Search results for 'Theoretical anomalies' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Slobodan Perovic (2011). Missing Experimental Challenges to the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (1):32-42.score: 42.0
    The success of particle detection in high energy physics colliders critically depends on the criteria for selecting a small number of interactions from an overwhelming number that occur in the detector. It also depends on the selection of the exact data to be analyzed and the techniques of analysis. The introduction of automation into the detection process has traded the direct involvement of the physicist at each stage of selection and analysis for the efficient handling of vast amounts of data. (...)
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  2. Ken Warmbrōd (1974). Theoretical Devices for Marking Semantic Anomalies. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):365 - 372.score: 36.0
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  3. Stellan Ohlsson (1999). Theoretical Commitment and Implicit Knowledge: Why Anomalies Do Not Trigger Learning. Science and Education 8 (5):559-574.score: 36.0
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  4. Carol E. Cleland (2012). Life Without Definitions. Synthese 185 (1):125-144.score: 24.0
    The question ‘what is life?’ has long been a source of philosophical debate and in recent years has taken on increasing scientific importance. The most popular approach among both philosophers and scientists for answering this question is to provide a “definition” of life. In this article I explore a variety of different definitional approaches, both traditional and non-traditional, that have been used to “define” life. I argue that all of them are deeply flawed. It is my contention that a scientifically (...)
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  5. Leah McClimans (2010). A Theoretical Framework for Patient-Reported Outcome Measures. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (3):225-240.score: 21.0
    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to assess multiple facets of healthcare, including effectiveness, side effects of treatment, symptoms, health care needs, quality of care, and the evaluation of health care options. There are thousands of these measures and yet there is very little discussion of their theoretical underpinnings. In her 2008 Presidential address to the Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQoL), Professor Donna Lamping challenged researchers to grapple with the theoretical issues that arise from these (...)
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  6. Pauline Kleingeld (1998). Kant on the Unity of Theoretical and Practical Reason. Review of Metaphysics 52 (2):500-528.score: 18.0
    In his critical works of the 1780's, Kant claims, seemingly inconsistently, that (1) theoretical and practical reason are one and the same reason, applied differently, (2) that he still needs to show that they are, and (3) that theoretical and practical reason are united. I first argue that current interpretations of Kant's doctrine of the unity of reason are insufficient. But rather than concluding that Kant’s doctrine becomes coherent only in the Critique of Judgment, I show that the (...)
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  7. Michael Strevens (2012). Theoretical Terms Without Analytic Truths. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):167-190.score: 18.0
    When new theoretical terms are introduced into scientific discourse, prevailing accounts imply, analytic or semantic truths come along with them, by way of either definitions or reference-fixing descriptions. But there appear to be few or no analytic truths in scientific theory, which suggests that the prevailing accounts are mistaken. This paper looks to research on the psychology of natural kind concepts to suggest a new account of the introduction of theoretical terms that avoids both definition and reference-fixing description. (...)
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  8. Mohamed Elsamahi (1994). Could Theoretical Entities Save Realism? In David & Richard Hull & Burian (ed.), PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. 173 - 180.score: 18.0
    Hacking and other entity realists suggest a strategy to build scientific realism on a stronger foundation than inference to the best explanation. They argue that if beliefs in the existence of theoretical entities are derived from experimentation rather than theories, they can escape the antirealist's criticism and provide a stronger ground for realism. In this paper, an outline and a critique of entity realism are presented. It will be argued that entity realism cannot stand as a separate position from (...)
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  9. Francisco Antonio Doria (2009). Theoretical Physics: A Primer for Philosophers of Science. Principia 13 (2):195-232.score: 18.0
    We give a overview of the main areas in theoretical physics, with emphasis on their relation to Lagrangian formalism in classical mechanics. This review covers classical mechanics; the road from classical mechanics to Schrodinger's quantum mechanics; electromagnetism, special and general relativity, and (very briefly) gauge field theory and the Higgs mechanism. We shun mathematical rigor in favor of a straightforward presentation.
