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Profile: Thomas Pradeu (Paris-Sorbonne University)
  1.  15
    Thomas Pradeu, Mutualistic Viruses and the Heteronomy of Life.
    Though viruses have generally been characterized by their pathogenic and more generally harmful effects, many examples of mutualistic viruses exist. Here I explain how the idea of mutualistic viruses has been defended in recent virology, and I explore four important conceptual and practical consequences of this idea. I ask to what extent this research modifies the way scientists might search for new viruses, our notion of how the host immune system interacts with microbes, the development of new therapeutic approaches, and, (...)
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  2.  23
    Thomas Pradeu (2012). The Limits of the Self: Immunology and Biological Identity. Oxford University Press.
    The Limits of the Self, will be essential reading for anyone interested in the definition of biological individuality and the understanding of the immune system.
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  3. Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Toolbox Murders: Putting Genes in Their Epigenetic and Ecological Contexts: A Review of Griffiths and Stotz, Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy.
    Griffiths and Stotz’s Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction offers a very good overview of scientific and philosophical issues raised by present-day genetics. Examining, in particular, the questions of how a “gene” should be defined and what a gene does from a causal point of view, the authors explore the different domains of the life sciences in which genetics has come to play a decisive role, from Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics, behavioural genetics, and evolution. In this review, I highlight what (...)
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  4. Thomas Pradeu (2010). What is an Organism? An Immunological Answer. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32:247--267.
    The question “What is an organism?”, formerly considered as essential in biology, has now been increasingly replaced by a larger question, “What is a biological individual?”. On the grounds that i) individuation is theory-dependent, and ii) physiology does not offer a theory, biologists and philosophers of biology have claimed that it is the theory of evolution by natural selection which tells us what counts as a biological individual. Here I show that one physiological field, immunology, offers a theory, which makes (...)
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  5.  6
    Thomas Pradeu, Gladys Kostyrka & John Dupré, Understanding Viruses: Philosophical Investigations.
    Viruses have been virtually absent from philosophy of biology. In this editorial introduction, we explain why we think viruses are philosophically important. We focus on six issues, and we show how they relate to classic questions of philosophy of biology and even general philosophy.
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  6. Alessandro Minelli & Thomas Pradeu (eds.) (2014). Towards a Theory of Development. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be (...)
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  7. Thomas Pradeu, What is an Organism?
    The question ‘What is an organism?’, formerly considered as essential in biology, has now been increasingly replaced by a larger question, ‘What is a biological individual?’. On the grounds that i) individuation is theory-dependent, and ii) physiology does not offer a theory, biologists and philosophers of biology have claimed that it is the theory of evolution by natural selection which tells us what counts as a biological individual. Here I show that one physiological field, immunology, offers a theory, which makes (...)
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  8.  12
    Thomas Pradeu (2011). A Mixed Self: The Role of Symbiosis in Development. Biological Theory 6 (1):80-88.
    Since the 1950s, the common view of development has been internalist: development is seen as the result of the unfolding of potentialities already present in the egg cell. In this paper I show that this view is incorrect, because of the crucial influence of the environment on development. I focus on a fascinating example, that of the role played by symbioses in development, especially bacterial symbioses, a phenomenon found in virtually all organisms. I claim that we must consequently modify our (...)
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  9. Alessandro Minelli & Thomas Pradeu (eds.) (2014). Towards a Theory of Development. Oxford University Press.
    Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be (...)
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  10.  23
    Thomas Pradeu (2013). 4 Immunity and the Emergence of Individuality. In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press 77.
    Since, it has become clear that individuality is not to be considered as a given, but rather as something which needs to be explained. How has individuality emerged through evolution, and how has it subsequently been maintained? In particular, why is it that multicellular organisms appeared and persisted, despite the obvious interest of each cell of favoring its own replication? Several biologists see the immune system as one of the key components for explaining the maintenance of multicellular organisms’ individuality. Indeed, (...)
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  11.  73
    Thomas Pradeu (2010). The Organism in Developmental Systems Theory. Biological Theory 5 (3):216-222.
    In this paper, I address the question of what the Developmental Systems Theory (DST) aims at explaining. I distinguish two lines of thought in DST, one which deals specifically with development, and tries to explain the development of the individual organism, and the other which presents itself as a reconceptualization of evolution, and tries to explain the evolution of populations of developmental systems (organism-environment units). I emphasize that, despite the claiming of the contrary by DST proponents, there are two very (...)
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  12.  22
    Thomas Pradeu, Lucie Laplane, Michel Morange, Antonine Nicoglou & Michel Vervoort (2011). The Boundaries of Development. Biological Theory 6 (1):1 - 3.
    This special issue of Biological Theory is focused on development; it raises the problem of the temporal and spatial boundaries of development. From a temporal point of view, when does development start and stop? From a spatial point of view, what is it exactly that "develops", and is it possible to delineate clearly the developing entity? This issue explores the possible answers to these questions, and thus sheds light on the definition of development itself.
