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  1. Qinxuan Gu, Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Wan Jiang (forthcoming). Does Moral Leadership Enhance Employee Creativity? Employee Identification with Leader and Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) in the Chinese Context. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  2. Jingqiu Chen, Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Ningyu Tang (2013). Temptation, Monetary Intelligence (Love of Money), and Environmental Context on Unethical Intentions and Cheating. Journal of Business Ethics:1-23.
    In Study 1, we test a theoretical model involving temptation, monetary intelligence (MI), a mediator, and unethical intentions and investigate the direct and indirect paths simultaneously based on multiple-wave panel data collected in open classrooms from 492 American and 256 Chinese students. For the whole sample, temptation is related to low unethical intentions indirectly. Multi-group analyses reveal that temptation predicts unethical intentions both indirectly and directly for male American students only; but not for female American students. For Chinese students, both (...)
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  3. Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2013). The Bright and Dark Sides of Religiosity Among University Students: Do Gender, College Major, and Income Matter? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):531-553.
    We develop a theoretical model involving religiosity [intrinsic (I), extrinsic-social (E s), and extrinsic-personal (E p), Time 1], Machiavellianism (Time 2), and propensity to engage in unethical behavior (Time 2) to investigate direct and indirect paths. We collected two-wave panel data from 359 students who had some work experiences. For the whole sample, intrinsic religiosity (I) indirectly curbed unethical intentions through the absence of Machiavellianism, the bright side of religiosity. Both extrinsic-social (E s) and extrinsic-personal (E p) directly, while extrinsic-social (...)
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  4. Soňa Lemrová, Eva Reiterová, Renáta Fatěnová, Karel Lemr & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2013). Money is Power: Monetary Intelligence—Love of Money and Temptation of Materialism Among Czech University Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    In this study, we develop a theoretical model of monetary intelligence (MI), explore the extent to which individuals’ meaning of money is related to the pursuit of materialistic purposes, and test our model using the whole sample and across college major and gender. We select the 15-item love of money (LOM) construct—Factors Good, Evil (Affective), Budget (Behavioral), Achievement, and Power (Cognitive)—from the Money Ethic Scale and Factors Success and Centrality and two indicators—from the Materialism Scale. Based on our data collected (...)
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  5. Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Toto Sutarso (2013). Falling or Not Falling Into Temptation? Multiple Faces of Temptation, Monetary Intelligence, and Unethical Intentions Across Gender. Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):529-552.
    We develop a theoretical model, explore the relationship between temptation (both reflective and formative) and unethical intentions by treating monetary intelligence (MI) as a mediator, and examine the direct (temptation to unethical intentions) and indirect (temptation to MI to unethical intentions) paths simultaneously based on multiple-wave panel data collected from 340 part-time employees and university (business) students. The positive indirect path suggested that yielding to temptation (e.g., high cognitive impairment and lack of self-control) led to poor MI (low stewardship behavior, (...)
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  6. Elisaveta Gjorgji Sardžoska & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2012). Work-Related Behavioral Intentions in Macedonia: Coping Strategies, Work Environment, Love of Money, Job Satisfaction, and Demographic Variables. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 108 (3):373-391.
    Based on theory of planned behavior, we develop a theoretical model involving love of money (LOM), job satisfaction (attitude), coping strategies/responses (perceived behavioral control), work environment (subjective norm), and work-related behavioral intentions (behavioral intention). We tested this model using job satisfaction as a mediator and sector (public versus private), personal character (good apples versus bad apples), gender, and income as moderators in a sample of 515 employees and their managers in the Republic of Macedonia. For the whole sample, both coping (...)
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  7. Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2012). Detecting Honest People's Lies in Handwriting. Journal of Business Ethics 106 (4):389-400.
    Can managers detect honest people’s lies in a handwritten message? In this article, I will briefly discuss graphology and a basic model of interpersonal communication. I will then develop a fundamental theoretical framework of eight principles for detecting lies based on the basic communication model, handwriting analyses, and the following assumptions: For most people, it is easier to tell the truth than to tell lies. This applies to handwritings also. When most honest people lie, they try to hide their stressful (...)
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  8. Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Hsi Liu (2012). Love of Money and Unethical Behavior Intention: Does an Authentic Supervisor's Personal Integrity and Character (ASPIRE) Make a Difference? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):295-312.
    We investigate the extent to which perceptions of the authenticity of supervisor’s personal integrity and character (ASPIRE) moderate the relationship between people’s love of money (LOM) and propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB) among 266 part-time employees who were also business students in a five-wave panel study. We found that a high level of ASPIRE perceptions was related to high love-of-money orientation, high self-esteem, but low unethical behavior intention (PUB). Unethical behavior intention (PUB) was significantly correlated with their high (...)
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  9. Theresa Li-Na Tang & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2011). Finding the Lost Sheep: A Panel Study of Business Students' Intrinsic Religiosity, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior Intentions. Ethics and Behavior 20 (5):352-379.
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  10. Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2010). From Increasing Gas Efficiency to Enhancing Creativity: It Pays to Go Green. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):149 - 155.
    What are the common denominators for success when we consider increasing gas efficiency and enhancing creativity in organizations? As an analogy, the principles of increasing gas efficiency are applicable to enhancing creativity in organizations: Plan activities in advance, allocate sufficient time, resources, and set a SMART goal with clear priority and focus. Identify talent in ourselves and others and do not fall into the temptation of following others. Big ideas take time. Maintain momentum, avoid interruptions, incorporate new technologies, information, and (...)
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  11. Elisaveta Gjorgji Sardžoska & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2009). Testing a Model of Behavioral Intentions in the Republic of Macedonia: Differences Between the Private and the Public Sectors. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):495 - 517.
    In this study, we developed a model of unethical behavior intentions, collected data from managers of the private (n = 208) and the public (n = 307) sectors in the Republic of Macedonia, and tested our model across these two sectors. Results suggested that for both sectors, unethical behavior intentions were not related to the love of money and corporate ethical values, whereas irritation was negatively related to life satisfaction. Moreover, corporate ethical values were related to life satisfaction for the (...)
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  12. Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen (2008). Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior Across College Major and Gender. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):1 - 26.
    This research investigates the efficacy of business ethics intervention, tests a theoretical model that the love of money is directly or indirectly related to propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB), and treats college major (business vs. psychology) and gender (male vs. female) as moderators in multi-group analyses. Results suggested that business students who received business ethics intervention significantly changed their conceptions of unethical behavior and reduced their propensity to engage in theft; while psychology students without intervention had no such (...)
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  13. Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Toto Sutarso, Grace Mei-Tzu Wu Davis, Dariusz Dolinski, Abdul Hamid Safwat Ibrahim & Sharon Lynn Wagner (2008). To Help or Not to Help? The Good Samaritan Effect and the Love of Money on Helping Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (4):865 - 887.
    This research tests a model of employee helping behavior (a component of Organizational Citizenship Behavior, OCB) that involves a direct path (Intrinsic Motives → Helping Behavior, the Good Samaritan Effect) and an indirect path (the Love of Money → Extrinsic Motives → Helping Behavior). Results for the full sample supported the Good Samaritan Effect. Further, the love of money was positively related to extrinsic motives that were negatively related with helping behavior. We tested the model across four cultures (the USA., (...)
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  14. Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2006). Attitude Toward and Propensity to Engage in Unethical Behavior: Measurement Invariance Across Major Among University Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):77 - 93.
    This research examines business and psychology students’ attitude toward unethical behavior (measured at Time 1) and their propensity to engage in unethical behavior (measured at Time 1 and at Time 2, 4 weeks later) using a 15-item Unethical Behavior measure with five Factors: Abuse Resources, Not Whistle Blowing, Theft, Corruption, and Deception. Results suggested that male students had stronger unethical attitudes and had higher propensity to engage in unethical behavior than female students. Attitude at Time 1 predicted Propensity at Time (...)
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  15. Linzhi Du & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2005). Measurement Invariance Across Gender and Major: The Love of Money Among University Students in People's Republic of China. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 59 (3):281 - 293.
    This study investigates measurement invariance of the 17-item-4-factor Love of Money Scale (LOMS) (Rich, Motivator, Success, and Important) across gender and college major among university students in People’s Republic of China. Results revealed configural (factor structures) invariance across gender. Metric (factor loadings) invariance across gender was not achieved based on chi-square change, but achieved based on fit indices change between unconstrained and constrained multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Both configural invariance and metric invariance (chi-square change and fit indices change) (...)
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  16. Roberto Luna-Arocas & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2004). The Love of Money, Satisfaction, and the Protestant Work Ethic: Money Profiles Among Univesity Professors in the U.S.A. And Spain. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 50 (4):329-354.
    This study tests the hypothesis that university professors (lecturers) (in the U.S. and Spain) with different money profiles (based on Factors Success, Budget, Motivator, Equity, and Evil of the Love of Money Scale) will differ in work-related attitudes and satisfaction. Results suggested that Achieving Money Worshipers (with high scores on Factors Success, Motivator, Equity, and Budget) had high income, Work Ethic, and high satisfaction with pay level, pay administration, and internal equity comparison but low satisfaction with external equity comparison. Careless (...)
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  17. Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Randy K. Chiu (2003). Income, Money Ethic, Pay Satisfaction, Commitment, and Unethical Behavior: Is the Love of Money the Root of Evil for Hong Kong Employees? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 46 (1):13 - 30.
    This study examines a model involving income, the love of money, pay satisfaction, organizational commitment, job changes, and unethical behavior among 211 full-time employees in Hong Kong, China. Direct paths suggested that the love of money was related to unethical behavior, but income (money) was not. Indirect paths showed that income was negatively related to the love of money that, in turn, was negatively related to pay satisfaction that, in turn, was negatively associated with unethical behavior. Pay satisfaction was positively (...)
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