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  10. Michael Tooley (2001). Functional Concepts, Referentially Opaque Contexts, Causal Relations, and the Definition of Theoretical Terms. Philosophical Studies 105 (3):251-79.score: 18.0
    In his recent article, ``Self-Consciousness', George Bealer has set outa novel and interesting argument against functionalism in the philosophyof mind. I shall attempt to show, however, that Bealer's argument cannotbe sustained.In arguing for this conclusion, I shall be defending three main theses.The first is connected with the problem of defining theoreticalpredicates that occur in theories where the following two features arepresent: first, the theoretical predicate in question occurswithin both extensional and non-extensional contexts; secondly, thetheory in question asserts that the (...)
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  11. Danny Frederick, Theoretical and Practical Reason: A Critical Rationalist View.score: 18.0
    If the task of theoretical reason is to discover truth or reasons for belief, then theoretical reason is impossible. Attempts to circumvent this by appeal to probabilities are self-defeating. If the task of practical reason is to discover what we ought to do or what actions are desirable or valuable, then practical reason is impossible. Appeal to the subjective ought is self-defeating and often gives either a wrong answer or a self-contradictory one. I argue that the task of (...)
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  12. Solomon Feferman (2010). Set-Theoretical Invariance Criteria for Logicality. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (1):3-20.score: 18.0
    This is a survey of work on set-theoretical invariance criteria for logicality. It begins with a review of the Tarski-Sher thesis in terms, first, of permutation invariance over a given domain and then of isomorphism invariance across domains, both characterized by McGee in terms of definability in the language L∞,∞. It continues with a review of critiques of the Tarski-Sher thesis, and a proposal in response to one of those critiques via homomorphism invariance. That has quite divergent characterization results (...)
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  13. Don A. Merrell (2006). Theoretical Identity, Reference Fixing, and Boyd's Defense of Type Materialism. Philosophia 34 (2):169-172.score: 18.0
    In his Materialism without Reductionism: What Materialism Does not Entail, Richard Boyd answers Kripke’s challenge to materialists to come up with a way to explain away the apparent contingency of mind-brain identities (such as ‘Pain=C-fiber firings’). Boyd accuses Kripke of an imaginative myopia manifesting itself as a failure to realize that the more theoretical term in the identity (‘C-fiber firings’) is fixed by contingent descriptions – descriptions that might pick out otherworldly kinds of neural events where C-fibres are absent. (...)
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  14. Holger Andreas (2010). A Modal View of the Semantics of Theoretical Sentences. Synthese 174 (3):367 - 383.score: 18.0
    Modal logic has been applied in many different areas, as reasoning about time, knowledge and belief, necessity and possibility, to mention only some examples. In the present paper, an attempt is made to use modal logic to account for the semantics of theoretical sentences in scientific language. Theoretical sentences have been studied extensively since the work of Ramsey and Carnap. The present attempt at a modal analysis is motivated by there being several intended interpretations of the theoretical (...)
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  15. Serge Grigoriev (2012). Chauncey Wright: Theoretical Reason in a Naturalist Account of Human Consciousness. Journal of the History of Ideas 73 (4):559-582.score: 18.0
    Chauncey Wright was an early intellectual follower of Darwin, and a mentor to American pragmatists, C.S. Peirce and William James. Starting with the discussion of Wright’s interpretation of natural selection, the paper proceeds to outline the distinction he draws between theoretical (scientific) and practical consciousness and the way that this distinction plays out in his account of the development of human consciousness within the context of natural selection. Formulating the problem of reconfiguring the relationship between instrumental intelligence and detached (...)
