Search results for 'Thinking' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Paralogical Thinking (2005). Hans Rudi Fischer Rationality, Reasoning and Paralogical Thinking. In Friedrich Wallner, Martin J. Jandl & Kurt Greiner (eds.), Science, Medicine, and Culture: Festschrift for Fritz G. Wallner. Peter Lang. 240.score: 120.0
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  2. Susanna Siegel (forthcoming). How is Wishful Seeing Like Wishful Thinking? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.score: 18.0
    This paper makes the case that when wishful thinking ill-founds belief, the belief depends on the desire in ways can be recapitulated at the level of perceptual experience. The relevant kinds of desires include motivations, hopes, preferences, and goals. I distinguish between two modes of dependence of belief on desire in wishful thinking: selective or inquiry-related, and responsive or evidence-related. I offers a theory of basing on which beliefs are badly-based on desires, due to patterns of dependence that (...)
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  3. Helena Knyazeva (2004). The Complex Nonlinear Thinking: Edgar Morin's Demand of a Reform of Thinking and the Contribution of Synergetics. World Futures 60 (5 & 6):389 – 405.score: 18.0
    Main principles of the complex nonlinear thinking which are based on the notions of the modern theory of evolution and self-organization of complex systems called also synergetics are under discussion in this article. The principles are transdisciplinary, holistic, and oriented to a human being. The notions of system complexity, nonlinearity of evolution, creative chaos, space-time definiteness of structure-attractors of evolution, resonant influences, nonlinear and soft management are here of great importance. In this connection, a prominent contribution made to system (...)
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  4. Peter Carruthers (1998). Conscious Thinking: Language or Elimination? Mind and Language 13 (4):457-476.score: 18.0
    Do we conduct our conscious propositional thinking in natural language? Or is such language only peripherally related to human conscious thought-processes? In this paper I shall present a partial defence of the former view, by arguing that the only real alternative is eliminativism about conscious propositional thinking. Following some introductory remarks, I shall state the argument for this conclusion, and show how that conclusion can be true. Thereafter I shall defend each of the three main premises in turn.
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  5. Jose Luis Bermudez (2003). Thinking Without Words. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    In Thinking without Words I develop a philosophical framework for treating some animals and human infants as genuine thinkers. This paper outlines the aspects of this account that are most relevant to those working in animal ethics. There is a range of different levels of cognitive sophistication in different animal species, in addition to limits to the types of thought available to non-linguistic creatures, and it may be important for animal ethicists to take this into account in exploring issues (...)
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  6. Jennifer Wilson Mulnix (2010). Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (5):464-479.score: 18.0
    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting them to critical scrutiny. I also distinguish critical thinking from other forms of mental processes with which it is often conflated. Next, I present my (...)
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  7. Dieter Lohmar (2012). Non-Language Thinking in Mathematics. Axiomathes 22 (1):109-120.score: 18.0
    After a brief outline of the topic of non-language thinking in mathematics the central phenomenological tool in this concern is established, i.e. the eidetic method. The special form of eidetic method in mathematical proving is implicit variation and this procedure entails three rules that are established in a simple geometrical example. Then the difficulties and the merits of analogical thinking in mathematics are discussed in different aspects. On the background of a new phenomenological understanding of the performance of (...)
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  8. Marie-France Daniel & Emmanuelle Auriac (2011). Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children1. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (5):415-435.score: 18.0
    For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the classroom, suggesting that the discussions it fosters are not philosophical in essence. In this text, we argue that P4C is philosophy.
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  9. David Hunter (2003). Is Thinking an Action? Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 (2):133-148.score: 18.0
    I argue that entertaining a proposition is not an action. Such events do not have intentional explanations and cannot be evaluated as rational or not. In these respects they contrast with assertions and compare well with perceptual events. One can control what one thinks by doing something, most familiarly by reciting a sentence. But even then the event of entertaining the proposition is not an action, though it is an event one has caused to happen, much as one might cause (...)
