Search results for 'Theoretical virtues' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Otávio Bueno & Scott A. Shalkowski (2014). Modalism and Theoretical Virtues: Toward an Epistemology of Modality. Philosophical Studies:1-19.score: 156.0
    According to modalism, modality is primitive. In this paper, we examine the implications of this view for modal epistemology, and articulate a modalist account of modal knowledge. First, we discuss a theoretical utility argument used by David Lewis in support of his claim that there is a plurality of concrete worlds. We reject this argument, and show how to dispense with possible worlds altogether. We proceed to account for modal knowledge in modalist terms.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Kevin Meeker (2006). Pluralism, Exclusivism, and the Theoretical Virtues. Religious Studies 42 (2):193-206.score: 120.0
    This paper argues that John Hick's commitment to the moral principle of altruism undermines his pluralistic claim that all of the major world religions are equally efficacious from a soteriological perspective. This argument is placed in a context of a discussion evaluating the theoretical virtues of various hypotheses about religious diversity. (Published Online April 7 2006).
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Jason Simus (2009). Aesthetic and Other Theoretical Virtues in Science. American Society for Aesthetics Graduate E-Journal 1 (2).score: 120.0
    I first provide an introduction to a neglected topic in contemporary aesthetics: intellectual beauty. I then review James McAllister’s critique of autonomism and reductionism regarding the relation between empirical and aesthetic criteria in scientific theory evaluation. Finally, I critique McAllister’s “aesthetic induction” and defend an alternative model that emphasizes the holistic coherence of aesthetic and other theoretical virtues in scientific theorizing.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Helen E. Longino (1995). Gender, Politics, and the Theoretical Virtues. Synthese 104 (3):383 - 397.score: 114.0
    Traits like simplicity and explanatory power have traditionally been treated as values internal to the sciences, constitutive rather than contextual. As such they are cognitive virtues. This essay contrasts a traditional set of such virtues with a set of alternative virtues drawn from feminist writings about the sciences. In certain theoretical contexts, the only reasons for preferring a traditional or an alternative virtue are socio-political. This undermines the notion that the traditional virtues can be considered (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Andre Kukla (1994). Non-Empirical Theoretical Virtues and the Argument From Underdetermination. Erkenntnis 41 (2):157 - 170.score: 90.0
    The antirealist argument from the underdetermination of theories by data relies on the premise that the empirical content of a theory is the only determinant of its belief-worthiness (premise NN). Several authors have claimed that the antirealist cannot endorse NN, on pain of internal inconsistency. I concede this point. Nevertheless, this refutation of the underdetermination argument fails because there are weaker substitutes for NN that will serve just as well as a premise to the argument. On the other hand, antirealists (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Scott A. Shalkowski (1997). Theoretical Virtues and Theological Construction. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 41 (2):71-89.score: 90.0
  7. Steffen Ducheyne (2009). Understanding (in) Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):227 - 258.score: 90.0
    In this essay, I attempt to assess Henk de Regt and Dennis Dieks recent pragmatic and contextual account of scientific understanding on the basis of an important historical case-study: understanding in Newton’s theory of universal gravitation and Huygens’ reception of universal gravitation. It will be shown that de Regt and Dieks’ Criterion for the Intelligibility of a Theory (CIT), which stipulates that the appropriate combination of scientists’ skills and intelligibility-enhancing theoretical virtues is a condition for scientific understanding, is (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Stephen Scales (2002). Value-Ladenness, Theoretical Virtues, and Moral Wisdom. Teaching Ethics 2 (2):19-28.score: 90.0
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. H. G. Callaway (2014). Abduction, Competing Models and the Virtues of Hypotheses. In Lorenzo Magnani (ed.), (2014) Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Springer. 263-280.score: 84.0
    This paper focuses on abduction as explicit or readily formulatable inference to possible explanatory hypotheses--as contrasted with inference to conceptual innovations or abductive logic as a cycle of hypotheses, deduction of consequences and inductive testing. Inference to an explanation is often a matter of projection or extrapolation of elements of accepted theory for the solution of outstanding problems in particular domains of inquiry. I say "projections or extrapolation" of accepted theory, but I mean to point to something broader and suggest (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. John Matthewson & Michael Weisberg (2009). The Structure of Tradeoffs in Model Building. Synthese 170 (1):169 - 190.score: 74.0
    Despite their best efforts, scientists may be unable to construct models that simultaneously exemplify every theoretical virtue. One explanation for this is the existence of tradeoffs: relationships of attenuation that constrain the extent to which models can have such desirable qualities. In this paper, we characterize three types of tradeoffs theorists may confront. These characterizations are then used to examine the relationships between parameter precision and two types of generality. We show that several of these relationships exhibit tradeoffs and (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Sam Cowling (2013). Ideological Parsimony. Synthese 190 (17):3889-3908.score: 74.0