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  16. Otávio Bueno & Scott A. Shalkowski (2014). Modalism and Theoretical Virtues: Toward an Epistemology of Modality. Philosophical Studies:1-19.score: 18.0
    According to modalism, modality is primitive. In this paper, we examine the implications of this view for modal epistemology, and articulate a modalist account of modal knowledge. First, we discuss a theoretical utility argument used by David Lewis in support of his claim that there is a plurality of concrete worlds. We reject this argument, and show how to dispense with possible worlds altogether. We proceed to account for modal knowledge in modalist terms.
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  17. Manfred D. Laubichler, Edward H. Hagen & Peter Hammerstein (2005). The Strategy Concept and John Maynard Smith's Influence on Theoretical Biology. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):1041-1050.score: 18.0
    Here we argue that the concept of strategies, as it was introduced into biology by John Maynard Smith, is a prime illustration of the four dimensions of theoretical biology in the post-genomic era. These four dimensions are: data analysis and management, mathematical and computational model building and simulation, concept formation and analysis, and theory integration. We argue that all four dimensions of theoretical biology are crucial to future interactions between theoretical and empirical biologists as well as with (...)
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  18. Christoph Lumer (1997). Practical Arguments for Theoretical Theses. Argumentation 11 (3):329-340.score: 18.0
    Pascal‘s wager is expounded as a paradigm case of a practical,decision-theoretical argument for acting as if a proposition is true when wehave no theoretical reasons to accept or reject it (1.1.–1.2.). Thoughthe paradigm is fallacious in various respects there are valid and adequatearguments for acting as if certain propositions are true: that theoreticalentities exist, that there are material perceptual objects, that the worldis uniform across time (1.3). After this analysis of examples the author‘sgeneral approach for developing criteria for (...)
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  19. Brent D. Slife (2000). The Practice of Theoretical Psychology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):97-115.score: 18.0
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  20. Robert Lockie (forthcoming). The Regulative and the Theoretical in Epistemology. Abstracta.score: 18.0
    The distinction between the regulative (‘practical’, ‘subjective’, ‘decision-procedural’) and the theoretical (‘objective’, ‘absolute’) pertains to the aims (the desiderata) of an account of justification. This distinction began in ethics and spread to epistemology. Each of internalism, externalism, is separately forced to draw this distinction to avoid a stock, otherwise fatal, argument levelled against them by the other. Given this situation however, we may finesse much partisan conflict in epistemology by simply seeing differing accounts of justification as answering to radically (...)
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  21. Igor Hanzel (2012). Causation, Principle of Common Cause and Theoretical Explanation: Wesley C. Salmon and G. W. F. Hegel. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (1):29-44.score: 18.0
    The aim of this article is to analyze the main contributions of Wesley C. Salmon to the philosophy of science, that is, his concepts of causation, common cause, and theoretical explanation, and to provide a critique of them. This critique will be based on a comparison of Salmon's concepts with categories developed by Hegel in his Science of Logic, and which can be applied to the issues treated by Salmon by means of the above given three concepts. It is (...)
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  22. Adelbert H. Jenkins (2005). Hamlet, Theoretical Psychology, and" The View From Manywheres". Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 25 (2):133-152.score: 18.0
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  23. Dionysis Christias (2014). An Interpretation and Extension of Sellars's Views on the Epistemic Status of Philosophical Propositions. Metaphilosophy 45 (3):348-371.score: 18.0
    This article examines Wilfrid Sellars's views on the epistemic status of philosophical propositions. It suggests that according to Sellars philosophical propositions are normative and practically oriented. They do not form a theory for the description of reality; their function is, rather, that of motivating actions which aim at changing reality. The article argues that the role of philosophical propositions can be illuminated if they are understood as a special kind of (proposed) “material” rules of inference, provided that the latter are (...)
