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  1. Tim Lewens (2013). From Bricolage to BioBricks™: Synthetic Biology and Rational Design. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):641-648.
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  2. Tim Lewens (2012). A Surfeit of Naturalism. Metaphilosophy 43 (1-2):46-57.
    Philosophers have nothing to lose, and much to gain, by paying close attention to developments in the natural sciences. This insight amounts to a case for a tempered, eclectic naturalism. But the case for naturalism is often overstated. We should not overestimate the heuristic benefits of close attention to scientists’ claims, nor should we give up on traditional “armchair” philosophical methods. We should not draw solely on the natural sciences (at the expense of the humanities) when seeking to enrich and (...)
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  3. Tim Lewens (2012). Cultural Evolution : Integration and Scepticism. In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press.
     
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  4. Tim Lewens (2012). Human Nature: The Very Idea. Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):459-474.
    Abstract The only biologically respectable notion of human nature is an extremely permissive one that names the reliable dispositions of the human species as a whole. This conception offers no ethical guidance in debates over enhancement, and indeed it has the result that alterations to human nature have been commonplace in the history of our species. Aristotelian conceptions of species natures, which are currently fashionable in meta-ethics and applied ethics, have no basis in biological fact. Moreover, because our folk psychology (...)
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  5. Tim Lewens (2012). Integration and Skepticism. In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press. 458.
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  6. Tim Lewens (2012). Pheneticism Reconsidered. Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):159-177.
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  7. Tim Lewens (2012). Species, Essence and Explanation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (4):751-757.
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  8. Tim Lewens (2012). The Darwinian View of Culture. Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):745-753.
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  9. Tim Lewens (2011). My Darwin is Better Than Yours: Darwinishm and its Discontents, Michael Ruse (Cambridge University Press)£ 19.99/$30. The Philosophers' Magazine 38:86-87.
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  10. Tim Lewens (2010). The Natures of Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):313-333.
    Elliott Sober and his defenders think of selection, drift, mutation, and migration as distinct evolutionary forces. This paper exposes an ambiguity in Sober's account of the force of selection: sometimes he appears to equate the force of selection with variation in fitness, sometimes with ‘selection for properties’. Sober's own account of fitness as a property analogous to life-expectancy shows how the two conceptions come apart. Cases where there is selection against variance in offspring number also show that selection and drift (...)
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  11. Tim Lewens (2010). Foot Note. Analysis 70 (3):468-473.
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  12. Tim Lewens (2010). What Are 'Natural Inequalities'? Philosophical Quarterly 60 (239):264-285.
    The varying demands of justice are often thought to depend on a distinction between natural and social inequalities, but making this distinction has been little discussed, and it has been dismissed by philosophers of biology. It cannot be established by a simple causal criterion, nor by use of the analysis of variance, nor by distinguishing the innate from the acquired. Whether an inequality can be socially controlled provides the most plausible criterion, so 'natural' and 'social' are misleading labels for types (...)
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  13. Tim Lewens (2009). As Nature Intended. Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):417-423.
  14. Tim Lewens (2009). Innovation and Population. In Ulrich Krohs & Peter Kroes (eds.), Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds: Comparative Philosophical Perspectives. Mit Press.
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  15. Tim Lewens (2009). Seven Types of Adaptationism. Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):161-182.
    Godfrey-Smith ( 2001 ) has distinguished three types of adaptationism. This article builds on his analysis, and revises it in places, by distinguishing seven varieties of adaptationism. This taxonomy allows us to clarify what is at stake in debates over adaptationism, and it also helps to cement the importance of Gould and Lewontin’s ‘Spandrels’ essay. Some adaptationists have suggested that their essay does not offer any coherent alternative to the adaptationist programme: it consists only in an exhortation to test adaptationist (...)
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  16. Tim Lewens (2009). The Origin and Philosophy. In Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the "Origin of Species". Cambridge University Press.
     
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  17. Tim Lewens (2009). What is Wrong with Typological Thinking? Philosophy of Science 76 (3):355-371.
    What, if anything, is wrong with typological thinking? The question is important, for some evolutionary developmental biologists appear to espouse a form of typology. I isolate four allegations that have been brought against it. They include the claim that typological thinking is mystical; the claim that typological thinking is at odds with the fact of evolution; the claim that typological thinking is committed to an objectionable metaphysical view, which Elliott Sober calls the ‘natural state model’; and finally the view (endorsed (...)
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  18. Tim Lewens (2008). In Memoriam: Peter Lipton. Philosophy of Science 75 (2):133-139.
