Search results for 'Theoretical Term' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Michael Tooley (2001). Functional Concepts, Referentially Opaque Contexts, Causal Relations, and the Definition of Theoretical Terms. Philosophical Studies 105 (3):251-79.score: 58.0
    In his recent article, ``Self-Consciousness', George Bealer has set outa novel and interesting argument against functionalism in the philosophyof mind. I shall attempt to show, however, that Bealer's argument cannotbe sustained.In arguing for this conclusion, I shall be defending three main theses.The first is connected with the problem of defining theoreticalpredicates that occur in theories where the following two features arepresent: first, the theoretical predicate in question occurswithin both extensional and non-extensional contexts; secondly, thetheory in question asserts that the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Austen Clark (1983). Functionalism and the Definition of Theoretical Terms. Journal of Mind and Behavior 4:339-352.score: 51.0
  3. Ioannis Votsis, Metaphilosophical Ruminations on Theoretical Term Reference.score: 45.0
    Most scientific realists nowadays would endorse an argument like the following: The empirical and explanatory success of theories or theory-parts is a good indicator of their approximate truth. In turn, approximate truth is a good indicator of referential success. Successor theories typically preserve all of the empirical and explanatory success of their predecessors as well as add to it. They are thus in general strictly more approximately true than their predecessors. Moreover, by preserving their predecessors’ approximately true parts they preserve (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Michael Strevens (2012). Theoretical Terms Without Analytic Truths. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):167-190.score: 42.0
    When new theoretical terms are introduced into scientific discourse, prevailing accounts imply, analytic or semantic truths come along with them, by way of either definitions or reference-fixing descriptions. But there appear to be few or no analytic truths in scientific theory, which suggests that the prevailing accounts are mistaken. This paper looks to research on the psychology of natural kind concepts to suggest a new account of the introduction of theoretical terms that avoids both definition and reference-fixing description. (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. James W. Cornman (1968). Mental Terms, Theoretical Terms, and Materialism. Philosophy of Science 35 (March):45-63.score: 42.0
    Some materialists argue that we can eliminate mental entities such as sensations because, like electrons, they are theoretical entities postulated as parts of scientific explanations, but, unlike electrons, they are unnecessary for such explanations. As Quine says, any explanatory role of mental entities can be played by "correlative physiological states and events instead." But sensations are not postulated theoretical entities. This is shown by proposing definitions of the related terms, 'observation term,' and 'theoretical term,' and (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. George Bealer (2001). The Self-Consciousness Argument: Why Tooley's Criticisms Fail. Philosophical Studies 105 (3):281-307.score: 37.0
    Ontological functionalism's defining tenet is that mental properties canbe defined wholly in terms of the general pattern of interaction ofontologically prior realizations. Ideological (or nonreductive)functionalism's defining tenet is that mental properties can only bedefined nonreductively, in terms of the general pattern of theirinteraction with one another. My Self-consciousness Argumentestablishes: (1) ontological functionalism is mistaken because itsproposed definitions wrongly admit realizations (vs. mentalproperties) into the contents of self-consciousness; (2)ideological (nonreductive) functionalism is the only viable alternativefor functionalists. Michael Tooley's critique misses the (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Robert Nola (1980). Fixing the Reference of Theoretical Terms. Philosophy of Science 47 (4):505-531.score: 36.0
    Kripke and Putnam have proposed that terms may be introduced to refer to theoretical entities by means of causal descriptions such as 'whatever causes observable effects O'. It is argued that such a reference-fixing definition is ill-formed and that theoretical beliefs must be involved in fixing the reference of a theoretical term. Some examples of reference-fixing are discussed e.g., the term 'electricity'. The Kripke-Putnam theory can not give an account of how terms may be introduced (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. John T. Roberts, The Semantic Novelty of Theoretical Terms.score: 36.0
    Often when a new scientific theory is introduced, new terms are introduced along with it. Some of these new terms might be given explicit definitions using only terms that were in currency prior to the introduction of the theory. Some of them might be defined using other new terms introduced with the theory. But it frequently happens that the standard formulations of a theory do not define some of the new terms at all; these terms are adopted as primitives. The (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Don A. Merrell (2006). Theoretical Identity, Reference Fixing, and Boyd's Defense of Type Materialism. Philosophia 34 (2):169-172.score: 30.0