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  24. Inga B. Dolinina (2001). `Theoretical' and `Empirical' Reasoning Modes From the Neurological Perspective. Argumentation 15 (2):117-134.score: 18.0
    Two modes of reasoning are used by humans – the `theoretical' (formal) and the `empirical' (non-formal), the first operating with inside-the-syllogism information, the second utilising out-of-the-syllogism information. Cross-cultural research (since Lévy-Bruhl, and especially after Luria) and developmental research (since Piaget) discovered respectively that members of `traditional' societies and children up to a certain age are able to operate only in the empirical mode.The paper brings together diverse discussions about usage of these modes in actual discourse (Ennis, Johnson-Laird, Moore, Olson, (...)
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  25. Jack Martin (2004). What Can Theoretical Psychology Do? Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):1-13.score: 18.0
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  26. No Authorship Indicated (1995). Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology: Division 24: Expenditures and Adopted Budgets (1994-1996). Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 15 (2):205-205.score: 18.0
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  27. Slavica Jakelić (2014). Humanism and Theoretical Pluralism. Journal of Religious Ethics 42 (1):156-166.score: 18.0
    Christian Smith's What Is a Person? calls for a normative turn in sociology—the grounding of sociology in a theory of human nature. While offering a systematic account of a thick view of personhood—what it should look like, how it can be applied, and why it is needed—the book proposes a critical realist personalism as the best metatheoretical direction for sociology. The author of this essay agrees with the main questions and direction of Smith's project. However, by historicizing the origins and (...)
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  28. Matthew Wilks Keefer (1996). Distinguishing Practical and Theoretical Reasoning: A Critique of Deanna Kuhn's Theory of Informal Argument. Informal Logic 18 (1).score: 18.0
    Deanna Kuhn's theory of informal argumentation (1991) evaluates arguments according to a theory/evidence model where subjects first articulate a theory and then must provide critical testing of alternatives on the basis of evidence. Using this model, Kuhn reports that many subjects fail to supply adequate evidence for their 'theories' and are often unable or unwilling to generate alternatives. In this paper an account of practical reasoning is provided that suggests an alternate interpretation for Kuhn's subjects' poor perfonnance. It is argued (...)
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  29. Stella Reiter-Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schürmann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer-Zehnder (2011). Evidence – Competence – Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi-Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap. Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.score: 18.0
    In this paper we assume that ‘theory’ is important for Clinical Ethics Support Services (CESS). We will argue that the underlying implicit theory should be reflected. Moreover, we suggest that the theoretical components on which any clinical ethics support (CES) relies should be explicitly articulated in order to enhance the quality of CES.A theoretical framework appropriate for CES will be necessarily complex and should include ethical (both descriptive and normative), metaethical and organizational components. The various forms of CES (...)
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  30. Jack Reynolds (2013). Phenomenology and Virtue Ethics: Complementary Anti-Theoretical Methodological and Ethical Trajectories? In K. Hermberg P. Gyllenhammer (ed.), Phenomenology and Virtue Ethics. Continuum.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue that the negative injunctions against certain ways of conceiving of the ethico-political that we can draw explicitly from the methodological strictures of phenomenology are also consistent with some of the core more positive dimensions of contemporary virtue ethics (especially at the more anti-theoretical end of the virtue ethical spectrum), and that central aspects of virtue ethics are consistent with most of the explicit reflections on ethical matters proffered by canonical phenomenologists.
     
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  31. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2006). Fisherian and Wrightian Perspectives in Evolutionary Genetics and Model-Mediated Imposition of Theoretical Assumptions. Journal of Theoretical Biology 240:218-232.score: 15.0
    I investigate how theoretical assumptions, pertinent to different perspectives and operative during the modeling process, are central in determining how nature is actually taken to be. I explore two different models by Michael Turelli and Steve Frank of the evolution of parasite-mediated cytoplasmic incompatility, guided, respectively, by Fisherian and Wrightian perspectives. Since the two models can be shown to be commensurable both with respect to mathematics and data, I argue that the differences between them in the (1) mathematical presentation (...)
