DISSERTAÇÃO DE MESTRADO MOREIRA, Ubiratan Nunes. Dizer profético e Eleição : a hermenêutica da religião como ética em Emmanuel Lévinas. 2012. 136 folhas. Dissertação (Mestrado) – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.
The genetic code has evolved from its initial non-degenerate wobble version until reaching its present state of degeneracy. By using the stereochemical hypothesis, we revisit the problem of codon assignations to the synonymy classes of amino-acids. We obtain these classes with a simple classifier based on physico-chemical properties of nucleic bases, like hydrophobicity and molecular weight. Then we propose simple RNA (or more generally XNA, with X for D, P or R) ring structures that present, overlap included, one and only (...) one codon by synonymy class as solutions of a combinatory variational problem. We compare these solutions to sequences of present RNAs considered as relics, with a high interspecific invariance, like invariant parts of tRNAs and micro-RNAs. We conclude by emphasizing some optimal properties of the genetic code. (shrink)
The present work sets out to discuss in three main steps the roots of the indeterministic paradigm for quantum mechanics as against a causal explanation of reality. The first step is to present the fundamental role played by non-local Fourier analysis in the Copenhagen paradigm. The second is to present wavelet local analysis, a recent formalism that will perhaps allow the development of a new causal paradigm for physics. The third is to present the Heisenberg-Bohr uncertainty relations as a direct (...) mathematical consequence of Fourier non-local analysis. Finally, experimental evidence violating these relations is presented. These results imply that the indeterministic approach has reached its limits. However, they can be explained within a causal framework allowing a more general mathematical formulation for uncertainty relations. (shrink)
Over the past decade, many ﬁndings in cognitive about the contents of consciousness: we will not address neuroscience have resulted in the view that selective what might be called the ‘enabling factors’ for conscious- attention, working memory and cognitive control ness (e.g. appropriate neuromodulation from the brain- stem, etc.). involve competition between widely distributed rep-.
In this paper we investigate a logic for modelling individual and collective acceptances that is called acceptance logic. The logic has formulae of the form reading ‘if the agents in the set of agents G identify themselves with institution x then they together accept that ’. We extend acceptance logic by two kinds of dynamic modal operators. The first kind are public announcements of the form , meaning that the agents learn that is the case in context x . Formulae (...) of the form mean that is the case after every possible occurrence of the event x ! ψ . Semantically, public announcements diminish the space of possible worlds accepted by agents and sets of agents. The announcement of ψ in context x makes all -worlds inaccessible to the agents in such context. In this logic, if the set of accessible worlds of G in context x is empty, then the agents in G are not functioning as members of x , they do not identify themselves with x . In such a situation the agents in G may have the possibility to join x . To model this we introduce here a second kind of dynamic modal operator of acceptance shifting of the form . The latter means that the agents in G shift (change) their acceptances in order to accept ψ in context x . Semantically, they make ψ-worlds accessible to G in the context x , which means that, after such operation, G is functioning as member of x (unless there are no ψ -worlds). We show that the resulting logic has a complete axiomatization in terms of reduction axioms for both dynamic operators. In the paper we also show how the logic of acceptance and its dynamic extension can be used to model some interesting aspects of judgement aggregation. In particular, we apply our logic of acceptance to a classical scenario in judgment aggregation, the so-called ‘doctrinal paradox’ or ‘discursive dilemma’ (Pettit, Philosophical Issues 11:268–299, 2001; Kornhauser and Sager, Yale Law Journal 96:82–117, 1986). (shrink)
This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne's phenomenological analysis of the art spectator's experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.
We share with Anderson & Lebiere (A&L) (and with Newell before them) the goal of developing a domain-general framework for modeling cognition, and we take seriously the issue of evaluation criteria. We advocate a more focused approach than the one reflected in Newell's criteria, based on analysis of failures as well as successes of models brought into close contact with experimental data. A&L attribute the shortcomings of our parallel-distributed processing framework to a failure to acknowledge a symbolic level of thought. (...) Our framework does acknowledge a symbolic level, contrary to their claim. What we deny is that the symbolic level is the level at which the principles of cognitive processing should be formulated. Models cast at a symbolic level are sometimes useful as high-level approximations of the underlying mechanisms of thought. The adequacy of this approximation will continue to increase as symbolic modelers continue to incorporate principles of parallel distributed processing. (shrink)
O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma explicaçáo de como a experiência perceptiva cumpre o seu papel de justificaçáo. A ideia é que a experiência perceptiva justifica náo-inferencialmente crenças empíricas, em uma acepçáo internalista da justificaçáo. Contra Sellars, quero poder dizer que S se baseia na sua experiência para crer que o mundo é assim e assim. Para discutir esta questáo, elegi a argumentaçáo de Brewer e McDowell. Ambos defendem que a experiência pode justificar crenças, desde que ela tenha um (...) conteúdo conceitual. Mas defenderei que náo há essa necessidade. O conteúdo pode ser náo-conceitual e mesmo assim a experiência pode justificar crenças náo-inferencialmente. Tentarei explicar como isso é possível e, ao final, avaliarei a minha abordagem diante da acusaçáo de Sellars de que o empirismo assume uma tríade de teses inconsistentes. Reformularei estas teses em conformidade com a abordagem defendida e concluirei que a presente versáo do empirismo está isenta das críticas de Sellars. (shrink)
This article uses Walter Benjamin’s philosophy of history in order to expose the barbarism that is located in the western society foundations, which promotes exclusion and victim’s forgetfulness. The paper indicates the political role of memory in building democracy and rescuing the human dignity, which is recognized from suffering’s alterity. The article will focus the experience of Latin American dictatorships and, more particularly, the military dictatorship in Brazil. KEY WORDS – Victim’s justice. Political Memory. History and narration. Human person dignity. (...) Military dictatorship. Walter Benjamin. (shrink)
Research in the social sciences received generous patronage in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Research was widely perceived as providing solutions to emerging social problems. That generosity came under increased contest in the late 1970s. Although these trends held true for all of the social sciences, this essay explores the various ways by which economists in particular reacted to and resisted the patronage cuts that were proposed in the first budgets of the Reagan administration. Economists’ response was three fold: (...) to engage in joint lobbying with other social scientists, to tap into their authority as a respected policy player, and to influence the types of research financed by the patron. With interviews of the former lobbyist for the social scientists, the former director of the Economics program for the National Science Foundation, and a review of the archival records of economists and their scholarly society, we discuss how economists have claimed entitlement to patronage in the closing decades of the twentieth century. We observe a dynamic and productive relationship between politicians and researchers mediated by the National Science Foundation, where civil servants, lobbyist and public minded scientists, and self-serving grantees trade roles. (shrink)