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  19. Tim Lewens (2007). Adaptation. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  20. Tim Lewens (2007). Cultural Evolution. In Thaddeus Metz (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  21. Tim Lewens (2007). Darwinism and Metaphysics. Metascience 16 (1):61-69.
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  22. Tim Lewens (2007). My Darwin is Better Than Yours. The Philosophers' Magazine 38 (38):86-87.
  23. Tim Lewens (ed.) (2007). Risk: Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge.
    In this outstanding volume, Tim Lewens gathers an impressive set of new essays from leading scholars exploring the full range of philosophical implications of ...
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  24. Tim Lewens (2006). Darwin. Routledge.
    Charles Darwin (1809-1882) is best known as a biologist and natural historian rather than a philosopher. However, in this invaluable book, Tim Lewens shows in a clear and accessible manner how important Darwin is for philosophy and how his work has shaped and challenged the very nature of the subject. Beginning with an overview of Darwins life and work, the subsequent chapters discuss the full range of fundamental philosophical topics from a Darwinian perspective. These include natural selection; the origin and (...)
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  25. Tim Lewens (2006). Flagellant Priests. Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):411-421.
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  26. Tim Lewens (2005). Realism and the Strong Program. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (3):559-577.
    The four tenets of the Strong Program are compatible with a scientific realism founded on an externalist epistemology. Such an epistemology allows that appropriate norms of rationality may differ from time to time, and from community to community, and thereby enables the realist to embrace strong forms of the ‘symmetry principle’. It also suggests a fruitful collaborative research program in externalist social epistemology. Some of what the Edinburgh School says about truth can also be accepted. But the realist should reject (...)
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  27. Tim Lewens (2005). The Problems of Biological Design. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 80 (56):14-.
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  28. Tim Lewens (2005). What is Darwinian Naturalism? Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):901-912.
  29. Tim Lewens (2004). Humans and Other Animals. Mind 113 (449):175-177.
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  30. Tim Lewens (2004). Review: Humans and Other Animals. [REVIEW] Mind 113 (449):175-177.
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  31. Tim Lewens (2004). Is Something Wrong with Bioethics? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (1):121-123.
  32. Tim Lewens (2004). The Commercial Exploitation of Ethics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (1):145-153.
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  33. Tim Lewens (2003). Prospects for Evolutionary Policy. Philosophy 78 (4):495-514.
    A small minority of biologists, psychologists and philosophers have recently tried to show, in various ways, that evolutionary psychology is of relevance to politics and to policy makers. Two widely accepted arguments still suffice (with only a little tweaking) to dismiss such attempts to forge a link between evolution and policy. The first denies the link between adaptation and fixity, the second denies that ‘adaptive thinking’ is of strong heuristic benefit. Finally, the silence of many evolutionary explanations with respect to (...)
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  34. Tim Lewens (2002). Adaptationism and Engineering. Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):1-31.
    The rights and wrongs of adaptationism areoften discussed by appeal to what I call theartefact model. Anti-adaptationistscomplain that the use of optimality modelling,reverse engineering and other techniques areindicative of a mistaken and outmoded beliefthat organisms are like well-designedartefacts. Adaptationists (e.g. Dennett 1995)respond with the assertion that viewingorganisms as though they were well designed isa fruitful, perhaps necessary research strategyin evolutionary biology. Anti-adaptationistsare right when they say that techniques likereverse engineering are liable to mislead. This fact does not undermine the artefact (...)
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  35. Tim Lewens (2002). Review: Norms of Nature. Naturalism and the Nature of Functions. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (443):657-662.
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  36. Denis M. Walsh, Andre Ariew & Tim Lewens (2002). The Trials of Life: Natural Selection and Random Drift. Philosophy of Science 69 (3):452-473.
    We distinguish dynamical and statistical interpretations of evolutionary theory. We argue that only the statistical interpretation preserves the presumed relation between natural selection and drift. On these grounds we claim that the dynamical conception of evolutionary theory as a theory of forces is mistaken. Selection and drift are not forces. Nor do selection and drift explanations appeal to the (sub-population-level) causes of population level change. Instead they explain by appeal to the statistical structure of populations. We briefly discuss the implications (...)
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  37. Tim Lewens (2001). Sex and Selection: A Reply to Matthen. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (3):589-598.
    argues that when reproduction is sexual, natural selection can explain why individual organisms possess the traits they do. In stating his argument Matthen makes use of a conception of individual organisms as receptacles for collections of genes—a conception that cannot do the work Matthen requires of it. Either these receptacles are abstract objects, such as bare possibilities for organisms, or they are concrete. The first reading is too weak, since it allows selection to explain individual traits in both sexual and (...)
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