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  10. Peter Carruthers (1998). Distinctively Human Thinking. In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought. Cambridge. 69.score: 18.0
    This chapter takes up, and sketches an answer to, the main challenge facing massively modular theories of the architecture of the human mind. This is to account for the distinctively flexible, non-domain-specific, character of much human thinking. I shall show how the appearance of a modular language faculty within an evolving modular architecture might have led to these distinctive features of human thinking with only minor further additions and non-domain-specific adaptations.
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  11. Christopher Winch (2006). Education, Autonomy and Critical Thinking. Routledge.score: 18.0
    The concepts of autonomy and of critical thinking play a central role in many contemporary accounts of the aims of education. This book analyses their relationship to each other and to education, exploring their roles in mortality and politics before examining the role of critical thinking in fulfilling the educational aim of preparing young people for autonomy. The author analyses different senses of the terms 'autonomy' and 'critical thinking' and the implications for education. Implications of the discussion (...)
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  12. Joe Y. F. Lau (2011). An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity: Think More, Think Better. Wiley.score: 18.0
    "This book is about the basic principles that underlie critical thinking and creativity.
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  13. Alexander A. Aarts, Cilia L. M. Witteman, Pierre M. Souren & Jos I. M. Egger (2012). Associations Between Psychologists' Thinking Styles and Accuracy on a Diagnostic Classification Task. Synthese 189 (S1):119-130.score: 18.0
    The present study investigated whether individual differences between psychologists in thinking styles are associated with accuracy in diagnostic classification. We asked novice and experienced clinicians to classify two clinical cases of clients with two co-occurring psychological disorders. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was found between the two groups, but when combining the data from novices and experienced psychologists accuracy was found to be negatively associated with certain decision making strategies and with a higher self-assessed ability and preference for (...)
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  14. Bence Nanay (2010). Population Thinking as Trope Nominalism. Synthese 177 (1):91 - 109.score: 18.0
    The concept of population thinking was introduced by Ernst Mayr as the right way of thinking about the biological domain, but it is difficult to find an interpretation of this notion that is both unproblematic and does the theoretical work it was intended to do. I argue that, properly conceived, Mayr’s population thinking is a version of trope nominalism: the view that biological property-types do not exist or at least they play no explanatory role. Further, although population (...)
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  15. Kal Alston (2001). Re/Thinking Critical Thinking: The Seductions of Everyday Life. Studies in Philosophy and Education 20 (1):27-40.score: 18.0
    The way that critical thinking has been framed as aneducational objective has led, on the one hand, to itssuccessful saturation of educational discourse and, onthe other, to an equation of critical thinking withdemonstrable rhetorical skills. This essay suggeststhat both critical thinking and obstacles tosuccessful critical thinking are most commonly foundin the activities of everyday life. Humans deploycritical thinking in expressions of socialimagination, illuminations of our selves andrelationship, and in ethical choices and publicengagements. By reframing critical (...)
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  16. Peg Tittle (2011/2010). Critical Thinking: An Appeal to Reason. Routledge.score: 18.0
    This book covers all the material typically addressed in first or second-year college courses in Critical Thinking: Chapter 1: Critical Thinking 1.1 What is critical thinking? 1.2 What is critical thinking not? Chapter 2: The Nature of Argument 2.1 Recognizing an Argument 2.2 Circular Arguments 2.3 Counterarguments 2.4 The Burden of Proof 2.5 Facts and Opinions 2.6 Deductive and Inductive Argument Chapter 3: The Structure of Argument 3.1 Convergent, Single 3.2 Convergent, Multiple 3.3 Divergent Chapter 4: (...)
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  17. Mladen Pečujlija, Ilija Ćosić & Velibor Ivanišević (2011). A Professor's Moral Thinking at the Abstract Level Versus The Professor's Moral Thinking in the Real Life Situation (Consistency Problem). Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):299-320.score: 18.0
    We conducted an on-line survey to investigate the professor’s idea of “morality” and then to compare their moral thinking at the abstract level with their moral thinking in the real life situations by sampling 257 professors from the University of Novi Sad. We constructed questionnaire based on related theoretical ethical concepts. Our results show (after we performed exploratory factor analysis) that the professor’s idea of “morality” consists of the three moral thinking patterns which are simultaneously activated during (...)