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  13. Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Les limites du soi: Immunologie et identité biologique. Philosophical Explorations.
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  14.  15
    Thomas Pradeu, Sébastien Jaeger & Eric Vivier (2013). The Speed of Change: Towards a Discontinuity Theory of Immunity? Nature Reviews Immunology 13 (10):764–769.
    Immunology — though deeply experimental in everyday practice — is also a theoretical discipline. Recent advances in the understanding of innate immunity, how it is triggered and how it shares features that have previously been uniquely ascribed to the adaptive immune system, can contribute to the refinement of the theoretical framework of immunology. In particular, natural killer cells and macrophages are activated by transient modifications, but adapt to long-lasting modifications that occur in the surrounding tissue environment. This process facilitates the (...)
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  15.  50
    Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella (2006). The Self Model and the Conception of Biological Identity in Immunology. Biology and Philosophy 21 (2):235-252.
    The self/non-self model, first proposed by F.M. Burnet, has dominated immunology for 60 years now. According to this model, any foreign element will trigger an immune reaction in an organism, whereas endogenous elements will not, in normal circumstances, induce an immune reaction. In this paper we show that the self/non-self model is no longer an appropriate explanation of experimental data in immunology, and that this inadequacy may be rooted in an excessively strong metaphysical conception of biological identity. We suggest that (...)
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  16.  38
    Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Galatea of the Microbes: Biological Identity as a Composite Reality. The Philosophers' Magazine.
    This paper shows that the identity of living things is a composite reality. It also suggests that the immune system constitutes a unifying process for the organism.
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  17.  2
    Thomas Pradeu, Lucie Laplane, Karine Prévot, Thierry Hoquet, Valentine Reynaud, Giuseppe Fusco, Alessandro Minelli, Virginie Orgogozo & Michel Vervoort, Defining "Development".
    Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what "development" means and to determine the scope of the field called "developmental biology"? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of "developmental biology" in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a combined biological, philosophical, and historical approach, we ask whether it is possible and useful to define biological development, and, if such a definition (...)
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  18. Anouk Barberousse, Michel Morange & Thomas Pradeu (2009). Mapping the Future of Biology: Evolving Concepts and Theories Vol. 266. Springer.
     
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  19.  17
    Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella (2006). On the Definition of a Criterion of Immunogenicity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (47):17858--17861.
    The main objective of immunology is to establish why and when an immune response occurs, that is, to determine a criterion of immunogenicity. According to the consensus view, the proper criterion of immunogenicity lies in the discrimination between self and nonself. Here we challenge this consensus by suggesting a simpler and more comprehensive criterion, the criterion of continuity. Moreover, we show that this criterion may be considered as an interpretation of the immune 'self'. We conclude that immunologists can continue to (...)
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  20.  23
    Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella (2006). The Self Model and the Conception of Biological Identity in Immunology. Biology and Philosophy 21 (2):235-252.
    The self/non-self model, first proposed by F.M. Burnet, has dominated immunology for sixty years now. According to this model, any foreign element will trigger an immune reaction in an organism, whereas endogenous elements will not, in normal circumstances, induce an immune reaction. In this paper we show that the self/non-self model is no longer an appropriate explanation of experimental data in immunology, and that this inadequacy may be rooted in an excessively strong metaphysical conception of biological identity. We suggest that (...)
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  21. Alessandro Minelli & Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Theories of Development in Biology—Problems and Perspectives. Towards a Theory of Development:1.
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  22. Thomas Pradeu, Edgardo Carosella & Others (forthcoming). L'identité immunologique: soi ou continuité? L’Identité? Soi, Non-Soi, Individu Et Personne:47--58.
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  23. Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Regenerating Theories in Developmental Biology. Towards a Theory of Development:15.
     
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  24.  82
    Thomas Pradeu (2011). What Philosophy of Biology Should Be. Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):119-127.
    This paper reviews Rosenberg’s and McShea’s textbook in philosophy of biology, entitled Philosophy of Biology. A Contemporary Introduction. I insist on the excellent quality of this textbook, then I turn to more critical comments, which deal mainly with what philosophy of biology is, and what it should be.
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  25.  5
    Alexandre Guay & Thomas Pradeu, To Be Continued: The Genidentity of Physical and Biological Processes.
    The concept of genidentity has been proposed as a way to better understand identity through time, especially in physics and biology. The genidentity view is utterly anti-substantialist in so far as it suggests that the identity of X through time does not presuppose whatsoever the existence of a permanent “core” or “substrate” of X. Yet applications of this concept to real science have been scarce and unsatisfying. In this paper, our aim is to show that a well-defined concept of functional (...)
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  26.  35
    Thomas Pradeu (2009). Obituary: Marie-Claude Lorne (1969–2008). Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):281-282.
