42 found
Sort by:
  1. Tim Lewens (2015). Backwards in Retrospect. Philosophical Studies 172 (3):813-821.
    In the title chapter of Did Darwin Write the Origin Backwards?, Sober argues for an asymmetry between facts about genealogy and facts about natural selection, which has the result that evidentially Darwin's book is the wrong way round. Here I make three points about Sober's argument in that chapter. First, it is not clear that Darwin employs what Sober calls 'tree thinking' as frequently as Sober himself suggests. Second, I argue that Darwin's reason for structuring the Origin as he did (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Tim Lewens (2015). The Biological Foundations of Bioethics. Oup Oxford.
    Much recent work on the ethics of new biomedical technologies is committed to hidden, contestable views about the nature of biological reality. This selection of essays by Tim Lewens explores and scrutinises these biological foundations, and includes work on human enhancement, synthetic biology, and justice in healthcare decision-making.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Tim Lewens (2015). The Nature of Philosophy and the Philosophy of Nature. Biology and Philosophy 30 (4):587-596.
    Peter Godfrey-Smith’s introduction to the philosophy of biology is excellent. This review questions one implication of his book, namely that Darwin’s case for the efficacy of natural selection was hampered by his ignorance of the particulate nature of inheritance. I suggest, instead, that Darwin was handicapped by an inability to effectively engage in quantitative population thinking. I also question Godfrey-Smith’s understanding of the role that Malthusian struggle plays in linking natural selection to the origination of new adaptive traits, and I (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Adrian Boutel & Tim Lewens (2014). The Descent of Culture. British Journal of Aesthetics 54 (4):489-492.
    Stephen Davies’ book shows admirable sensitivity to the complexities of aesthetic appreciation, the making of art, and evolutionary explanation. Our critical comments focus on his understanding of how the natural and the cultural are to be distinguished. We suggest that recent work on the evolution of cognition undermines any strict distinction between that which is learned, and therefore within the domain of culture or technology, and that which is part of human nature, and therefore within the domain of evolution. These (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Tim Lewens (2013). From Bricolage to BioBricks™: Synthetic Biology and Rational Design. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 44 (4):641-648.
    Synthetic biology is often described as a project that applies rational design methods to the organic world. Although humans have influenced organic lineages in many ways, it is nonetheless reasonable to place synthetic biology towards one end of a continuum between purely ‘blind’ processes of organic modification at one extreme, and wholly rational, design-led processes at the other. An example from evolutionary electronics illustrates some of the constraints imposed by the rational design methodology itself. These constraints reinforce the limitations of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Tim Lewens (2012). A Surfeit of Naturalism. Metaphilosophy 43 (1-2):46-57.
    Philosophers have nothing to lose, and much to gain, by paying close attention to developments in the natural sciences. This insight amounts to a case for a tempered, eclectic naturalism. But the case for naturalism is often overstated. We should not overestimate the heuristic benefits of close attention to scientists’ claims, nor should we give up on traditional “armchair” philosophical methods. We should not draw solely on the natural sciences (at the expense of the humanities) when seeking to enrich and (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Tim Lewens (2012). Cultural Evolution : Integration and Scepticism. In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Tim Lewens (2012). Human Nature: The Very Idea. Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):459-474.
    Abstract The only biologically respectable notion of human nature is an extremely permissive one that names the reliable dispositions of the human species as a whole. This conception offers no ethical guidance in debates over enhancement, and indeed it has the result that alterations to human nature have been commonplace in the history of our species. Aristotelian conceptions of species natures, which are currently fashionable in meta-ethics and applied ethics, have no basis in biological fact. Moreover, because our folk psychology (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Tim Lewens (2012). Integration and Skepticism. In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press. 458.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Tim Lewens (2012). Pheneticism Reconsidered. Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):159-177.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Tim Lewens (2012). Species, Essence and Explanation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (4):751-757.