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  18. Derek Melser (2004). The Act of Thinking. Cambridge MA: Bradford Book/MIT Press.score: 18.0
    The Act of Thinking opens up a large new area for philosophical research.
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  19. Kevin Groves, Charles Vance & Yongsun Paik (2008). Linking Linear/Nonlinear Thinking Style Balance and Managerial Ethical Decision-Making. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2):305 - 325.score: 18.0
    This study presents the results of an empirical analysis of the relationship between managerial thinking style and ethical decision-making. Data from 200 managers across multiple organizations and industries demonstrated that managers predominantly adopt a utilitarian perspective when forming ethical intent across a series of business ethics vignettes. Consistent with expectations, managers utilizing a balanced linear/nonlinear thinking style demonstrated a greater overall willingness to provide ethical decisions across ethics vignettes compared to managers with a predominantly linear thinking style. (...)
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  20. Gert J. J. Biesta & Geert Jan J. M. Stams (2001). Critical Thinking and the Question of Critique: Some Lessons From Deconstruction. Studies in Philosophy and Education 20 (1):57-74.score: 18.0
    This article provides somephilosophical ``groundwork'' for contemporary debatesabout the status of the idea(l) of critical thinking.The major part of the article consists of a discussionof three conceptions of ``criticality,'' viz., criticaldogmatism, transcendental critique (Karl-Otto Apel),and deconstruction (Jacques Derrida). It is shown thatthese conceptions not only differ in their answer tothe question what it is ``to be critical.'' They alsoprovide different justifications for critique andhence different answers to the question what giveseach of them the ``right'' to be critical. It is (...)
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  21. Kevin L. Flores, Gina S. Matkin, Mark E. Burbach, Courtney E. Quinn & Heath Harding (2012). Deficient Critical Thinking Skills Among College Graduates: Implications for Leadership. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (2):212-230.score: 18.0
    Although higher education understands the need to develop critical thinkers, it has not lived up to the task consistently. Students are graduating deficient in these skills, unprepared to think critically once in the workforce. Limited development of cognitive processing skills leads to less effective leaders. Various definitions of critical thinking are examined to develop a general construct to guide the discussion as critical thinking is linked to constructivism, leadership, and education. Most pedagogy is content-based built on deep knowledge. (...)
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  22. Kenny Siu Sing Huen (2011). Critical Thinking as a Normative Practice in Life: A Wittgensteinian Groundwork. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (10):1065-1087.score: 18.0
    On the point that, in practices of critical thinking, we respond spontaneously in concrete situations, this paper presents an account on behalf of Wittgenstein. I argue that the ‘seeing-things-aright’ model of Luntley's Wittgenstein is not adequate, since it pays insufficient attention to radically new circumstances, in which the content of norms is updated. While endorsing Bailin's emphasis on criteria of critical thinking, Wittgenstein would agree with Papastephanou and Angeli's demand to look behind criteriology. He maintains the primacy of (...)
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  23. David R. Mandel, Denis J. Hilton & Patrizia Catellani (eds.) (2005). The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. Routledge.score: 18.0
    It is human nature to wonder how things might have turned out differently--either for the better or for the worse. For the past two decades psychologists have been intrigued by this phenomenon, which they call counterfactual thinking. Specifically, researchers have sought to answer the "big" questions: Why do people have such a strong propensity to generate counterfactuals, and what functions does counterfactual thinking serve? What are the determinants of counterfactual thinking, and what are its adaptive and psychological (...)
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  24. Marianna Papastephanou & Charoula Angeli (2007). Critical Thinking Beyond Skill. Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (6):604–621.score: 18.0
    The aim of this article is to investigate possibilities for conceptions of critical thinking beyond the established educational framework that emphasizes skills. Distancing ourselves from the older rationalist framework, we explain that what we think wrong with the skills perspective is, amongst other things, its absolutization of performativity and outcomes. In reviewing the relevant discourse, we accept that it is possible for the skills paradigm to be change?friendly and context?sensitive but we argue that it is oblivious to other, non?purposive (...)