    The theoretical virtue of parsimony values the minimizing of theoretical commitments, but theoretical commitments come in two kinds: ontological and ideological. While the ontological commitments of a theory are the entities it posits, a theory’s ideological commitments are the primitive concepts it employs. Here, I show how we can extend the distinction between quantitative and qualitative parsimony, commonly drawn regarding ontological commitments, to the domain of ideological commitments. I then argue that qualitative ideological parsimony is a (...) virtue. My defense proceeds by demonstrating the merits of qualitative ideological parsimony and by showing how the qualitative conception of ideological parsimony undermines two notable arguments from ideological parsimony: David Lewis’ defense of modal realism and Ted Sider’s defense of mereological nihilism. (shrink)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Michael Weisberg (2009). The Structure of Tradeoffs in Model Building. Synthese 170 (1):169 - 190.score: 74.0
    Despite their best efforts, scientists may be unable to construct models that simultaneously exemplify every theoretical virtue. One explanation for this is the existence of tradeoffs: relationships of attenuation that constrain the extent to which models can have such desirable qualities. In this paper, we characterize three types of tradeoffs theorists may confront. These characterizations are then used to examine the relationships between parameter precision and two types of generality. We show that several of these relationships exhibit tradeoffs and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Milena Ivanova (2010). Pierre Duhem's Good Sense as a Guide to Theory Choice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):58-64.score: 62.0
    This paper examines Duhem’s concept of good sense as an attempt to support a non rule-governed account of rationality in theory choice. Faced with the underdetermination of theory by evidence thesis and the continuity thesis, Duhem tried to account for the ability of scientists to choose theories that continuously grow to a natural classification. I will examine the concept of good sense and the problems that stem from it. I will also present a recent attempt by David Stump to link (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Jack Reynolds (2013). Phenomenology and Virtue Ethics: Complementary Anti-Theoretical Methodological and Ethical Trajectories? In K. Hermberg P. Gyllenhammer (ed.), Phenomenology and Virtue Ethics. Continuum.score: 62.0
    In this paper, I argue that the negative injunctions against certain ways of conceiving of the ethico-political that we can draw explicitly from the methodological strictures of phenomenology are also consistent with some of the core more positive dimensions of contemporary virtue ethics (especially at the more anti-theoretical end of the virtue ethical spectrum), and that central aspects of virtue ethics are consistent with most of the explicit reflections on ethical matters proffered by canonical phenomenologists.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. L. A. Paul (2012). Metaphysics as Modeling: The Handmaiden's Tale. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):1-29.score: 60.0
    Critics of contemporary metaphysics argue that it attempts to do the hard work of science from the ease of the armchair. Physics, not metaphysics, tells us about the fundamental facts of the world, and empirical psychology is best placed to reveal the content of our concepts about the world. Exploring and understanding the world through metaphysical reflection is obsolete. In this paper, I will show why this critique of metaphysics fails, arguing that metaphysical methods used to make claims about the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Samuel Schindler (2013). Theory-Laden Experimentation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):89-.score: 60.0
    The thesis of theory-ladenness of observations, in its various guises, is widely considered as either ill-conceived or harmless to the rationality of science. The latter view rests partly on the work of the proponents of New Experimentalism who have argued, among other things, that experimental practices are efficient in guarding against any epistemological threat posed by theory-ladenness. In this paper I show that one can generate a thesis of theory-ladenness for experimental practices from an influential New Experimentalist account. The notion (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. D. Tulodziecki (2013). Underdetermination, Methodological Practices, and Realism. Synthese 190 (17):3731-3750.score: 60.0
    In this paper, I argue (i) that there are certain methodological practices that are epistemically significant, and (ii) that we can test for the success of these practices empirically by examining case-studies in the history of science. Analysing a particular episode from the history of medicine, I explain how this can help us resolve specific cases of underdetermination. I conclude that, while the anti-realist is (more or less legitimately) able to construct underdetermination scenarios on a case-by-case basis, he will have (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Matthew J. Barker (2010). From Cognition's Location to the Epistemology of its Nature. Cognitive Systems Research 11 (357):366.score: 58.0