  27.  24
    Anouk Barberousse, Francesca Merlin & Thomas Pradeu (2010). Introduction: Reassessing Developmental Systems Theory. Biological Theory 5 (3):199-201.
    The Developmental Systems Theory (DST) presented by its proponents as a challenging approach in biology is aimed at transforming the workings of the life sciences from both a theoretical and experimental point of view (see, in particular, Oyama [1985] 2000; Oyama et al. 2001). Even though some may have the impression that the enthusiasm surrounding DST has faded in very recent years, some of the key concepts, ideas, and visions of DST have in fact pervaded biology and philosophy of biology. (...)
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  28. Thomas Pradeu & Edwin L. Cooper (2012). The Danger Theory: 20 Years Later. Frontiers in Immunology 3.
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  29. Thomas Pradeu (2010). Apport de la Philosophie À la Question de L’Immunogénicité. la Presse Médicale 39 (7):747--752.
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  30.  5
    Ellen Clarke, Jennifer Fewell, Andy Gardner, Matt Haber, Andrew Hamilton, Philippe Huneman & Thomas Pradeu (2013). Frédéric Bouchard Département de Philosophie, Université de Montreal & Centre interuniversitaire. In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press 265.
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  31. Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella (2004). [Critical Analysis of the Immunological Self/Non-Self Model and of its Implicit Metaphysical Foundations]. Comptes Rendus Biologies 327 (5):481--492.
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  32.  4
    Pierre-Alain Braillard, Alexandre Guay, Cyrille Imbert & Thomas Pradeu (2011). Une objectivité kaléidoscopique : construire l'image scientifique du monde. Philosophie 110 (2):46.
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  33.  1
    Thomas Pradeu (2010). The Organism in Developmental Systems Theory. Biological Theory 5 (3):216-222.
    In this article, I address the question of what Developmental Systems Theory aims at explaining. I distinguish two lines of thought in DST, one that deals specifically with development and tries to explain the development of the individual organism, and the other that presents itself as a reconceptualization of evolution and tries to explain the evolution of populations of developmental systems. I emphasize that, despite the claim of the contrary by DST proponents, there are two very different definitions of the (...)
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  34.  3
    Edgardo D. Carosella & Thomas Pradeu (2010). L'identité, la Part de L'Autre: Immunologie Et Philosophie. Odile Jacob.
    EN BIOLOGIE AUSSI, L'AUTRE EST EN NOUS La biologie nous montre que, dans des conditions physiologiques normales, quelque chose de l'autre est en nous. Nous avons déjà parlé de la greffe tissulaire où évidemment le tissu ou ...
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  35. Edgardo Carosella, Thomas Pradeu, Claude Debru, Bertrand Saint-Sernin & Others (forthcoming). L'Identité? Soi et non-soi, individu et personne. Philosophical Explorations.
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  36. Edgardo D. Carosella & Thomas Pradeu (2006). Transplantation and Identity: A Dangerous Split? The Lancet 368 (9531):183--184.
     
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  37. Pascal Ludwig & Thomas Pradeu (2008). L'individu: Perspectives Contemporaines. Vrin.
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  38. Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella (2004). Analyse critique du modèle immunologique du soi et du non-soi et de ses fondements métaphysiques implicites. Comptes Rendus Biologies 327 (5):481--492.
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  39. Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella (forthcoming). Cartas Al Comite de Redaccion Medicina (Buenos Aires) 2005; 65. Medicina:65.
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  40. Thomas Pradeu (2008). Ces aliens qui vivent en nous: du parasitisme au piratage génétique. Critique 6:496--509.
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  41. Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Darwinisme, évolution et immunologie. Les Mondes Darwiniens:759--788.
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  42. Thomas Pradeu & Alexandre Guay (eds.) (2015). Individuals Across The Sciences. Oxford University Press.
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  43. Thomas Pradeu (2009). Immune System. Science 325:393--393.
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  44. Thomas Pradeu (2010). La biologie ne peut pas servir à fonder l'organisation sociale. la Recherche 446:78--81.
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  45. Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). L’immunité et l’interactionnisme biologique. le Tout Et les Parties Dans les Systèmes Naturels, Paris, Vuibert.
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  46. Thomas Pradeu (2008). L'immunologie Et la Définition de l'Identité Biologique. Dissertation, Atelier National de Reproduction des Thèses
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  47. Thomas Pradeu (2005). Les Incertitudes du Soi Et la Question du Bon Modèle Théorique En Immunologie. M/S: Médecine Sciences 21 (10):872--875.
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  48. Thomas Pradeu (1953). La mosaïque du soi: les chimères en immunologie. Nature 172:603--606.
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  49. Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Peut-on attribuer une fonction au système immunitaire? J. Gayon and A.
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  50. Thomas Pradeu (2011). Philosophie de la biologie. In Précis de Philosophie des Sciences. Vuibert (Paris)
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