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  25. Adriaan Theodoor Peperzak (2006). Thinking: From Solitude to Dialogue and Contemplation. Fordham University Press.score: 18.0
    Philosophers speak—or, rather, they respond to various forms of speaking that are handed to them. This book by one of our most distinguished philosophers focuses on the communicative aspect of philosophical thought. Peperzak’s central focus is “addressing”: what distinguishes speaking or writing from rumination is their being directed by someone to someone. To be involved in philosophy is to be part of a tradition through which thinkers propose their findings to others, who respond by offering their own appropriations to their (...)
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  26. Gavin Rae (2013). Overcoming Philosophy: Heidegger, Metaphysics, and the Transformation to Thinking. [REVIEW] Human Studies 36 (2):235-257.score: 18.0
    Heidegger’s critique of metaphysics is central to his attempt to re-instantiate the question of being. This paper examines Heidegger’s critique of metaphysics by looking at the relationship between metaphysics and thought. This entails an identification of the intimate relationship Heidegger maintains exists between philosophy and metaphysics, an analysis of Heidegger’s critique of this association, and a discussion of his proposal that philosophy has been so damaged by its association with metaphysics that it must be replaced with meditative thinking. It (...)
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  27. Alia Al-Saji (2012). When Thinking Hesitates: Philosophy as Prosthesis and Transformative Vision. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (2):351-361.score: 18.0
    In this essay, I draw on Henri Bergson and Maurice Merleau-Ponty to interrogate what philosophy is and how it can continue to think. Though my answer is not reducible to the views of either philosopher, what joins them is an attempt to elaborate philosophy as a different way of seeing. In this light, I propose a view of philosophy as prosthesis—as a means and a way for seeing differently. Rather than a simple tool, philosophy as prosthesis is a transformative supplement, (...)
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  28. Tracy Bowell (2002). Critical Thinking: A Concise Guide. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Attempts to persuade us - to believe something, to do something, to buy something - are everywhere. What is less clear is how one is to think critically about such attempts and whether any of them are sound arguments. Critical Thinking: A Concise Guide is a much-needed guide to thinking skills and a clear introduction to thinking clearly and rationally for oneself. Accessibly written, this book equips readers with the essential skills required to tell a good argument (...)
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  29. Teresa McCormack & Christoph Hoerl (2011). Tool Use, Planning and Future Thinking in Children and Animals. In Teresa McCormack, Christoph Hoerl & Stephen Butterfill (eds.), Tool use and causal cognition. Oxford University Press. 129.score: 18.0
    This chapter considers in what sense, if any, planning and future thinking is involved both in the sort of behaviour examined by McCarty et al. (1999) and in the sort of behaviour measured by researchers creating versions of Tulving's spoon test. It argues that mature human planning and future thinking involves a particular type of temporal cognition, and that there are reasons to be doubtful as to whether either of those two approaches actually assesses this type of cognition. (...)
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  30. Paul Thagard (2011). Critical Thinking and Informal Logic: Neuropsychological Perspectives. Informal Logic 31 (3):152-170.score: 18.0
    This article challenges the common view that improvements in critical thinking are best pursued by investigations in informal logic. From the perspective of research in psychology and neuroscience, hu-man inference is a process that is multimodal, parallel, and often emo-tional, which makes it unlike the linguistic, serial, and narrowly cog-nitive structure of arguments. At-tempts to improve inferential prac-tice need to consider psychological error tendencies, which are patterns of thinking that are natural for peo-ple but frequently lead to mistakes (...)