    One of the liveliest debates about cognition concerns whether our cognition sometimes extends beyond our brains and bodies. One party says Yes, another No. This paper shows that debate between these parties has been epistemologically confused and requires reorienting. Both parties frequently appeal to empirical considerations and to extra-empirical theoretical virtues to support claims about where cognition is. These things should constrain their claims, but cannot do all the work hoped. This is because of the overlooked fact, uncovered (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Robert Lockie (forthcoming). The Regulative and the Theoretical in Epistemology. Abstracta.score: 54.0
    The distinction between the regulative (‘practical’, ‘subjective’, ‘decision-procedural’) and the theoretical (‘objective’, ‘absolute’) pertains to the aims (the desiderata) of an account of justification. This distinction began in ethics and spread to epistemology. Each of internalism, externalism, is separately forced to draw this distinction to avoid a stock, otherwise fatal, argument levelled against them by the other. Given this situation however, we may finesse much partisan conflict in epistemology by simply seeing differing accounts of justification as answering to radically (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Mark W. Brown (2010). The Life-world as Moral World: Vindicating the Life-world en route to a Phenomenology of the Virtues. Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 6 (3):1-25.score: 46.0
    Clarifying the essential experiential structures at work in our everyday moral engagements promises both (1) to provide a perspicacious self-understanding, and (2) to significantly contribute to theoretical and practical matters of moral philosophy. Since the phenomenological enterprise is concerned with revealing the a priori structures of experience in general, it is then well positioned to discern the essential structures of moral experience specifically. Phenomenology can therefore significantly contribute to matters pertaining to moral philosophy. In this paper I would like (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. John Turri (forthcoming). From Virtue Epistemology to Abilism: Theoretical and Empirical Developments. In Tbd (ed.), TBD.score: 44.0
    I review several theoretical and empirical developments relevant to assessing contemporary virtue epistemology’s theory of knowledge. What emerges is a leaner theory of knowledge that is more empirically adequate, better captures the ordinary conception of knowledge, and is ripe for cross-fertilization with cognitive science. I call this view abilism. Along the way I identify several topics for future research.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Robert Stecker (2008). Immoralism and the Anti-Theoretical View. British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (2):145-161.score: 42.0
    Can a moral defect be an artistic virtue? Can it make a positive contribution to artistic value? Further, if this can happen on occasion, does this imply that moral value has no systematic connection to artistic value since every conceivable relation between them is possible? The idea that moral defects can sometimes be artistic virtues has received a fair number of defenders recently and so has the anti-theoretical view that there is no systematic relation between artistic and moral (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. James A. Marcum (2009). The Epistemically Virtuous Clinician. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):249-265.score: 42.0
    Today, modern Western medicine is facing a quality-of-care crisis that is undermining the patient–physician relationship. In this paper, a notion of the epistemically virtuous clinician is proposed in terms of both the reliabilist and responsibilist versions of virtue epistemology, in order to help address this crisis. To that end, a clinical case study from the literature is first reconstructed. The reliabilist intellectual virtues, including the perceptual and conceptual virtues, are then discussed and applied to the case study. Next, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. William Stephens, Beastly Virtues: Animal Exempla in Seneca and Epictetus.score: 42.0
    It is curious that the imperial Stoics, following a precedent of Diogenes the Cynic, employ so many wide-ranging examples of animal behavior. For example, what are we to make of the rigid dichotomy Seneca and Epictetus draw between rational and nonrational beings in relation to the diverse comparisons they make between human virtues and vices on the one hand and animal excellences and "bestial'behaviors on the other? Why are the most potent, diverse, and philosophically significant animal exempla found in (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. David Carr (1995). The Primacy of Virtues in Ethical Theory, Part. Cogito 9 (3):238-244.score: 42.0
    In fairly recent times there has been an enormous growth of interest, especially from ethical theorists generally under the spell of Aristotle, in both the moral virtues and the central significance of the notion of a virtue for an adequate grasp of the character of moral life. In the light of this it may well appear a useful exercise to sketch in very broad terms how a virtue-theoretical account of moral life and the nature of our moral responses (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Edward M. Swiderski (1999). Vladimir Solov'ëv's “Virtue Epistemology”. Studies in East European Thought 51 (3):199 - 218.score: 42.0
    I attempt to clarify the connection between two late texts by V.S. Solov''ëv: Justification of the Good and Theoretical Philosophy. Solov''ëv drew attention to the intrinsic connection between moral and intellectual virtues. Theoretical Philosophy is the initial -- unfinished -- sketch of the dynamism of mind seeking truth as a good. I sketch several parallels and analogies between the doctrine of moral experience set out in Justification and the account of the intellect''s dynamism based on immediate certitude (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. David Garr (1996). The Primacy of Virtues in Ethical Theory: Part 11. Cogito 10 (1):34-40.score: 42.0
    In fairly recent times there has been an enormous growth of interest, especially from ethical theorists generally under the speIl of Aristotle, in both the moral virtues and the central significance of the notion of a virtue for an adequate grasp of the character of moral life. In the light of this it may weIl appear a useful exercise to sketch in very broad terms how a virtue-theoretical account of moral life and the nature of our moral responses (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. C. Wringe (1998). Reasons, Rules and Virtues in Moral Education. Journal of Philosophy of Education 32 (2):225–237.score: 42.0
    Practical and theoretical shortcomings of an approach to moral education based on the development of moral reasoning are noted and the alternative of promiting the virtues is considered. The identification of apprpriate virtues with modes of commitment and conduct supportive of a particular way of life is held to raise the further question of why a particular way of life should be favored, and how our own way of life should e characterized. This latter, permitting social and (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Edward M. Swiderski (1999). Vladimir Solov'ëV's €œVirtue Epistemology”. Studies in East European Thought 51 (3):199-218.score: 42.0
    I attempt to clarify the connection between two late texts by V.S. Solov'ëv: Justification of the Good and Theoretical Philosophy. Solov'ëv drew attention to the intrinsic connection between moral and intellectual virtues. Theoretical Philosophy is the initial -- unfinished -- sketch of the dynamism of mind seeking truth as a good. I sketch several parallels and analogies between the doctrine of moral experience set out in Justification and the account of the intellect's dynamism based on immediate certitude (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Nenad Miščević (2012). Wisdom, Understanding and Knowledge: A Virtue-Theoretic Proposal. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 27 (2):127-144.score: 36.0
    Reaching understanding is one of our central epistemic goals, dictated by our important motivational epistemic virtue, namely inquisitiveness about the way things hang together. Understanding of humanly important causal dependencies is also the basic factual-theoretic ingredient of wisdom on the anthropocentric view proposed in the article. It appears at two levels. At the first level of immediate, spontaneous wisdom, it is paired with practical knowledge and motivation ( phronesis ), and encompasses understanding of oneself (a distinct level of self-knowledge having (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. James Arthur (2005). The Re-Emergence of Character Education in British Education Policy. British Journal of Educational Studies 53 (3):239 - 254.score: 36.0
    Character education is a specific approach to morals or values education, which is consistently linked with citizenship education. But how is it possible for a heterogeneous society that disagrees about basic values to reach a consensus on what constitutes character education? This article explores how character education has returned to the agenda of British education policy, having been largely neglected since the 1960s in response to unsatisfactory attempts at character education going back to the nineteenth century. Between 1979 and 1997 (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Vincent A. Punzo & Naomi M. Meara (1993). The Virtues of a Psychology of Personal Morality. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 13 (1):25-39.score: 36.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Michael Willoughby Small (2013). Business Practice, Ethics and the Philosophy of Morals in the Rome of Marcus Tullius Cicero. Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):341-350.score: 36.0
    Moral behaviour, and more recently wisdom and prudence, are emerging as areas of interest in the study of business ethics and management. The purpose of this article is to illustrate that Cicero—lawyer, politician, orator and prolific writer, and one of the earliest experts in the field recognised the significance of moral behaviour in his society. Cicero wrote ‘Moral Duties’ (De Officiis) about 44 BC. He addressed the four cardinal virtues wisdom, justice, courage and temperance, illustrating how practical wisdom, (...)/conceptual wisdom and justice were viewed in Rome of the first century BC. ‘Moral Duties’ is a letter admonishing his son, Marcus. It refers to personal behaviour, business practice and analyses terms such as good faith and criminal fraud. In addition, it contains material which would be suitable for tutorials/seminars and discussions, particularly in the areas of critical thinking in business ethics and general management. A study of De Officiis in respect to present day management and business practice could give a wider perspective to business ethics and management students. If concepts such as moral virtue, moral propriety and moral goodness, many of which seem to be ignored in business situations today, are to be embedded in business leaders of the future, it is reasonable to expect that these qualities will be analysed and discussed by business students today. Further, a study of Cicero’s six-step approach, when preparing an address/speech, could be useful and productive for practitioners and students in this area. (shrink)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Guy Axtell (2008). Virtue-Theoretic Responses to Skepticism. In John Greco (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism. Oxford University Press.score: 36.0
