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Profile: Thomas M. Ward (University of California, Los Angeles)
  1. Thomas M. Ward (2012). Animals, Animal Parts, and Hylomorphism: John Duns Scotus's Pluralism About Substantial Form. Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (4):531-557.
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  2. Thomas M. Ward (2011). Relations Without Forms: Some Consequences of Aquinass Metaphysics of Relations. Vivarium 48 (3-4):279-301.
    This article presents a new interpretation and critique of some aspects of Aquinas's metaphysics of relations, with special reference to a theological problem—the relation of God to creatures—that catalyzed Aquinas's and much medieval thought on the ontology of relations. I will show that Aquinas's ontologically reductive theory of categorical real relations should equip him to identify certain relations as real relations, which he actually identifies as relations of reason, most notably the relation of God to creatures.
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  3. Thomas M. Ward (2011). Spinoza on the Essences of Modes. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (1):19-46.
    This paper examines some aspects of Spinoza's metaphysics of the essences of modes.2 I situate Spinoza's use of the notion of essence as a response to traditional, Aristotelian, ways of thinking about essence. I argue that, although Spinoza rejects part of the Aristotelian conception of essence, according to which it is in virtue of its essence that a thing is a member of a kind, he nevertheless retains a different part of such a conception, according to which an essence is (...)
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