, The Fine Tuning Argument (1998).
    Let us consider that version of the Argument from Design which appeals to the so called "fine tuning" of the physical constants of the universe. Call it "the Fine tuning Argument." It has many advocates, both on the Internet and in print. For some of the Internet articles, see the following web site: http://www.reasons.org/resources/papers/>. One of the argument's "print" advocates is George Schlesinger, who says the following: In the last few decades a tantalizingly great number of exceedingly rare coincidences, vital (...)
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  9. Theodore M. Drange, Why Be Moral? (1998).
    The title question "Why be moral?" has been around a long time. One use that is sometimes made of it is to argue that the only possible basis that morality can have is one that connects it with God. Thus, it is said, theists have an answer for the question whereas nontheists have none. Part of my goal in the present paper is to refute that claim. But before addressing the title question, let us first inquire: what does it mean (...)
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  10. Theodore M. Drange (2005). Is “God Exists” Cognitive? Philo 8 (2):137-150.
    The title question is approached by distinguishing two senses of “God” and two senses of “cognitive” (or “cognitively meaningful”), producing four separate questions. Each is given an affirmative or negative answer, which is defended against possible objections. At the end, the debate between atheism and theological non-cognitivism is addressed, with the atheist side argued to have the preferable outlook.
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  11. Theodore M. Drange (2005). Reply to Critics. Philo 8 (2):169-182.
    In this essay I respond to comments on my work by Stephen T. Davis and Keith Parsons.
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  12. Theodore M. Drange (2003). Gale on Omnipotence. Philo 6 (1):23-26.
    This is a brief critical assessment of Richard Gale’s treatment of arguments for God’s non-existence which make appeal to the concept of omnipotence. I mostly agree with what Gale says, but have found some additional issues worth exploring.
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  13. Theodore M. Drange (2002). McHugh's Expectations Dashed. Philo 5 (2):242-248.
    In “A Refutation of Drange’s Arguments from Evil and Nonbelief” (Philo, vol. 5, no. 1), Christopher McHugh posed his so-calledExpectations Defense against versions of the Argument from Evil and Argument from Nonbelief that appear in my book Nonbelief & Evil. I here raise objections to his defense.
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  14. Theodore M. Drange (2000). A Response to Parrish on the Fine-Tuning Argument. Philosophia Christi 2 (1):61 - 67.
    This is response to Stephen Parrish’s article "Theodore Drange on the Fine-Tuning Argument: A Critique," ’Philosophia Christi’, Series 2, 1 (No. 2, 1999), which attacked a section of my book ’Nonbelief and Evil: Two Arguments for God’s Nonexistence’ (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998). The Fine-Tuning Argument (FTA) maintains that the physical constants of our universe exhibit evidence of "fine-tuning" by an intelligent designer. In opposition, I suggest alternate explanations which are at least as good. Here I defend my objections to (...)
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  15. Theodore M. Drange (2000). The Fine-Tuning Argument Revisited. Philo 3 (2):38-49.
    A version of the Fine-tuning Argument (FTA) considered in a previous essay is replaced by an improved version, which is then refuted.Advocates of FTA must proclaim that there is no world ensemble, that a great many alternatives to the physical constants of our universe are physically possible and roughly equal in probability to them, and that alternate hypothetical worlds are all, or almost all, uninteresting in comparison to our universe. But no reason has been produced to believe any of these (...)
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  16. Theodore M. Drange (1998). Incompatible-Properties Arguments. Philo 1 (2):49-60.
    Ten arguments for the nonexistence of God are formulated and discussed briefly. Each of them ascribes to God a pair of properties from the following list of divine attributes: (a) perfect, (b) immutable, (c) transcendent, (d) nonphysical, (e) omniscient, (f) omnipresent, (g) personal, (h) free, (i) all-loving, (j) all-just, (k) all-merciful, and (1) the creator of the universe. Each argument aims to demonstrate an incompatibility between the two properties ascribed. The pairs considered are: 1. (a-1), 2. (b-1), 3. (b-e), 4. (...)
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  17. Theodore M. Drange (1998). Nonbelief Vs. Lack of Evidence. Philo 1 (1):105-114.
    Here are two atheological arguments, called the “Lack-of-evidence Argument” (LEA) and “the Argument from Nonbelief” (ANB). LEA: Probably, if God were to exist then there would be good objective evidence for that. But there is no good objective evidence for God’s existence. Therefore, probably God does not exist. ANB: Probably, if God were to exist then there would not be many nonbelievers in the world. But there are many nonbelievers in the world. Therefore, probably God does not exist. Reasons are (...)
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  18. Theodore M. Drange (1994). Slater on Self-Referential Arguments. Analysis 54 (1):61 - 64.
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  19. Theodore M. Drange (1993). The Argument From Non-Belief. Religious Studies 29 (4):417 - 432.
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  20. Theodore M. Drange (1990). Liar Syllogisms. Analysis 50 (1):1 - 7.
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