    This chapter focuses on the responses that proponents of virtue epistemology (VE) make to radical skepticism and particularly to two related forms of it, Pyrrhonian skepticism and the “underdetermination-based” argument, both of which have been receiving widening attention in recent debate. Section 1 of the chapter briefly articulates these two skeptical arguments and their interrelationship, while section 2 explains the close connection between a virtue-theoretic and a neo-Moorean response to them. In sections 3 and 4 I advance arguments for improving (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Cheng-Hung Tsai (2014). Xunzi and Virtue Epistemology. Universitas 41 (3):121-142.score: 34.0
    Regulative virtue epistemology argues that intellectual virtues can adjust and guide one’s epistemic actions as well as improve on the quality of the epistemic actions. For regulative virtue epistemologists, intellectual virtues can be cultivated to a higher degree; when the quality of intellectual virtue is better, the resulting quality of epistemic action is better. The intellectual virtues that regulative epistemologists talk about are character virtues (such as intellectual courage and open-mindedness) rather than faculty virtues (such (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Ronald Sandler (2010). Ethical Theory and the Problem of Inconsequentialism: Why Environmental Ethicists Should Be Virtue-Oriented Ethicists. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (1-2):167-183.score: 34.0
    Many environmental problems are longitudinal collective action problems. They arise from the cumulative unintended effects of a vast amount of seemingly insignificant decisions and actions by individuals who are unknown to each other and distant from each other. Such problems are likely to be effectively addressed only by an enormous number of individuals each making a nearly insignificant contribution to resolving them. However, when a person’s making such a contribution appears to require sacrifice or costs, the problem of inconsequentialism arises: (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Lynn A. Jansen (2000). The Virtues in Their Place: Virtue Ethics in Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (3):261-276.score: 34.0
    We are currently in the midst of a revival of interest in thevirtues. A number of contemporary moral philosophers havedefended a virtue-based approach to ethics. But does thisrenewal of interest in the virtues have much to contributeto medical ethics and medical practice? This paper criticallydiscusses this question. It considers and rejects a number ofimportant arguments that purport to establish the significanceof the virtues for medical practice. Against these arguments,the paper seeks to show that while the virtues have (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. T. Libby & L. Thorne (2007). The Development of a Measure of Auditors' Virtue. Journal of Business Ethics 71 (1):89 - 99.score: 34.0
    Auditors’ virtue comprises those qualities of character that manifest the ideals of the audit community (c.f., Maclntyre, 1984, After Virtue. (University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame)), and are instrumental in ensuring that auditors’ professional judgment is exercised according to a high moral standard (Thorne, 1998, Research on Accounting Ethics. (JAI Press, Greenwich, CT)). Nevertheless, the lack of valid and reliable quantitative measures of auditors’ virtue impedes research that furthers our understanding of how best to promote virtue in the audit (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Jeff Everett, Dean Neu & Abu Shiraz Rahaman (2006). The Global Fight Against Corruption: A Foucaultian, Virtues-Ethics Framing. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):1 - 12.score: 34.0
    This paper extends the discussion of business ethics by examining the issue of corruption, its definition, the solutions being proposed for dealing with it, and the ethical perspectives underpinning these proposals. The paper’s findings are based on a review of association, think-tank, and academic reports, books, and papers dealing with the topic of corruption, as well as the pronouncements, websites, and position papers of a number of important global organizations active in the fight. These organizations include the World Bank, the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Oliver Pooley (2013). Substantivalist and Relationalist Approaches to Spacetime. In Robert Batterman (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    Substantivalists believe that spacetime and its parts are fundamental constituents of reality. Relationalists deny this, claiming that spacetime enjoys only a derivative existence. I begin by describing how the Galilean symmetries of Newtonian physics tell against both Newton's brand of substantivalism and the most obvious relationalist alternative. I then review the (now) obvious substantivalist response to the problem, which is to ditch substantival space for substantival spacetime. The resulting position has many affinities with what are arguably the most natural interpretations (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. James Ladyman (2012). Science, Metaphysics and Method. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):31-51.score: 30.0
    While there are many examples of metaphysical theorising being heuristically and intellectually important in the progress of scientific knowledge, many people wonder how metaphysics not closely informed and inspired by empirical science could lead to rival or even supplementary knowledge about the world. This paper assesses the merits of a popular defence of the a priori methodology of metaphysics that goes as follows. The first task of the metaphysician, like the scientist, is to construct a hypothesis that accounts for the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Uriah Kriegel (2013). The Epistemological Challenge of Revisionary Metaphysics. Philosophers' Imprint 13 (12).score: 30.0