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  31. Anand Jayprakash Vaidya (2013). Epistemic Responsibility and Critical Thinking. Metaphilosophy 44 (4):533-556.score: 18.0
    Should we always engage in critical thinking about issues of public policy, such as health care, gun control, and LGBT rights? Michael Huemer (2005) has argued for the claim that in some cases it is not epistemically responsible to engage in critical thinking on these issues. His argument is based on a reliabilist conception of the value of critical thinking. This article analyzes Huemer's argument against the epistemic responsibility of critical thinking by engaging it critically. It (...)
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  32. Laura E. Weed (2003). The Structure of Thinking: A Process-Oriented Account of Mind. Thorverton UK: Imprint Academic.score: 18.0
    Against the tide of philosophers committed to this view this book presents a naturalistic view of human thinking, arguing that computers are merely...
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  33. Felipe De Brigard (2013). Is Memory for Remembering? Recollection as a Form of Episodic Hypothetical Thinking. Synthese 191 (2):1-31.score: 18.0
    Misremembering is a systematic and ordinary occurrence in our daily lives. Since it is commonly assumed that the function of memory is to remember the past, misremembering is typically thought to happen because our memory system malfunctions. In this paper I argue that not all cases of misremembering are due to failures in our memory system. In particular, I argue that many ordinary cases of misremembering should not be seen as instances of memory’s malfunction, but rather as the normal result (...)
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  34. Michelle Ciurria (2012). Critical Thinking in Moral Argumentation Contexts: A Virtue Ethical Approach. Informal Logic 32 (2):242-258.score: 18.0
    In traditional analytic philosophy, critical thinking is defined along Cartesian lines as rational and linear reasoning preclusive of intuitions, emotions and lived experience. According to Michael Gilbert, this view – which he calls the Natural Light Theory (NLT) – fails because it arbitrarily excludes standard feminist forms of argumentation and neglects the essentially social nature of argumentation. In this paper, I argue that while Gilbert’s criticism is correct for argumentation in general, NLT fails in a distinctive and particularly problematic (...)
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  35. Shuren Wang (2009). The Roots of Chinese Philosophy and Culture — an Introduction to “ Xiang ” and “ Xiang Thinking”. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):1-12.score: 18.0
    To grasp the truth in traditional Chinese classics, we need to uncover the long obscured xiang 象 (image) thinking, which has long been overshadowed by Occidentalism. xiang thinking is the most fundamental thought of human beings. The logic of linguistics all comes from xiang thinking . Through conceptual thinking, people can understand Western classics on metaphysics, yet they may not completely understand the various schools of Chinese classics. The difference between Chinese and Western ways of (...) originated in the difference of the basic views developed in the Axial period . Since Aristotle, Western metaphysical ideas have all been manifested in substantiality, objectivity, and being ready-made, whereas Chinese Taiji, Dao, Xin-xing, and Zen were manifested in the non-substantiality, non-objectivity, and non-ready-made-ness of a dynamic whole. To grasp substance, rational and logical thinking such as definition, judgment, and reasoning is necessary. On the other hand, to grasp Taiji, Dao, etc., which is a dynamic whole or non-substances, xiang thinking , which is related to perception and rich in poetic association, is essential. History has taught us a lesson, i.e., when we opened the window to logical thought, we closed that of xiang thinking . We should remember the words of Xu Guangqi, i.e., To mingle harmoniously and understand thoroughly so as to excel. (shrink)
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  36. Romane L. Clark (1979). Sensing, Perceiving, Thinking. Grazer Philosophische Studien/ 8:273-295.score: 18.0
    This paper is concerned with Chisholm's "adverbial theory of sensing". An attempt is made to give a literal statement of what it means "to sense redly" which is consistent with what Chisholm says about sensing and also meets various objections to adverbial theories. The paper concludes with a brief consideration of why it is that Chisholm does not offer an adverbial theory of perceiving, or of thinking in general, as well as of sensing.
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  37. Helena Knyazeva (1999). The Synergetic Principles of Nonlinear Thinking. World Futures 54 (2):163-181.score: 18.0
    In order to develop further the methods of scenario building and to facilitate the paths towards desirable and sustainable futures, we cannot do without a nonlinear evolutionary thinking. The theory of self-organization of complex systems, called also synergetics, is a scientific basis for such a thinking, the main principles of which are under consideration in the paper. Synergetics provides us with the knowledge of constructive principles of coevolution of the complex social systems, coevolution of countries and geopolitical regions (...)