    Michael and has argued that species have intrinsic essences. This paper rebuts Devitt’s arguments, but in so doing it shores up the anti-essentialist consensus in two ways that have more general interest. First, species membership can be explanatory even when species have no essences; that is, Tamsin’s membership of the tiger species can explain her stripyness, without this committing us to any further claim about essential properties of tigers. Second, even the views of species that appear most congenial to essentialism—namely (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Tim Lewens (2012). The Darwinian View of Culture. Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):745-753.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Tim Lewens (2011). My Darwin is Better Than Yours: Darwinishm and its Discontents, Michael Ruse (Cambridge University Press)£ 19.99/$30. The Philosophers' Magazine 38:86-87.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Tim Lewens (2010). The Natures of Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):313-333.
    Elliott Sober and his defenders think of selection, drift, mutation, and migration as distinct evolutionary forces. This paper exposes an ambiguity in Sober's account of the force of selection: sometimes he appears to equate the force of selection with variation in fitness, sometimes with ‘selection for properties’. Sober's own account of fitness as a property analogous to life-expectancy shows how the two conceptions come apart. Cases where there is selection against variance in offspring number also show that selection and drift (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Tim Lewens (2010). Foot Note. Analysis 70 (3):468-473.
    No categories
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Tim Lewens (2010). What Are 'Natural Inequalities'? Philosophical Quarterly 60 (239):264-285.
    The varying demands of justice are often thought to depend on a distinction between natural and social inequalities, but making this distinction has been little discussed, and it has been dismissed by philosophers of biology. It cannot be established by a simple causal criterion, nor by use of the analysis of variance, nor by distinguishing the innate from the acquired. Whether an inequality can be socially controlled provides the most plausible criterion, so 'natural' and 'social' are misleading labels for types (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Tim Lewens (2009). As Nature Intended. Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):417-423.
  18. Tim Lewens (2009). Innovation and Population. In Ulrich Krohs & Peter Kroes (eds.), Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds: Comparative Philosophical Perspectives. Mit Press.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Tim Lewens (2009). Seven Types of Adaptationism. Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):161-182.
    Godfrey-Smith ( 2001 ) has distinguished three types of adaptationism. This article builds on his analysis, and revises it in places, by distinguishing seven varieties of adaptationism. This taxonomy allows us to clarify what is at stake in debates over adaptationism, and it also helps to cement the importance of Gould and Lewontin’s ‘Spandrels’ essay. Some adaptationists have suggested that their essay does not offer any coherent alternative to the adaptationist programme: it consists only in an exhortation to test adaptationist (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Tim Lewens (2009). The Origin and Philosophy. In Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the "Origin of Species". Cambridge University Press.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Tim Lewens (2009). What is Wrong with Typological Thinking? Philosophy of Science 76 (3):355-371.
    What, if anything, is wrong with typological thinking? The question is important, for some evolutionary developmental biologists appear to espouse a form of typology. I isolate four allegations that have been brought against it. They include the claim that typological thinking is mystical; the claim that typological thinking is at odds with the fact of evolution; the claim that typological thinking is committed to an objectionable metaphysical view, which Elliott Sober calls the ‘natural state model’; and finally the view (endorsed (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Tim Lewens (2008). In Memoriam: Peter Lipton. Philosophy of Science 75 (2):133-139.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Tim Lewens (2007). Adaptation. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Tim Lewens (2007). Cultural Evolution. In Thaddeus Metz (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Tim Lewens (2007). Darwinism and Metaphysics. Metascience 16 (1):61-69.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Tim Lewens (2007). My Darwin is Better Than Yours. The Philosophers' Magazine 38 (38):86-87.
  27. Tim Lewens (ed.) (2007). Risk: Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge.
    In this outstanding volume, Tim Lewens gathers an impressive set of new essays from leading scholars exploring the full range of philosophical implications of ...
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Tim Lewens (2006). Darwin. Routledge.
    Charles Darwin (1809-1882) is best known as a biologist and natural historian rather than a philosopher. However, in this invaluable book, Tim Lewens shows in a clear and accessible manner how important Darwin is for philosophy and how his work has shaped and challenged the very nature of the subject. Beginning with an overview of Darwins life and work, the subsequent chapters discuss the full range of fundamental philosophical topics from a Darwinian perspective. These include natural selection; the origin and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Tim Lewens (2006). Flagellant Priests. Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):411-421.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Tim Lewens (2005). Realism and the Strong Program. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (3):559-577.