    In his Materialism without Reductionism: What Materialism Does not Entail, Richard Boyd answers Kripke’s challenge to materialists to come up with a way to explain away the apparent contingency of mind-brain identities (such as ‘Pain=C-fiber firings’). Boyd accuses Kripke of an imaginative myopia manifesting itself as a failure to realize that the more theoretical term in the identity (‘C-fiber firings’) is fixed by contingent descriptions – descriptions that might pick out otherworldly kinds of neural events where C-fibres are (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. R. E. Tully (1976). Reduction and Secondary Qualities. Mind 85 (July):351-370.score: 30.0
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Patrick Mckee (1976). An Explanation-Model of Visual Sensation. Philosophical Studies 29 (June):457-464.score: 30.0
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Holger Andreas (2010). A Modal View of the Semantics of Theoretical Sentences. Synthese 174 (3):367 - 383.score: 30.0
    Modal logic has been applied in many different areas, as reasoning about time, knowledge and belief, necessity and possibility, to mention only some examples. In the present paper, an attempt is made to use modal logic to account for the semantics of theoretical sentences in scientific language. Theoretical sentences have been studied extensively since the work of Ramsey and Carnap. The present attempt at a modal analysis is motivated by there being several intended interpretations of the theoretical (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Michael Friedman (2011). Carnap on Theoretical Terms: Structuralism Without Metaphysics. [REVIEW] Synthese 180 (2):249 - 263.score: 28.0
    Both realists and instrumentalists have found it difficult to understand (much less accept) Carnap's developed view on theoretical terms, which attempts to stake out a neutral position between realism and instrumentalism. I argue that Carnap's mature conception of a scientific theory as the conjunction of its Ramsey sentence and Carnap sentence can indeed achieve this neutral position. To see this, however, we need to see why the Newman problem raised in the context of recent work on structural realism is (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Pierre Cruse (2004). Scientific Realism, Ramsey Sentences and the Reference of Theoretical Terms. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (2 & 3):133 – 149.score: 28.0
    It is often thought that questions of reference are crucial in assessing scientific realism, construed as the view that successful theories are at least approximately true descriptions of the unobservable; realism is justified only if terms in empirically successful theories generally refer to genuinely existing entities or properties. In this paper this view is questioned. First, it is argued that there are good reasons to think that questions of realism are largely decided by convention and carry no epistemic significance. An (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Holger Andreas (2008). Another Solution to the Problem of Theoretical Terms. Erkenntnis 69 (3):315 - 333.score: 28.0
    In this paper, a solution to the problem of theoretical terms is developed that is based on Carnap’s doctrine of indirect interpretation of theoretical terms. This doctrine will be given a semantic, model-theoretic explanation that is not given by Carnap himself as he remains content with a syntactic explanation. From that semantic explanation, rules for the truth-value assignment to postulates, i.e. sentences that determine the meaning of theoretical terms, are derived. The logical status of postulates will be (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. John A. Winnie (1965). Theoretical Terms and Partial Definitions. Philosophy of Science 32 (3/4):324-328.score: 28.0
    The problem of the interpretation of theoretical terms is outlined, and some difficulties connected with the distinction between partial definitions and empirical postulates are discussed. A reconstruction is sketched which is intended to explicate the 'definitional' character of partial definitions. Finally, some implications for the methodology of theory construction are indicated.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Igor Douven (2000). Theoretical Terms and the Principle of the Benefit of Doubt. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 14 (2):135 – 146.score: 28.0
    The Principle of the Benefit of Doubt dictates that, whenever reasonably possible, we interpret earlier-day scientists as referring to entities posited by current science. Putnam has presented the principle as supplementary to his Causal Theory of Reference in order to make this theory generally applicable to theoretical terms. The present paper argues that the principle is of doubtful standing. In particular, it will be argued that the principle lacks a justification and, indeed, is unjustifiable as it stands.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Mary C. Potter (2012). Conceptual Short Term Memory in Perception and Thought. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 27.0
    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Arjan Blokland Bart Aben, Sven Stapert (2012). About the Distinction Between Working Memory and Short-Term Memory. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 27.0