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  38. Antonia Larraín & Andrés Haye (2012). The Role of Rhetoric in a Dialogical Approach to Thinking. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (2):220-237.score: 18.0
    The central idea of the paper is that human thinking consists in a movement through which a person socially interacts with herself. Consequently, thinking does not offer the experience of a private refuge in the intimacy of the individual thinker's self-knowing, but a field where multiple points of view interact by contesting, distancing, approaching, agreeing or disagreeing, one to another. Classical (Isocrates, 1929/1968) and contemporary (Billig, 1987) rhetorical approaches to thinking stress that both “inner” and “social” discourse (...)
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  39. Toula Nicolacopoulos & George Vassilacopoulos (2012). 'What Ought We to Think?' Castoriadis' Response to the Question for Thinking. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 8 (2):21-33.score: 18.0
    Castoriadis views the project of autonomy as central to both political action and philosophical thinking. Although he acknowledges that the political project has retreated, he insists on its thinkability as a viable project. We argue that this insistence gives rise to an unresolved tension. Specifically, Castoriadis’ substantive response to the question ‘what ought we to think?’, which he gives in terms of the pursuit of the philosophical project of autonomy, ultimately fails to recognise the unavoidable effect of the political (...)
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  40. Ariel Sarid (2012). Systematic Thinking on Dialogical Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (9):926-941.score: 18.0
    Dialogic or dialogical education is an umbrella term that encompasses a myriad of different and at times conflicting approaches. As there is no agreed-upon definition of ‘dialogue’ (not that there is or should be one unified definition), and even fewer clear and systematic guidelines for application, researchers and practitioners in the DE field are faced with countless questions and dilemmas. My aim in this paper is therefore to offer some ideas for a general outline of how to employ systematic (...) on DE. This outline can serve as a basis for the development of a methodological tool that can enable researchers and practitioners to think about and apply dialogical practices with greater clarity, coherency and consistency. Following a normatively oriented (rather than instrumental) systematic line of reasoning, this paper will begin by discussing the basic values of three central dialogical approaches and then move on to discuss more practical parameters that surpass strictly pedagogical and didactic concerns. (shrink)
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  41. Barbara Thayer-Bacon (1998). Transforming and Redescribing Critical Thinking: Constructive Thinking. [REVIEW] Studies in Philosophy and Education 17 (2/3):123-148.score: 18.0
    The author describes a published symposium which debated Is Critical Thinking Biased? The symposium meant to address concerns about critical thinking that are being expressed by feminist and postmodern scholars. However, through the author's critique, and the symposium respondent's, we learn the participants ended up begging the question of bias. The author maintains that the belief that critical thinking is unbiased is based on an assumption that knowers can be separated from what is known. She argues that (...)
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  42. James H. Fetzer (2000). Computing is at Best a Special Kind of Thinking. In The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Volume 9: Philosophy of Mind. Charlottesville: Philosophy Doc Ctr. 103-113.score: 18.0
    When computing is defined as the causal implementation of algorithms and algorithms are defined as effective decision procedures, human thought is mental computation only if it is governed by mental algorithms. An examination of ordinary thinking, however, suggests that most human thought processes are non-algorithmic. Digital machines, moreover, are mark-manipulating or string-processing systems whose marks or strings do not stand for anything for those systems, while minds are semiotic (or “signusing”) systems for which signs stand for other things for (...)
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  43. William Goodwin (2010). The 'Passes-For' Fallacy and the Future of Critical Thinking. Argumentation 24 (3):363-374.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I characterize Susan Haack’s so called passes-for fallacy, analyze both what makes this inference compelling and why it is illegitimate, and finally explain why reflecting on the passes-for fallacy—and others like it—should become part of critical thinking pedagogy for humanities students. The analysis proceeds by examining a case of the passes-for fallacy identified by Haack in the work of Ruth Bleier. A charitable reconstruction of Bleier’s reasoning shows that it is enlightening to regard the passes-for fallacy (...)
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  44. Jean-Luc Nancy (2003). A Finite Thinking. Stanford University Press.score: 18.0
    This book is a rich collection of philosophical essays radically interrogating key notions and preoccupations of the phenomenological tradition. While using Heidegger’s Being and Time as its permanent point of reference and dispute, this collection also confronts other important philosophers, such as Kant, Nietzsche, and Derrida. The projects of these pivotal thinkers of finitude are relentlessly pushed to their extreme, with respect both to their unexpected horizons and to their as yet unexplored analytical potential. A Finite Thinking shows that, (...)
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  45. Kelley Wells (2009). Learning and Teaching Critical Thinking: From a Peircean Perspective. Educational Philosophy and Theory 41 (2):201-218.score: 18.0
    The article will argue that Charles Sanders Peirce's concepts of the ?Dynamics of Belief and Doubt?, the ?Fixation of Belief? as well as ?habits of belief? taken together comprise a theory of learning. The ?dynamics of belief and doubt? are Peirce's explanation for the process of changing from one belief to another. Teaching, then, would be an attempt to control that process. Teaching critical thinking represents an attempt to teach the learner to regulate and discipline his or her own (...)
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  46. Jonathan E. Adler (1991). Critical Thinking, A Deflated Defense: A Critical Study of John E. McPeck's Teaching Critical Thinking: Dialogue and Dialectic. Informal Logic 13 (2).score: 18.0
    A critical study of McPeck's recent book, in which he strengthens and develops his arguments against teaching critical thinking (CT). Accepting McPeck's basic claim that there is no unitary skill of reasoning or thinking, I argue that his strictures on CT courses or programs do not follow. I set out what I consider the proper justification that programs in CT have to meet, and argue both that McPeck demands much more than is required, and also that it is (...)
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  47. Sharon Bailin (1999). The Problem With Percy: Epistemology, Understanding and Critical Thinking. Informal Logic 19 (2).score: 18.0
    Most current conceptions of critical thinking conceive of critical thinking in terms of abilities and dispositions. In this paper I describe a common type of problem students experience with critical thinking and argue that conceptualizations in terms of abilities and dispositions do not provide a way to understand this problem. I argue, further, that a useful way to think about the problem is in terms of epistemological understanding, and that this way of thinking about the issue (...)
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  48. David Hitchcock (2004). The Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction in Critical Thinking. Informal Logic 24 (3).score: 18.0
    278 non-freshman university students taking a l2-week critical thinking course in a large single-section class, with computer-assisted guided practice as a replacement for small-group discussion, and all testing in machine-scored multiple-choice format, improved their critical thinking skills, as measured by the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (Forms A and B), by half a standard deviation, a moderate improvement. The improvement was more than that reported with a traditional format without computer-assisted instruction, but less than that reported with (...)
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  49. James H. Moor (2000). Thinking Must Be Computation of the Right Kind. In The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Volume 9: Philosophy of Mind. Charlottesville: Philosophy Doc Ctr. 115-122.score: 18.0
    In this paper I argue for a computational theory of thinking that does not eliminate the mind. In doing so, I will defend computationalism against the arguments of John Searle and James Fetzer, and briefly respond to other common criticisms.
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  50. Nigel Warburton (2000). Thinking From a to Z. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Thinking from A-Z is a lively and incisive introduction to critical thinking by the bestselling author of Philosophy: The Basics. The alphabetically-arranged entries cover a wide range of reasoning techniques, fallacies, rhetorical tricks and psychological obstacles to clear thought. The new entries in this updated edition include: catch-22, contraries, counterexample, domino effect, exception that proves the rule, Ockham's Razor, paradox, Socratic fallacy, "that's a value judgement," and truth by adage. Topical examples, extensive cross-referencing, and a witty, straightforward style (...)
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