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Tim Thornton [37]Timothy Thornton [3]
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Profile: Tim Thornton (University of Central Lancashire)
  1. Gloria Ayob & Tim Thornton (2014). Psychopathy: What Apology Making Tells Us About Moral Agency. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (1):17-29.
    Psychopathy is often used to settle disputes about the nature of moral judgment. The “trolley problem” is a familiar scenario in which psychopathy is used as a test case. Where a convergence in response to the trolley problem is registered between psychopathic subjects and non-psychopathic (normal) subjects, it is assumed that this convergence indicates that the capacity for making moral judgments is unimpaired in psychopathy. This, in turn, is taken to have implications for the dispute between motivation internalists and motivation (...)
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  2. Neil Gascoigne & Tim Thornton (2013). Tacit Knowledge. Routledge.
    Tacit knowledge is the form of implicit knowledge that we rely on for learning. It is invoked in a wide range of intellectual inquiries, from traditional academic subjects to more pragmatically orientated investigations into the nature and transmission of skills and expertise. Notwithstanding its apparent pervasiveness, the notion of tacit knowledge is a complex and puzzling one. What is its status as knowledge? What is its relation to explicit knowledge? What does it mean to say that knowledge is tacit? Can (...)
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  3. Tim Thornton (2013). Tacit Knowledge and Its Antonyms. Philosophia Scientiæ 17:93-106.
    Harry Collins’s Tacit and Explicit Knowledge characterises tacit knowledge through a number of antonyms: explicit, explicable, and then explicable via elaboration, transformation, mechanization and explanation and, most fundamentally, what can be communicated via “strings”. But his account blurs the distinction between knowledge and what knowledge can be of and has a number of counter-intuitive consequences. This is the result of his adoption of strings themselves rather than the use of words or signs as the mark of what is explicit and, (...)
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  4. Tim Thornton (2012). Delusional Atmosphere, the Everyday Uncanny, and the Limits of Secondary Sense. Emotion Review 4 (2):192-196.
    In Paradoxes of Delusion, Sass aims to use passages from Wittgenstein to characterize the feeling of “mute particularity” that forms a part of delusional atmosphere. I argue that Wittgenstein’s discussion provides no helpful positive account. But his remarks on more everyday cases of the uncanny and the feeling of unreality might seem to promise a better approach via the expressive use of words in secondary sense. I argue that this also is a false hope but that, interestingly, there can be (...)
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  5. Tim Thornton (2012). Is Recovery a Model? In Abraham Rudnick (ed.), Recovery of People with Mental Illness: Philosophical and Related Perspectives. Oup Oxford. 236.
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  6. Tim Thornton (2011). Capacity, Mental Mechanisms, and Unwise Decisions. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (2):127-132.
    The notion of capacity implicit in the Mental Capacity Act is subject to a tension between two claims. On the one hand, capacity is assessed relative to a particular decision. It is the capacity to make one kind of judgement, specifically, rather than another. So one can have capacity in one area and not have it in another. On the other hand, capacity is supposed to be independent of the ‘wisdom’ or otherwise of the decision made. (‘A person is not (...)
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  7. Tim Thornton (2011). Radical Liberal Values‐Based Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):988-991.
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  8. Tim Thornton & Peter Lucas (2011). On the Very Idea of a Recovery Model for Mental Health. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (1):24-28.
    The recovery model has been put forward as a rival to the biomedical model in mental healthcare. It has also been invoked in debate about public policy for individual and community mental health and the broader goal of social inclusion. But this broader use threatens its status as a genuine model, distinct from others such as the biomedical model. This paper sets out to articulate, although not to defend, a distinct recovery model based on the idea that mental health is (...)
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  9. Tim Thornton (2010). Clinical Judgement, Expertise and Skilled Coping. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):284-291.
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  10. Tim Thornton (2010). Psychiatric Explanation and Understanding. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 6 (1):95-111.
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  11. Tim Thornton (2009). An Intellect in View. The Philosophers' Magazine 46 (46):108-110.
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  12. Tim Thornton (2009). On the Interface Problem in Philosophy and Psychiatry. In Matthew Broome & Lisa Bortolotti (eds.), Psychiatry as Cognitive Neuroscience: Philosophical Perspectives. Oup Oxford.
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  13. Tim Thornton (2009). Evidence-Based Medicine and Evaluativism. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (2):175-178.
  14. Tim Thornton (2009). Values-Based Practice and Reflective Judgment. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (2):125-133.
    In this paper, I relate values-based practice (VBP) to clinical judgment more generally. I consider what claim, aside from the fundamental difference of facts and values, lies at the heart of VBP. Rather than, for example, construing values as subjective, I argue that it is more helpful to construe VBP as committed to the uncodifiability of value judgments. It is a form of particularism rather than principlism, but this need not deny the reality of values. Seen in this light, however, (...)
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  15. Tim Thornton, Ajit Shah & Philip Thomas (2009). Understanding, Testimony and Interpretation in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (1):49-55.
    Psychiatric diagnosis depends, centrally, on the transmission of patients’ knowledge of their experiences and symptoms to clinicians by testimony. In the case of non-native speakers, the need for linguistic interpretation raises significant practical problems. But determining the best practical approach depends on determining the best underlying model of both testimony and knowledge itself. Internalist models of knowledge have been influential since Descartes. But they cannot account for testimony. Since knowledge by testimony is possible, and forms the basis of psychiatric diagnosis, (...)
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  16. Tim Thornton, Does Understanding Individuals Require Idiographic Judgement?
    Idiographic understanding has been proposed as a response to concern that criteriological diagnosis cannot capture the nature of human individuality. It can seem that understanding individuals requires, instead, a distinct form of ‘individualised’ judgement and this claim receives endorsement by the inventor of the term ‘idiographic’, Wilhelm Windelband. I argue, however, that none of the options for specifying a model of individualised judgement, to explain what idiographic judgement might be, will work. I suggest, at the end, that narrative, rather than (...)
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  17. Tim Thornton (2008). Should Comprehensive Diagnosis Include Idiographic Understanding? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (3):293-302.
    The World Psychiatric Association has emphasised the importance of idiographic understanding as a distinct component of comprehensive assessment but in introductions to the idea it is often assimilated to the notion of narrative judgement. This paper aims to distinguish between supposed idiographic and narrative judgement. Taking the former to mean a kind of individualised judgement, I argue that it has no place in psychiatry in part because it threatens psychiatric validity. Narrative judgement, by contrast, is a genuinely distinct complement to (...)
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  18. Tim Thornton (2008). Why the Idea of Framework Propositions Cannot Contribute to an Understanding of Delusions. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):159-175.
    One of the tasks that recent philosophy of psychiatry has taken upon itself is to extend the range of understanding to some of those aspects of psychopathology that Jaspers deemed beyond its limits. Given the fundamental difficulties of offering a literal interpretation of the contents of primary delusions, a number of alternative strategies have been put forward including regarding them as abnormal versions of framework propositions described by Wittgenstein in On Certainty. But although framework propositions share some of the apparent (...)
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  19. Natalie F. Banner & Tim Thornton (2007). The New Philosophy of Psychiatry: Its (Recent) Past, Present and Future: A Review of the Oxford University Press Series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry. [REVIEW] Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2 (1):9-.
    There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy (...)
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  20. Tim Thornton (2007). An Aesthetic Grounding for the Role of Concepts in Experience in Kant, Wittgenstein and McDowell. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 12 (2).
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  21. Tim Thornton (2007). Essential Philosophy of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.
    Essential Philosophy of Psychiatry is a concise introduction to the growing field of philosophy of psychiatry. Divided into three main aspects of psychiatric clinical judgement, values, meanings and facts, it examines the key debates about mental health care, and the philosophical ideas and tools needed to assess those debates, in six chapters. In addition to outlining the state of play, Essential Philosophy of Psychiatry presents a coherent and unified approach across the different debates, characterized by a rejection of reductionism and (...)
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  22. Bill Fulford, Tim Thornton & George Graham (2006). Oxford Textbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oup Oxford.
    Psychiatry is unique in medicine in being on the border between science and the humanities. Science provides insight into the 'causes' of a problem, enabling us to formulate an 'explanation', while the humanities provide insight into its 'meanings' and helps with our 'understanding'. The new interdisciplinary field of 'philosophy of psychiatry' has developed to explore the range of issues relevant to this border country. The Oxford Textbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry is a unique textbook which provides a detailed introduction to (...)
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  23. Tim Thornton (2006). Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 1:2.
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  24. Tim Thornton (2006). The Ambiguities of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 13 (1):21-27.