    The theoretical concepts short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) have been used to refer to the maintenance and the maintenance plus manipulation of memory, respectively. Although they are conceptually different, the use of the terms STM and WM in literature is not always strict. Short-term memory and WM are different theoretical concepts that are assumed to reflect different cognitive functions. However, correlational studies have not been able to separate both constructs consistently and there is evidence (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. R. M. Martin (1966). On Theoretical Constructs and Ramsey Constants. Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):1-13.score: 24.0
    The method of Ramsey sentences has been proposed for handling theoretical constructs within a scientific system. Essentially it consists of constructing a certain "monolithic" sentence for an entire theory. In this present paper several improvements are suggested which help to overcome some of the awkward features of the method. In particular we have here many Ramsey sentences rather than just one, each erstwhile primitive theoretical term giving rise to a Ramsey sentence. Such a sentence in effect defines (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. John D. Sinks (1972). Fictionalism and the Elimination of Theoretical Terms. Philosophy of Science 39 (3):285-290.score: 24.0
    The claim that theoretical entities are not real, that they are merely convenient fictions, has been defended and attacked in diverse ways. This paper is concerned with only one defense of the fictionalist thesis and with a certain realist attack on it. The defense in question is that theories which prima facie make reference to theoretical entities can be revised in such a way that no such apparent reference is made by eliminating all occurrences of theoretical expressions. (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Kathleen L. Slaney (2001). On Empirical Realism and the Defining of Theoretical Terms. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 21 (2):132-152.score: 24.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Solomon Feferman (2010). Set-Theoretical Invariance Criteria for Logicality. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (1):3-20.score: 21.0
    This is a survey of work on set-theoretical invariance criteria for logicality. It begins with a review of the Tarski-Sher thesis in terms, first, of permutation invariance over a given domain and then of isomorphism invariance across domains, both characterized by McGee in terms of definability in the language L∞,∞. It continues with a review of critiques of the Tarski-Sher thesis, and a proposal in response to one of those critiques via homomorphism invariance. That has quite divergent characterization results (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Leah McClimans (2010). A Theoretical Framework for Patient-Reported Outcome Measures. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (3):225-240.score: 21.0
    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to assess multiple facets of healthcare, including effectiveness, side effects of treatment, symptoms, health care needs, quality of care, and the evaluation of health care options. There are thousands of these measures and yet there is very little discussion of their theoretical underpinnings. In her 2008 Presidential address to the Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQoL), Professor Donna Lamping challenged researchers to grapple with the theoretical issues that arise from these (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Otávio Bueno & Scott A. Shalkowski (2014). Modalism and Theoretical Virtues: Toward an Epistemology of Modality. Philosophical Studies:1-19.score: 21.0
    According to modalism, modality is primitive. In this paper, we examine the implications of this view for modal epistemology, and articulate a modalist account of modal knowledge. First, we discuss a theoretical utility argument used by David Lewis in support of his claim that there is a plurality of concrete worlds. We reject this argument, and show how to dispense with possible worlds altogether. We proceed to account for modal knowledge in modalist terms.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. José Cegarra (2012). Social Imaginary Theoretical-epistemological Basis. Cinta de Moebio 43 (43):01-13.score: 21.0
    This paper aims to analyze social imaginary theoretical-epistemological basis. First, it defined the term social imaginary in relation to other similar or derivative, imagination, social representation and others. They settled their differences and finally developed the ideas of the most important authors on the subject, Moscovici, Abric, Castoriadis, Durand, Carter, Baeza, Pintos. It was concluded that the social imaginary are 1) interpretations in reality, 2) socially legitimized, 3) material manifestation as speech, symbols, attitudes, affective appraisals, knowledge legitimated 4) (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Mark G. Kuczewski (1999). Ethics in Long-Term Care: Are the Principles Different? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (1):15-29.score: 21.0
    It has become common in medical ethics to discuss difficult cases in terms of the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. These moral concepts or principles serve as maxims that are suggestive of appropriate clinical behavior. Because this language evolved primarily in the acute care setting, I consider whether it is in need of supplementation in order to be useful in the long-term care setting. Through analysis of two typical cases involving residents of long-term care (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. David E. Weissman & Sandra Matson (1999). Pain Assessment and Management in the Long-Term Care Setting. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (1):31-43.score: 21.0
    The assessment and management of pain is a significant public health problem in the United States. Long-term care facilities face unique barriers and challenges to pain management due to the large population of cognitively impaired residents, little physician contact and poor pain education for nurses and nurse assistants. In addition, common misconceptions about pain and pain treatment in the elderly along with health professional and resident fears of addiction and drug toxicity, add to the problem of pain management. The (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Thomas J. Fararo (2000). Cognitive Value Commitments in Formal Theoretical Sociology. Sociological Theory 18 (3):475-481.score: 21.0
    This paper aims to communicate some of the value commitments that characterize my approach to formal model building in theoretical sociology. It does this through a narrative method, an autobiographical account of shifts in intellectual interests through various phases of my career: from history to philosophy, from philosophy to sociology, from sociology to mathematics and back, followed by several long-term formal theoretical research programs. One of these, pertaining to the formal representation of institutionalized social action systems, is (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Robert N. McCauley (2009). Time is of the Essence: Explanatory Pluralism and Accommodating Theories About Long-Term Processes. Philosophical Psychology 22 (5):611-635.score: 21.0
    Unified, all-purpose, philosophical models of reduction in science lack resources for capturing varieties of cross-scientific relations that have proven critical to understanding some scientific achievements. Not only do those models obscure the distinction between successional and cross-scientific relations, their preoccupations with the structures of both theories and things provide no means for accommodating the contributions to various sciences of theories and research about long-term diachronic processes involving large-scale, distributed systems. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the parade (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Subrata Chakrabarty & Liang Wang (2012). The Long-Term Sustenance of Sustainability Practices in MNCs: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective of the Role of R&D and Internationalization. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 110 (2):205-217.score: 21.0
    What allows MNCs to maintain their sustainability practices over the long-term? This is an important but under-examined question. To address this question, we investigate both the development and sustenance of sustainability practices. We use the dynamic capabilities perspective, rooted in resource-based view literature, as the theoretical basis. We argue that MNCs that simultaneously pursue both higher R&D intensity and higher internationalization are more capable of developing and maintaining sustainability practices. We test our hypotheses using longitudinal panel data from (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Michael Williams (2007). Is Managerial Intuition Rational? The Case of Long Term Capital Management. Philosophy of Management 6 (1):99-122.score: 21.0
    Modelling agency in economics rests primarily on the assumption of instrumental rationality. Managerial agency is more often analysed with a more complex ‘behavioural’ approach. This has led for years to a sterile debate about the usefulness of the abstract rationality postulate between those who think that it is all but sufficient and those who doubt if it is even necessary. This paper argues that positing an abstract (but real) rational core to managerial agency that is then ‘concretised’ towards actual managerial (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Ying Jiang (1995). Consistency of a Λ-Theory Withn-Tuples and Easy Term. Archive for Mathematical Logic 34 (2):79-96.score: 21.0
    We give here a model-theoretical solution to the problem, raised by J.L: Krivine, of the consistency of λβη+U(G)+Ω=t, wheret is an arbitrary λ-term,G an arbitrary finite group of order, sayn, andU(G) the theory which expresses the existence of a surjectiven-tuple notion, such that each element ofG behaves simultaneously as a permutation of the components of then-tuple and as an automorphism of the model. This provides in particular a semantic proof of the βη-easiness of the λ-term Ω.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Carlos Laranjeira (2013). The Role of Narrative and Metaphor in the Cancer Life Story: A Theoretical Analysis. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):469-481.score: 21.0
    Being diagnosed with cancer can be one of those critical incidents that negatively affect the self. Identity is threatened when physical, psychological, and social consequences of chronic illness begin to erode one’s sense of self and challenge an individual’s ability to continue to present the self he or she prefers to present to others. Based on the notion of illness trajectory and adopting a Ricoeurian narrative perspective, this theoretical paper shall explore the impact of cancer disease on identity and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Jun Soo Kwon Wi Hoon Jung, Sung Nyun Kim, Tae Young Lee, Joon Hwan Jang, Chi-Hoon Choi, Do-Hyung Kang (2013). Exploring the Brains of Baduk (Go) Experts: Gray Matter Morphometry, Resting-State Functional Connectivity, and Graph Theoretical Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
    One major characteristic of experts is intuitive judgment, which is an automatic process whereby patterns stored in memory through long-term training are recognized. Indeed, long-term training may influence brain structure and function. A recent study revealed that chess experts at rest showed differences in structure and functional connectivity (FC) in the head of caudate, which is associated with rapid best next-move generation. However, less is known about the structure and function of the brains of Baduk experts compared with (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Nelson Cowan (2001). The Magical Number 4 in Short-Term Memory: A Reconsideration of Mental Storage Capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):87-114.score: 18.0
    Miller (1956) summarized evidence that people can remember about seven chunks in short-term memory (STM) tasks. However, that number was meant more as a rough estimate and a rhetorical device than as a real capacity limit. Others have since suggested that there is a more precise capacity limit, but that it is only three to five chunks. The present target article brings together a wide variety of data on capacity limits suggesting that the smaller capacity limit is real. Capacity (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Pauline Kleingeld (1998). Kant on the Unity of Theoretical and Practical Reason. Review of Metaphysics 52 (2):500-528.score: 18.0
    In his critical works of the 1780's, Kant claims, seemingly inconsistently, that (1) theoretical and practical reason are one and the same reason, applied differently, (2) that he still needs to show that they are, and (3) that theoretical and practical reason are united. I first argue that current interpretations of Kant's doctrine of the unity of reason are insufficient. But rather than concluding that Kant’s doctrine becomes coherent only in the Critique of Judgment, I show that the (...)
    Direct download (13 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Mohamed Elsamahi (1994). Could Theoretical Entities Save Realism? In David & Richard Hull & Burian (ed.), PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. 173 - 180.score: 18.0
    Hacking and other entity realists suggest a strategy to build scientific realism on a stronger foundation than inference to the best explanation. They argue that if beliefs in the existence of theoretical entities are derived from experimentation rather than theories, they can escape the antirealist's criticism and provide a stronger ground for realism. In this paper, an outline and a critique of entity realism are presented. It will be argued that entity realism cannot stand as a separate position from (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Ken Akiba (2009). A New Theory of Quantifiers and Term Connectives. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (3):403-431.score: 18.0
    This paper sets forth a new theory of quantifiers and term connectives, called shadow theory , which should help simplify various semantic theories of natural language by greatly reducing the need of Montagovian proper names, type-shifting, and λ-conversion. According to shadow theory, conjunctive, disjunctive, and negative noun phrases such as John and Mary , John or Mary , and not both John and Mary , as well as determiner phrases such as every man , some woman , and the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Francisco Antonio Doria (2009). Theoretical Physics: A Primer for Philosophers of Science. Principia 13 (2):195-232.score: 18.0
    We give a overview of the main areas in theoretical physics, with emphasis on their relation to Lagrangian formalism in classical mechanics. This review covers classical mechanics; the road from classical mechanics to Schrodinger's quantum mechanics; electromagnetism, special and general relativity, and (very briefly) gauge field theory and the Higgs mechanism. We shun mathematical rigor in favor of a straightforward presentation.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Amit Saini (2010). Purchasing Ethics and Inter-Organizational Buyer—Supplier Relational Determinants: A Conceptual Framework. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):439 - 455.score: 18.0
    This study examines unethical purchasing practices from the perspective of buyer-supplier relationships. Based on a review of the inter-organizational literature and qualitative data from in-depth interviews with purchase managers from diverse industries, a conceptual framework is proposed, and theoretical arguments leading to propositions are presented. Taking into consideration the presence or absence of an explicit or implicit company policy sanctioning ethically questionable activities, unethical purchasing practices are conceptualized as a three-tiered set. Three broad themes emerge from the analysis toward (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Anthony G. Greenwald, R. L. Abrams, Lionel Naccache & Stanislas Dehaene (2003). Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.score: 18.0
    Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Danny Frederick, Theoretical and Practical Reason: A Critical Rationalist View.score: 18.0
    If the task of theoretical reason is to discover truth or reasons for belief, then theoretical reason is impossible. Attempts to circumvent this by appeal to probabilities are self-defeating. If the task of practical reason is to discover what we ought to do or what actions are desirable or valuable, then practical reason is impossible. Appeal to the subjective ought is self-defeating and often gives either a wrong answer or a self-contradictory one. I argue that the task of (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. George J. Agich (1993). Autonomy and Long-Term Care. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    The realities and myths of long-term care and the challenges it poses for the ethics of autonomy are analyzed in this perceptive work. The book defends the concept of autonomy, but argues that the standard view of autonomy as non-interference and independence has only a limited applicability for long term care. The treatment of actual autonomy stresses the developmental and social nature of human persons and the priority of identification over autonomous choice. The work balances analysis of the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Henri Galinon (2009). Les Termes Théoriques, de Carnap à Lewis. Philonsorbonne 4:1-12.score: 18.0
    This is a short introductory paper to the Ramsey-Carnap method, as introduced by Carnap in his "Philosophical foundations of Physics" (1966) to explain the meaning of theoretical terms.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Serge Grigoriev (2012). Chauncey Wright: Theoretical Reason in a Naturalist Account of Human Consciousness. Journal of the History of Ideas 73 (4):559-582.score: 18.0
    Chauncey Wright was an early intellectual follower of Darwin, and a mentor to American pragmatists, C.S. Peirce and William James. Starting with the discussion of Wright’s interpretation of natural selection, the paper proceeds to outline the distinction he draws between theoretical (scientific) and practical consciousness and the way that this distinction plays out in his account of the development of human consciousness within the context of natural selection. Formulating the problem of reconfiguring the relationship between instrumental intelligence and detached (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. M. G. Piety (2004). The Long Term: Capitalism and Culture in the New Millennium. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 51 (2):103-118.score: 18.0
    One of the most significant developments in the latter part of the 20th century and the first part of this new millennium has been the triumph of short-term over long-term thinking. We are increasingly a culture that looks neither to the past nor to the future, but only to the next “quarter,” or to the next Delphic pronouncement by Alan Greenspan. This cultural construction of time has given rise to social, political and personal problems of unprecedented magnitude. The (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Gregory Cooper (1998). Generalizations in Ecology: A Philosophical Taxonomy. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):555-586.score: 18.0
    There has been a significant amount of uncertainty and controversy over the prospects for general knowledge in ecology. Environmental decision makers have begun to despair of ecology's capacity to provide anything more than case by case guidance for the shaping of environmental policy. Ecologists themselves have become suspicious of the pursuit of the kind of genuine nomothetic knowledge that appears to be the hallmark of other scientific domains. Finally, philosophers of biology have contributed to this retreat from generality by suggesting (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Victor Kumar (2014). 'Knowledge' as a Natural Kind Term. Synthese 191 (3):439-457.score: 18.0
    Naturalists who conceive of knowledge as a natural kind are led to treat ‘knowledge’ as a natural kind term. ‘Knowledge,’ then, must behave semantically in the ways that seem to support a direct reference theory for other natural kind terms. A direct reference theory for ‘knowledge,’ however, appears to leave open too many possibilities about the identity of knowledge. Intuitively, states of belief count as knowledge only if they meet epistemic criteria, not merely if they bear a causal/historical relation (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Daniel S. Ruchkin, Jordan Grafman, Katherine Cameron & Rita S. Berndt (2003). Working Memory Retention Systems: A State of Activated Long-Term Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):709-728.score: 18.0
    High temporal resolution event-related brain potential and electroencephalographic coherence studies of the neural substrate of short-term storage in working memory indicate that the sustained coactivation of both prefrontal cortex and the posterior cortical systems that participate in the initial perception and comprehension of the retained information are involved in its storage. These studies further show that short-term storage mechanisms involve an increase in neural synchrony between prefrontal cortex and posterior cortex and the enhanced activation of long-term memory (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000