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  32. Paweł Zeidler & Danuta Sobczyńska (1995). The Idea of Realism in the New Experimentalism and the Problem of the Existence of Theoretical Entities in Chemistry. Foundations of Science 1 (4):517-535.score: 15.0
    The paper is focused on some aspects of experimental realism of Ian Hacking, and especially on his manipulability criterion of existence. The problem is here related to chemical molecules, the objects of interest in chemical research. The authors consider whether and to what extent this criterion has been applied in experimental practice of chemistry. They argue that experimentation on is a fundamental criterion of existence of entities in chemistry rather than experimentation with. Some examples regarding studies of structures of complex (...)
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  33. Carson Strong (2010). Theoretical and Practical Problems with Wide Reflective Equilibrium in Bioethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (2):123-140.score: 15.0
    Various theories have been put forward in an attempt to explain what makes moral judgments justifiable. One of the main theories currently advocated in bioethics is a form of coherentism known as wide reflective equilibrium. In this paper, I argue that wide reflective equilibrium is not a satisfactory approach for justifying moral beliefs and propositions. A long-standing theoretical problem for reflective equilibrium has not been adequately resolved, and, as a result, the main arguments for wide reflective equilibrium are unsuccessful. (...)
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  34. Alec Hyslop (1976). Other Minds as Theoretical Entities. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 54 (August):158-61.score: 15.0
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  35. John Cherry, Monle Lee & Charles S. Chien (2003). A Cross-Cultural Application of a Theoretical Model of Business Ethics: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Data. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 44 (4):359 - 376.score: 15.0
    Hunt and Vitell''s General Theory (1992) is used in a cross-cultural comparison of U.S. and Taiwanese business practitioners. Results indicate that Taiwanese practitioners exhibit lower perceptions of an ethical issue in a scenario based on bribery, as well as milder deontological evaluations and ethical judgments relative to their U.S. counterparts. In addition, Taiwan respondents showed higher likelihood of making the payment. Several of the paths between variables in the theory are confirmed in both U.S. and Taiwan samples, with summary data (...)
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  36. Bjørn Hofmann (2001). Complexity of the Concept of Disease as Shown Through Rival Theoretical Frameworks. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (3):211-236.score: 15.0
    The concept of disease has been the subject ofa vast, vivid and versatile debate. Categoriessuch as ``realist'', ``nominalist'', ``ontologist'',``physiologist'', ``normativist'' and``descriptivist'' have been applied to classifydisease concepts. These categories refer tounderlying theoretical frameworks of thedebate. The objective of this review is toanalyse these frameworks. It is argued that thecategories applied in the debate refer toprofound philosophical issues, and that thecomplexity of the debate reflects thecomplexity of the concept itself: disease is acomplex concept, and does not easily lenditself to definition.
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  37. Alan N. Sussman (1975). Mental Entities of Theoretical Entities. American Philosophical Quarterly 12 (October):277-288.score: 15.0
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  38. Jun Soo Kwon Seung-Goo Kim, Wi Hoon Jung, Sung Nyun Kim, Joon Hwan Jang (2013). Disparity Between Dorsal and Ventral Networks in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Evidence Revealed by Graph Theoretical Analysis Based on Cortical Thickness From MRI. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
  39. Howard Brody (1992). The Importance of Primary Care for Theoretical Medicine: A Commentary. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (3).score: 15.0
    Froom and Froom all attention to referral bias as a frequent cause for misinterpreting the medical literature. This is particularly a source of false certainty, and therefore false science, in U.S. practice, where referral centers are often seen as the only legitimate source of medical knowledge and where primary care is discounted as a source of scientific observations. Appreciation of the primary care setting is therefore a critical element in theoretical understanding of medical epistemology.