  25. Tim Thornton (2006). The Discursive Turn, Social Constructionism, and Dementia. In Julian C. Hughes, Stephen J. Louw & Steven R. Sabat (eds.), Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person. Oxford University Press.
  26. Tim Thornton (2006). Tacit Knowledge as the Unifying Factor in Evidence Based Medicine and Clinical Judgement. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 1 (1):2.
    The paper outlines the role that tacit knowledge plays in what might seem to be an area of knowledge that can be made fully explicit or codified and which forms a central element of Evidence Based Medicine. Appeal to the role the role of tacit knowledge in science provides a way to unify the tripartite definition of Evidence Based Medicine given by Sackett et al: the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Each of these three (...)
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  27. Timothy Thornton (2006). The Ambiguities of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 13 (1):21-27.
  28. Tim Thornton (2004). Reductionism/Antireductionism. In Jennifer Radden (ed.), The Philosophy of Psychiatry: A Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 191.
  29. Tim Thornton (2004). The Philosophy of Psychiatry: A Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  30. Tim Thornton (2004). Wittgenstein and the Limits of Empathic Understanding in Psychopathology. International Review of Psychiatry.
    Summary The aim of this paper is three-fold. Firstly, to briefly set out how strategic choices made about theorising about intentionality or content have actions at a distance for accounting for delusion. Secondly, to investigate how successfully a general difficulty facing a broadly interpretative approach to delusions might be eased by the application of any of three Wittgensteinian interpretative tools. Thirdly, to draw a general moral about how the later Wittgenstein gives more reason to be pessimistic than optimistic about the (...)
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  31. Tim Thornton (2003). Psychopathology and Two Kinds of Narrative Accounts of the Self. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 10 (4):361-368.
  32. Timothy Thornton (2003). Psychopathology and Two Kinds of Narrative Accounts of the Self. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 10 (4):361-367.
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  33. Tim Thornton (2002). Reliability and Validity in Psychiatric Classification: Values and Neo-Humeanism. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (3):229-235.
    KEYWORDS: Validity, reliability, values, taxonomy, clas- sification, McDowell.
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  34. Tim Thornton (2002). Thought Insertion, Cognitivism, and Inner Space. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry.
    Introduction. Whatever its underlying causes, even the description of the phenomenon of thought insertion, of the content of the delusion, presents difficulty. It may seem that the best hope of a description comes from a broadly cognitivist approach to the mind which construes content-laden mental states as internal mental representations within what is literally an inner space: the space of the brain or nervous system. Such an approach objectifies thoughts in a way which might seem to hold out the prospect (...)
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  35. Timothy Thornton (2002). Reliability and Validity in Psychiatric Classification: Values and Neo-Humeanism. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (3):229-235.
  36. Tim Thornton (2000). Mental Illness and Reductionism: Can Functions Be Naturalized? Philosophy Psychiatry and Psychology 9 (1):229-253.
    There has been considerable recent philo- sophical work on the nature of mental illness. Two..
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  37. Tim Thornton (1999). Opposition Drama and the Resolution of Disputes in Early Tudor England: Cardinal Wolsey and the Abbot of Chester. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 81 (1):25-47.
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  38. Tim Thornton (1997). Intention, Rule Following and the Strategic Role of Wright's Order of Determination Test. Philosophical Investigations 20 (2):136–151.
    I believe that Wright’s constructivist account of intention is funda- mentally flawed [Wright 1984, 1986, 1987a, 1987b, 1988, 1989a, 1989b, 1991, 1992]. To understand why it fails it is necessary first to locate the account in its broader strategic context. That context is Wright’s response to Wittgenstein’s account of rule following. When so located the diagnosis of the account’s failure is clear. Wright’s account of intention is a species of the interpretative approach to mental content which is explicitly rejected by (...)
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  39. Tim Thornton (1997). Reasons and Causes in Philosophy and Psychopathology. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 4 (4):307-317.
    This paper examines the account offered by Bolton and Hill (1996) of how reasons can be causes, and thus how symptoms of mental disorders can be both caused and carry meaning. The central problem is to reconcile the causal and rationalizing powers of content-laden mental states. I draw out these two aspects by putting them in the context of recent work in analytical philosophy, including Davidson's token identity theory and his account of mental disorder. The latter, however, can be used (...)
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  40. Tim Thornton (1996). Wittgensteinian Themes. Review of Metaphysics 49 (4):931-933.
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