    This paper presents a systematic challenge to the viability of revisionary metaphysics. The challenge is to provide epistemic grounds on which one might justifiably believe that a revisionary-metaphysical theory in some area is more likely to be true than its competitors. I argue that upon close examination, the main candidates for providing such grounds — empirical evidence, intuition, and the theoretical virtues — all turn out to be unsatisfactory.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Malcolm Forster & Elliott Sober (1994). How to Tell When Simpler, More Unified, or Less Ad Hoc Theories Will Provide More Accurate Predictions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-35.score: 30.0
    Traditional analyses of the curve fitting problem maintain that the data do not indicate what form the fitted curve should take. Rather, this issue is said to be settled by prior probabilities, by simplicity, or by a background theory. In this paper, we describe a result due to Akaike [1973], which shows how the data can underwrite an inference concerning the curve's form based on an estimate of how predictively accurate it will be. We argue that this approach throws light (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Jacob Stegenga (forthcoming). Theory Choice and Social Choice: Okasha Versus Sen. Mind.score: 30.0
    A platitude that took hold with Kuhn is that there can be several equally good ways of balancing theoretical virtues for theory choice. Okasha recently modelled theory choice using technical apparatus from the domain of social choice: famously, Arrow showed that no method of social choice can jointly satisfy four desiderata, and each of the desiderata in social choice has an analogue in theory choice. Okasha suggested that one can avoid the Arrow analogue for theory choice by employing (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Bruno Verbeek (2010). Rational Choice Virtues. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (5):541-559.score: 30.0
    In this essay, I review some results that suggest that rational choice theory has interesting things to say about the virtues. In particular, I argue that rational choice theory can show, first, the role of certain virtues in a game-theoretic analysis of norms. Secondly, that it is useful in the characterization of these virtues. Finally, I discuss how rational choice theory can be brought to bear upon the justification of these virtues by showing how they contribute (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Richard Foley (1993). Working Without a Net: A Study of Egocentric Epistemology. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    In this new book, Foley defends an epistemology that takes seriously the perspectives of individual thinkers. He argues that having rational opinions is a matter of meeting our own internal standards rather than standards that are somehow imposed upon us from the outside. It is a matter of making ourselves invulnerable to intellectual self-criticism. Foley also shows how the theory of rational belief is part of a general theory of rationality. He thus avoids treating the rationality of belief as a (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Mario Alai (2014). Novel Predictions and the No Miracle Argument. Erkenntnis 79 (2):297-326.score: 30.0
    Predictivists use the no miracle argument to argue that “novel” predictions are decisive evidence for theories, while mere accommodation of “old” data cannot confirm to a significant degree. But deductivists claim that since confirmation is a logical theory-data relationship, predicted data cannot confirm more than merely deduced data, and cite historical cases in which known data confirmed theories quite strongly. On the other hand, the advantage of prediction over accommodation is needed by scientific realists to resist Laudan’s criticisms of the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Eric T. Olson (2007). What Are We?: A Study in Personal Ontology. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    From the time of Locke, discussions of personal identity have often ignored the question of our basic metaphysical nature: whether we human people are biological organisms, spatial or temporal parts of organisms, bundles of perceptions, or what have you. The result of this neglect has been centuries of wild proposals and clashing intuitions. What Are We? is the first general study of this important question. It beings by explaining what the question means and how it differs from others, such as (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Timothy McGrew (2003). Confirmation, Heuristics, and Explanatory Reasoning. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (4):553-567.score: 30.0
    Recent work on inference to the best explanation has come to an impasse regarding the proper way to coordinate the theoretical virtues in explanatory inference with probabilistic confirmation theory, and in particular with aspects of Bayes's Theorem. I argue that the theoretical virtues are best conceived heuristically and that such a conception gives us the resources to explicate the virtues in terms of ceteris paribus theorems. Contrary to some Bayesians, this is not equivalent to identifying (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Ronald P. Endicott (1998). Collapse of the New Wave. Journal of Philosophy 95 (2):53-72.score: 30.0
    I critically evaluate the influential new wave account of theory reduction in science developed by Paul Churchland and Clifford Hooker. First, I cast doubt on claims that the new wave account enjoys a number of theoretical virtues over its competitors, such as the ability to represent how false theories are reduced by true theories. Second, I argue that the genuinely novel claim that a corrected theory must be specified entirely by terms from the basic reducing theory is in (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000