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  40. Susan Bell Trickett, J. Gregory Trafton & Christian D. Schunn (2009). How Do Scientists Respond to Anomalies? Different Strategies Used in Basic and Applied Science. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):711-729.score: 15.0
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  41. V. R. Carlson & E. P. Tassone (1971). Familiar Versus Unfamiliar Size: A Theoretical Derivation and Test. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):109-115.score: 15.0
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  42. Herbert Kaufman & Gordon M. Becker (1961). The Empirical Determination of Game-Theoretical Strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (6):462.score: 15.0
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  43. Austen Clark (1983). Functionalism and the Definition of Theoretical Terms. Journal of Mind and Behavior 4:339-352.score: 15.0
  44. Stella Reiter‐Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schuermann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer‐Zehnder (2011). Evidence–Competence–Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi‐Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap. Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.score: 15.0
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  45. Harald Walach & Stefan Schmidt (2005). Repairing Plato's Life Boat with Ockham's Razor: The Important Function of Research in Anomalies for Consciousness Studies. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (2):52-70.score: 14.0
    Scientific progress is achieved not only by continuous accumulation of knowledge but also by paradigm shifts. These shifts are often necessitated by anomalous findings that cannot be incorporated in accepted models. Two important methodological principles regulate this process and complement each other: Ockham's Razor as the principle of parsimony and Plato's Life Boat as the principle of the necessity to 'save the appearances' and thus incorporate conflicting phenomenological data into theories. We review empirical data which are in conflict with some (...)
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  46. Ulrich Gähde (2012). Anomalies and Coherence: A Case Study From Astronomy. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (2):347-359.score: 14.0
    In recent decades, the concept of coherence has become one of the key concepts in philosophy. Although there is still no consensus about how to explicate coherence, it is widely accepted that the appearance of anomalies significantly lowers the coherence of a propositional or belief system. In this paper, the relationship between coherence and anomalies is analysed by looking at a specific case study from astronomy. It concerns anomalies that occurred in the first half of the twentieth (...)
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  47. Christopher Boorse (1977). Health as a Theoretical Concept. Philosophy of Science 44 (4):542-573.score: 12.0
    This paper argues that the medical conception of health as absence of disease is a value-free theoretical notion. Its main elements are biological function and statistical normality, in contrast to various other ideas prominent in the literature on health. Apart from universal environmental injuries, diseases are internal states that depress a functional ability below species-typical levels. Health as freedom from disease is then statistical normality of function, i.e., the ability to perform all typical physiological functions with at least typical (...)
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  48. Michael Friedman (2011). Carnap on Theoretical Terms: Structuralism Without Metaphysics. [REVIEW] Synthese 180 (2):249 - 263.score: 12.0
    Both realists and instrumentalists have found it difficult to understand (much less accept) Carnap's developed view on theoretical terms, which attempts to stake out a neutral position between realism and instrumentalism. I argue that Carnap's mature conception of a scientific theory as the conjunction of its Ramsey sentence and Carnap sentence can indeed achieve this neutral position. To see this, however, we need to see why the Newman problem raised in the context of recent work on structural realism is (...)
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  49. Paul M. Churchland (1988). Perceptual Plasticity and Theoretical Neutrality: A Reply to Jerry Fodor. Philosophy of Science 55 (June):167-87.score: 12.0
    The doctrine that the character of our perceptual knowledge is plastic, and can vary substantially with the theories embraced by the perceiver, has been criticized in a recent paper by Fodor. His arguments are based on certain experimental facts and theoretical approaches in cognitive psychology. My aim in this paper is threefold: (1) to show that Fodor's views on the impenetrability of perceptual processing do not secure a theory-neutral foundation for knowledge; (2) to show that his views on impenetrability (...)
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  50. Arnon Levy & Adrian Currie (forthcoming). Model Organisms Are Not (Theoretical) Models. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt055.score: 12.0
    Many biological investigations are organized around a small group of species, often referred to as ‘model organisms’, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The terms ‘model’ and ‘modelling’ also occur in biology in association with mathematical and mechanistic theorizing, as in the Lotka–Volterra model of predator-prey dynamics. What is the relation between theoretical models and model organisms? Are these models in the same sense? We offer an account on which the two practices are shown to have different epistemic (...)
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