    The four tenets of the Strong Program are compatible with a scientific realism founded on an externalist epistemology. Such an epistemology allows that appropriate norms of rationality may differ from time to time, and from community to community, and thereby enables the realist to embrace strong forms of the ‘symmetry principle’. It also suggests a fruitful collaborative research program in externalist social epistemology. Some of what the Edinburgh School says about truth can also be accepted. But the realist should reject (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Tim Lewens (2005). The Problems of Biological Design. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 80 (56):14-.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Tim Lewens (2005). What is Darwinian Naturalism? Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):901-912.
  33. Tim Lewens (2004). Humans and Other Animals. Mind 113 (449):175-177.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Tim Lewens (2004). Organisms and Artifacts Design in Nature and Elsewhere. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Tim Lewens (2004). Review: Humans and Other Animals. [REVIEW] Mind 113 (449):175-177.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Tim Lewens (2004). Is Something Wrong with Bioethics? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (1):121-123.
  37. Tim Lewens (2004). The Commercial Exploitation of Ethics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (1):145-153.
    In the first part of this paper I consider whether an academic bioethicist is likely to change the arguments she is prepared to voice if she is in receipt of payment from a corporation. I argue that she is not, so long as a number of conditions are met regarding the size of payment, the values of the academic bioethics community, the degree to which she participates in that community, and the transparency of corporate involvements. In the second half I (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Tim Lewens (2003). Prospects for Evolutionary Policy. Philosophy 78 (4):495-514.
    A small minority of biologists, psychologists and philosophers have recently tried to show, in various ways, that evolutionary psychology is of relevance to politics and to policy makers. Two widely accepted arguments still suffice (with only a little tweaking) to dismiss such attempts to forge a link between evolution and policy. The first denies the link between adaptation and fixity, the second denies that ‘adaptive thinking’ is of strong heuristic benefit. Finally, the silence of many evolutionary explanations with respect to (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Tim Lewens (2002). Adaptationism and Engineering. Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):1-31.
    The rights and wrongs of adaptationism areoften discussed by appeal to what I call theartefact model. Anti-adaptationistscomplain that the use of optimality modelling,reverse engineering and other techniques areindicative of a mistaken and outmoded beliefthat organisms are like well-designedartefacts. Adaptationists (e.g. Dennett 1995)respond with the assertion that viewingorganisms as though they were well designed isa fruitful, perhaps necessary research strategyin evolutionary biology. Anti-adaptationistsare right when they say that techniques likereverse engineering are liable to mislead. This fact does not undermine the artefact (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Tim Lewens (2002). Review: Norms of Nature. Naturalism and the Nature of Functions. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (443):657-662.
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Denis M. Walsh, Andre Ariew & Tim Lewens (2002). The Trials of Life: Natural Selection and Random Drift. Philosophy of Science 69 (3):452-473.
    We distinguish dynamical and statistical interpretations of evolutionary theory. We argue that only the statistical interpretation preserves the presumed relation between natural selection and drift. On these grounds we claim that the dynamical conception of evolutionary theory as a theory of forces is mistaken. Selection and drift are not forces. Nor do selection and drift explanations appeal to the (sub-population-level) causes of population level change. Instead they explain by appeal to the statistical structure of populations. We briefly discuss the implications (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Tim Lewens (2001). Sex and Selection: A Reply to Matthen. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (3):589-598.
    argues that when reproduction is sexual, natural selection can explain why individual organisms possess the traits they do. In stating his argument Matthen makes use of a conception of individual organisms as receptacles for collections of genes—a conception that cannot do the work Matthen requires of it. Either these receptacles are abstract objects, such as bare possibilities for organisms, or they are concrete. The first reading is too weak, since it allows selection to explain individual traits in both sexual and (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation