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Profile: Thomas M. Ward (Loyola Marymount University)
  1. Thomas M. Ward (2012). Animals, Animal Parts, and Hylomorphism: John Duns Scotus's Pluralism About Substantial Form. Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (4):531-557.
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    Thomas M. Ward (2016). John Buridan and Thomas Aquinas on Hylomorphism and the Beginning of Life. Res Philosophica 93 (1):27-43.
  3.  2
    Thomas M. Ward (2015). Voluntarism, Atonement, and Duns Scotus. Heythrop Journal 57 (2).
    The two most important concepts in Duns Scotus's theology of the Atonement are satisfaction and merit. Just what these amount to and how they function in his theory are heavily conditioned by two more general commitments: Scotus's voluntarism, which includes the claim that nearly all of God's relations with the created order are contingent; and his formulation of the Franciscan Thesis, which holds that fixing the sin problem is not the primary purpose of God's Incarnation in Christ and that if (...)
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    Thomas M. Ward (2011). Relations Without Forms: Some Consequences of Aquinass Metaphysics of Relations. Vivarium 48 (3-4):279-301.
    This article presents a new interpretation and critique of some aspects of Aquinas's metaphysics of relations, with special reference to a theological problem—the relation of God to creatures—that catalyzed Aquinas's and much medieval thought on the ontology of relations. I will show that Aquinas's ontologically reductive theory of categorical real relations should equip him to identify certain relations as real relations, which he actually identifies as relations of reason, most notably the relation of God to creatures.
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    Thomas M. Ward (2011). Spinoza on the Essences of Modes. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (1):19-46.
    This paper examines some aspects of Spinoza's metaphysics of the essences of modes.2 I situate Spinoza's use of the notion of essence as a response to traditional, Aristotelian, ways of thinking about essence. I argue that, although Spinoza rejects part of the Aristotelian conception of essence, according to which it is in virtue of its essence that a thing is a member of a kind, he nevertheless retains a different part of such a conception, according to which an essence is (...)
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    Thomas M. Ward (2015). Transhumanization, Personal Identity, and the Afterlife: Thomistic Reflections on a Dantean Theme. New Blackfriars 96 (1065):564-575.
    Taking Aquinas's metaphysics of human nature as my point of departure and taking inspiration from Dante's concept of transhumanization, I sketch a metaphysics of the afterlife according to which a human person in the interim phase between death and resurrection is not a mere disembodied soul. I offer some theological reasons for thinking that our bodily human nature is essential to what we are and for thinking that we can survive the destruction of our bodies at death. I argue that (...)
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